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Drilling the Atlantis Massif (MAR 30°N) and the Samail ophiolite (Oman)

Applicant Bernasconi-Green Gretchen
Number 163073
Funding scheme Research Infrastructure
Research institution Institut für Geochemie und Petrologie ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Geochemistry
Start/End 01.07.2016 - 30.06.2019
Approved amount 52'500.00
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All Disciplines (3)

Discipline
Geochemistry
Other disciplines of Earth Sciences
Geology

Keywords (12)

Lost City; Global carbon cycle; Serpentinization; Samail Ophiolite, Oman; Carbonate precipitation; Deep biosphere; ICDP continental drilling; IODP ocean drilling; Upper mantle rocks; Mid-Atlantic Ridge; CO2 sequestration; Abiotic and biotic carbon

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Dieses Infrastruktur-Projekt läuft parallel zum Forschungsprojekt „Hydration and carbonation of mantle peridotite: Drilling the Atlantis Massif (MAR 30°N) and the Samail ophiolite (Oman)” (200021_163187) und unterstützt die Finanzierung der Bohrkampagne ICDP in Oman (siehe Unterprojekt C im Forschungsplan). Das Oman Drilling Project wird eine Reihe von Bohrungen in den Samail Ophiolith in Oman ausführen, vermessen und beaufsichtigen. Diese Ophiolith ist das grösste und beste Beispiel von Ozeankrusten und Mantelgesteinen, die am Land aufgeschlossen sind.
Lay summary

Im Zentrum der Untersuchungen stehen petrologische und geochemische Studien an den eroberten Kernen und an Gasen und Wasserproben, die direkt aus aktiven Serpentinisierung- resp. Karbonatisierungszonen entnommen werden. Bohrung, Vermessung und Beprobung werden in drei Phasen in 2016 und 2017 ablaufen. Im Winter der beiden Jahren werden die Bohrungen, Bohrlochvermessung und Versiegelungen der Bohrlöcher ausgeführt. In den darauffolgenden Sommer werden die Kerne an Bord des IODP-Forschungsschiffes JOIDES Resolution während der Trockendockzeit untersucht, beschrieben und beprobt. Im Herbst werden Gas- und Fluidproben aus den neuen Bohrlöchern entnommen. Durch dieses Projekt werden wir einen einzigartigen Zugang zu den Kernen, Fluiden, Vermessungsdaten erhalten, die einem PhD-Studierenden ermöglichen in einem internationalen Forscherteam Erkenntnisse über die Alteration, Karbonatisierung und die Mikrobiellen Prozesse in Mantelperidotiten zu sammeln und den natürlichen CO2 Aufnahmeprozess aus Oberflächenwasser und Atmosphäre zu untersuchen.

 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 19.10.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Michigan State University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of Southampton/School of Ocean and Earth Science Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of Lausanne Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
University of Utah United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
School of Oceanography/University of Washington United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Switzerland (Europe)
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
University of South Carolina United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Laboratory for Biological Geochemistry, EPFL Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
ETH Scientific Center for Optical and Electron Microscopy (ScopeM) Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
Columbia University/Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
AGU Fall Meeting 2018 Talk given at a conference Hydrothermal Alteration of the Crust-Mantle Transition and Upper Mantle in the Samail Ophiolite: Insights from Holes CM1A and CM2B of the Oman Drilling Project 10.12.2018 Washington D.C., United States of America Bernasconi-Green Gretchen;


Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
147139 Swiss participation in the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) through membership in the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) 01.01.2014 Research Infrastructure
143891 Unravelling Abiotic and Biotic Sources and Sinks of Carbon in Marine Hydrothermal Systems 01.10.2012 Project funding (Div. I-III)
147145 Swiss Membership in the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) 01.01.2014 Research Infrastructure
131922 Life in Extreme Environments II: Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles in High Alkaline Systems 01.10.2010 Project funding (Div. I-III)
132030 SwissSIMS: A request for a Swiss National Dynamic Secondary Ion Probe Facility 01.10.2010 Research Infrastructure
182090 Swiss membership in the International Scientific Continental Drilling Program ICDP 01.01.2019 Research Infrastructure
146886 Fluid-Rock Interaction and Fluid Fluxes in Mafic and Ultramafic Seafloor II: Peridotite-hosted Hydrothermal Systems Past and Present 01.04.2013 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

We will take advantage of unique opportunities to participate in two exciting scientific drilling projects that target active hydration (serpentinization) and carbonation processes in upper mantle rocks: (1) IODP Expedition 357 to the Atlantis Massif at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N and (2) drilling on land in the Samail Ophiolite as part of the ICDP Oman Drilling Project. Altered upper mantle rocks (serpentinites), exposed on the ocean floor and in ophiolites on continents, constitute highly reactive chemical and thermal systems, in which interaction with water to produce serpentinite has major consequences for lithospheric cooling, geophysical properties, global geochemical cycles, CO2 sequestration, and microbial activity. Serpentinites are an important reservoir for carbon in the form of carbonate minerals as well as abiotically and biotically produced organic carbon, all of which can survive in ancient mantle domains for hundreds of millions of years. However, the source and distribution of carbon-bearing phases in altered mantle sequences and their contribution to the global carbon cycle remain poorly constrained. This project is parallel to the Research Project ““Hydration and carbonation of mantle peridotite: Drilling the Atlantis Massif (MAR 30°N) and the Samail ophiolite (Oman)” (200021_163187) and will provide infrastructure funds as Swiss member of ICDP to contribute to the costs of ICDP drilling in Oman (subproject C in the Research Plan). The Oman Drilling Project will drill, log and monitor a series of boreholes in the Samail ophiolite of Oman, which is the largest and best exposed slice of sub-aerially exposed ocean crust and upper mantle peridotite. We will focus on petrological and geochemical studies of the core, gas and water samples that will be drilled in 2016 and 2017 at sites where serpentinisation is actively occurring and leads to carbonate precipitation in and on the surface of peridotites. Drilling, logging and sampling are planned in three stages. Coring, downhole logging and sealing the boreholes will take place in the winter of both years. In the summer of each year, the cores will be logged, described and sampled onboard the IODP research vessel JOIDES Resolution while the ship is in port between expeditions. Gas and fluid samples will be taken from the new boreholes in the autumn after each coring campaign. Contribution to this project will allow us unique access to the cores, fluids and logging data and provides an important opportunity to participate in the international team to study present-day alteration, carbonation and microbial processes in mantle peridotites and to explore natural mechanisms of CO2 uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere. Our aim is to understand active low temperature processes of hydration and carbonation and the hydrology of the peridotite-hosted aquifer in the Samail Ophiolite. Combined petrological and fluid/gas geochemical analyses are aimed at understanding: how Ca-rich, high alkaline fluids develop, what minerals are deposited in the subsurface, the controls on H2 and CH4 production that is characteristic of fluids in these environments, the fluid flow paths, and the feedback mechanisms between reactions, cracks, and carbonate deposition.
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