Project

Back to overview

Trace elements in ambient aerosols and their sources in large Chinese cities

English title Trace elements in ambient aerosols and their sources in large Chinese cities
Applicant Furger Markus
Number 162448
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Paul Scherrer Institut
Institution of higher education Paul Scherrer Institute - PSI
Main discipline Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Start/End 01.03.2016 - 29.02.2020
Approved amount 301'553.00
Show all

All Disciplines (3)

Discipline
Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Other disciplines of Environmental Sciences
Meteorology

Keywords (8)

aerosol chemistry; aethalometer; rotating drum impactor; China; air pollution; black carbon; X-ray fluorescence spectrometry; source apportionment

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Eines der Umweltprobleme in chinesischen Städten ist die Luftverschmutzung. In vielen Städten Chinas überschreiten die durchschnittlichen Feinstaubkonzentrationen 100 µg/m3. Die Regierung entwickelt verschiedene Strategien, um die Schadstoffbelastung zu reduzieren, und setzt diese um. Eine genaue Charakterisierung von Schwebestaub, vor allem dessen chemische Zusammensetzung und Quellen, trägt dazu bei, die Reduktions- und Abwendungsstrategien für die Luftverschmutzung zu optimieren. China muss die Probleme der Luftverschmutzung rasch anpacken, um deren Auswirkungen auf die Gesundheit von Mensch und Umwelt, die Luftqualität und das Klima zu reduzieren oder abzuwenden. Unser Beitrag führt zu einem verfeinerten Verständnis der Feinstaub-Situation. Wir wollen so zu einer optimierteren Strategie für die Reduktion der Schadstoffbelastung in China beitragen, damit diese schneller und wirksamer umgesetzt werden kann.
Lay summary

Unser Projekt hat zum Ziel, die zeitliche Variation der Konzentrationen von wichtigen Elementen in  Schwebestaub, sowie deren Quellen in zwei Grossstädten in der Volksrepublik China zu untersuchen. Dazu werden während je zwei Sommer- und Winter-Feldkampagnen Feinstaub-Proben in Xian und Beijing gesammelt. Auf diese Daten werden dann statistische Quellenzuordnungs-Algorithmen angewendet, welche Hinweise über die mögliche Herkunft der Elemente liefern.

Die Aerosole werden mit 3-Stufen-Trommelimpaktoren, welche eine Sortierung der Partikel in drei verschiedene Grössenklassen (10 - 2.5 μm, 2.5 – 1.0 μm, 1.0 – 0.1 μm) ermöglichen, in 30-Minuten-Auflösung gesammelt. Diese Proben werden dann am Synchrotron mit Röntgenstrahlen analysiert (Röntgenfluoreszenz-Spektrometrie, SR-XRF). Wir erhalten so Konzentrations-Zeitreihen von über 20 Elementen (Natrium bis Blei). Zusätzlich werden mit Aethalometern noch Russpartikel gemessen. Die Zeitreihen ermöglichen die Bestimmung von Tages- und Wochengängen der Elementkonzentrationen. Bei synchronen Proben von zwei Orten in derselben Stadt lassen sich Schlüsse über die lokale und regionale Luftverschmutzung, deren Ferntransport, den städtischen Verschmutzungszuwachs und andere Feinstaubeigenschaften ziehen. Die Kombination von Element-Konzentrationen und Russ-Daten mit 14C Analysen ermöglicht Rückschlüsse auf die Kohleverbrennung, den Verkehr und industrielle Quellen, indem man das Verhältnis von fossilen zu nicht-fossilen Anteilen am Feinstaub bestimmt. Spurenelemente erlauben zusammen mit den Konzentrationen von organischen Stoffen, welche mit Aerosol Massenspektrometern (AMS) gemessen werden, eine Verfeinerung der statistischen Quellenzuordnung.

 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 06.10.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Name Institute

Publications

Publication
Real-time measurement and source apportionment of elements in Delhi's atmosphere
Rai Pragati, Furger Markus, El Haddad Imad, Kumar Varun, Wang Liwei, Singh Atinderpal, Dixit Kuldeep, Bhattu Deepika, Petit Jean-Eudes, Ganguly Dilip, Rastogi Neeraj, Baltensperger Urs, Tripathi Sachchida Nand, Slowik Jay G., Prévôt André S.H. (2020), Real-time measurement and source apportionment of elements in Delhi's atmosphere, in Science of The Total Environment, 742, 140332-140332.
Real-Time Measurements of PM2.5 Oxidative Potential Using a Dithiothreitol Assay in Delhi, India
Puthussery Joseph V, Singh Atinderpal, Rai Pragati, Bhattu Deepika, Kumar Varun, Vats Pawan, Furger Markus, Rastogi Neeraj, Slowik Jay G., Ganguly Dilip, Prevot Andre S.H., Tripathi Sachchida Nand, Verma Vishal (2020), Real-Time Measurements of PM2.5 Oxidative Potential Using a Dithiothreitol Assay in Delhi, India, in Environmental Science {&} Technology Letters, 7(7), 504-510.
Source apportionment of highly time-resolved elements during a firework episode from a rural freeway site in Switzerland
Rai Pragati, Furger Markus, Slowik Jay G., Canonaco Francesco, Fröhlich Roman, Hüglin Christoph, Minguillón María Cruz, Petterson Krag, Baltensperger Urs, Prévôt André S. H. (2020), Source apportionment of highly time-resolved elements during a firework episode from a rural freeway site in Switzerland, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(3), 1657-1674.
Automated alternating sampling of PM10 and PM2.5 with an online XRF spectrometer
Furger Markus, Rai Pragati, Slowik Jay G., Cao Junji, Visser Suzanne, Baltensperger Urs, Prévôt André S.H. (2020), Automated alternating sampling of PM10 and PM2.5 with an online XRF spectrometer, in Atmospheric Environment: X, 5, 100065-100065.

Datasets

Alternating sampling of ambient particulate matter in two size classes

Author Furger, Markus
Publication date 05.02.2020
Persistent Identifier (PID) 10.17632/76tfsbpgz5.1
Repository Mendeley Data


Source apportionment of highly time-resolved elements during a firework episode from a rural freeway site in Switzerland

Author Rai, Pragati
Publication date 26.03.2020
Persistent Identifier (PID) https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3727703
Repository Zenodo
Abstract
Data to accompany "Source apportionment of highly time-resolved elements during a firework episode from a rural freeway site in Switzerland" publication in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. This repository contains measurement data in Härkingen, Switzerland, a permanent station of the Swiss National Air Pollution Monitoring Network (NABEL). Sampling was performed from 23 July to 13 August 2015. This repository has excel file (all data.xlsx) for all the raw data measured during campaign. In addition, it has data corresponding to each figures presented in main text published version.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Laboratory for Air Pollution/Environmental Technology / Empa / Stephan Henne Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Environmental Physics Group/AGH University of Science and Technology/Krakow/Jaroslaw Necki Poland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
HASYLAB / DESY / Gerald Falkenberg Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry/ Uni Bern / Sönke Szidat Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA)/ Maria Cruz Minguillon Spain (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Department of Civil Engineering & Department of Earth Sciences, IIT Kanpur / Sachi Tripati India (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)/ Xian / Junji Cao China (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
SLS Optics Group/PSI / Uwe Flechsig Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Cooper Environmental Services Ltd. / Krag Petterson United States of America (North America)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
EAC2019 - European Aerosol Conference 2019 Poster The composition of gas- and particle-phase oxidation products in a high-chlorine environment in New Delhi during the winter 25.08.2019 Gothenburg, Sweden Rai Pragati;
EAC2019 - European Aerosol Conference 2019 Talk given at a conference Highly time- and size-resolved measurements of aerosol trace elements and their source apportionment in European and Asian cities 25.08.2019 Gothenburg, Sweden Rai Pragati;
EGU General Assembly 2019 Poster Hourly elemental concentrations in ambient aerosols in New Delhi, India, measured with an online X-ray fluorescence spectrometer 07.04.2019 Vienna, Austria Furger Markus; Rai Pragati;
IAC 2018 - International Aerosol Conference 2018 Talk given at a conference Source Apportionment of High Resolution Aerosol Trace Elements in Beijing, China 02.09.2018 St. Louis, MO, United States of America Rai Pragati; Furger Markus;
EXRS 2018 - European X-ray Spectrometry Conference 2018 Talk given at a conference Elemental composition of ambient particulate matter in two Asian megacities measured with a near real time XRF spectrometer 24.06.2018 Ljubljana, Slovenia Rai Pragati; Furger Markus;
EXRS 2018 - European X-ray Spectrometry Conference 2018 Poster Alternating PM10 and PM2.5 sampling with an inlet switching system for an online XRF spectrometer 24.06.2018 Ljubljana, Slovenia Furger Markus; Rai Pragati;
DUST2018 - 3rd International Conference on Atmospheric Dust Talk given at a conference Elemental composition and source apportionment of aerosols near a freeway in Switzerland 29.05.2018 Bari, Italy Rai Pragati; Furger Markus;
European Aerosol Conference 2017 Talk given at a conference Near real time measurements and source apportionment of aerosol trace elements in Härkingen, Switzerland 27.08.2017 Zürich, Switzerland Furger Markus; Rai Pragati;
EGU General Assembly 2017 Poster Source apportionment of major and trace elements in aerosols during smog episodes in large cities in China 23.04.2017 Wien, Austria Furger Markus; Rai Pragati;


Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
132467 Using trace elements in aerosol samples for source identification 01.01.2011 Project funding (Div. I-III)
150056 Using trace elements in aerosol samples for source identification 01.01.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Air pollution in Chinese cities is one of the environmental problems China has to address to mitigate the impacts on human health, air quality and climate. Average concentrations of particulate matter exceed 100 µg/m3 in many places in China, and the government is developing and implementing strategies to reduce the load of pollutants by various measures. A characterization of airborne particulate matter (PM), especially its composition and sources, will help in optimizing reduction and mitigation strategies for air pollution. The project aims at studying the temporal variation of major component and trace element concentrations in airborne particulate matter (PM) and their sources in two megacities in China (People’s Republic of China, PRC). Statistical source apportionment techniques will be applied to data collected during two summer and winter field campaigns each in Xian and Beijing. Ambient aerosols will be sampled with 3-stage rotating drum impactors (RDI) segregating the aerosol into the size classes 10-2.5 µm, 2.5 - 1.0 µm, 1.0 - 0.1 µm, in combination with black carbon measurements with aethalometers. The samples are analyzed with synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF), which yields concentration time series for more than 20 elements (Na to Pb). Pairwise sampling (two RDI/aethalometer combinations at two sites in the same city) will allow for the identification of local and regional pollution, long-range transport, urban increments, and other PM characteristics. The 30-min time resolution allows for the quantitative analysis of diurnal and weekly variations of PM concentrations. Combination of trace elements with aethalometer black carbon and 14C promises to improve the identification of coal combustion, traffic and other industrial sources by their fossil/non-fossil characteristics. Trace elements combined with organics from aerosol mass spectrometry improves the source apportionment of organics in PM.Trace element analyses will be performed with the analysis system developed at the Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry (LAC), the Spectrum Analysis for Multiple Instruments (SAMI-XRF) tool for spectrum analysis and quantification, and the statistical Source-Finder (SoFi) tool for source apportionment.
-