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Soot Particle Ageing Cloud Effects - SPACE

Applicant Mensah Amewu Antoinette
Number 161343
Funding scheme Ambizione
Research institution Institut für Atmosphäre und Klima ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Start/End 01.06.2016 - 31.08.2019
Approved amount 621'876.00
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Keywords (7)

Soot; aerosol cloud interaction; aerosol particles; atmospheric ageing; mass spectrometry; cloud condensation nuclei; ice nucleating particles

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Bereits zum heutigen Zeitpunkt muss sich die Gesellschaft mit den Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auseinandersetzen. Zur Vorhersage von Anpassungs- und Rückkopplungseffekte des Klimas bedarf es detaillierten Wissens über Wechselwirkungen in der Atmosphäre. Ein zentraler Aspekt ist hier die Aerosolpartikel-Wolken-Wechselwirkung (AWW). Aerosolpartikel (AP) können sowohl biogenen als auch anthropogenen Ursprungs sein. Sie sind in der Atmosphäre omnipräsent und beeinflussen das Klima auf zweierlei Art und Weise. Zum einen absorbieren und reflektieren sie Strahlung (direkter Effekt) zum anderen fungieren sie als Wolkenbildungskeime (indirekter Effekt). Neben der tatsächlichen Wolkenbildung, beeinflussen AP auch andere Parameter, wie die Lebensdauer und Reflektivität einer Wolke. Zwar existiert ein grundsätzliches Wissen über die AWW für einige Aerosoltypen (z.B. anorganische Salze), doch gerade bei organischen oder kohlenstoffhaltigen Partikeln (z.B. Russ), ist dieses Wissen sehr limitiert.
Lay summary

Russpartikel entstehen bei nahezu jedem Verbrennungsprozess und sind nach CO2 der zweitwichtigste Klimaschadstoff anthropogener Herkunft. Der Fokus des Projekts liegt auf deren veränderten AWW im Laufe eines Lebenszyklus: Zu Beginn hydrophob, kann Russ aufgrund verschiedener Alterungsprozesse wie heterogener Oberflächenoxidation, Beschichtung oder Rezyklierung in Wolkentröpfchen in zunehmend hydrophiler werden. Space geht der Frage nach, ob sich nach diesen Alterungsprozessen in den Partikeln chemische Signaturen finden lassen, die indikativ für das veränderte Wolkenbildungspotential (WBP) sind.

Mithilfe eines sehr umfangreichen und in seiner Konstellation einmaligen Sortiments an Messinstrumenten sollen Antworten zu zwei zentrale Aufgabenstellungen erarbeitet werden:

  1. Detailliertes Verständnis der unterschiedlichen chemischen Alterungsprozesse, die zu einer Veränderung des WBP von Russpartikeln beitragen
  2. Entwicklung einer Parametrisierung mit deren Hilfe aus bestehenden chemischen Analysedaten auf das WBP von AP zurückgeschlossen werden kann

Auch zukünftig ist von einer hohen Produktion an Russ aus anthropogenen Aktivitäten (z.B. Transport und Heizen) in etablierten und aufstrebenden Industrienationen auszugehen. Schon geringe Veränderungen im WBP dieser Partikel können bei einer hohen Anzahlkonzentration erhebliche klimatische Auswirkungen auf lokaler und regionaler Ebene haben.

Die Ergebnisse des Forschungsprojektes Space sollen signifikant zu einem besseren Verständnis der AWW beitragen. Hierzu gehört sowohl eine verbesserte Einschätzung des WBP von alternden Russpartikeln als auch eine realistischere Repräsentation dieser Partikel in Computersimulationen, was für die Abschätzung zukünftiger Anpassungs- und Rückkopplungsmechanismen des globalen Klimas von ausserordentlicher Bedeutung ist. Als kurzlebiger Klimaschadstoff ist Russ prädestiniert für eine sowohl schnellwirkende wie auch effiziente Klimapolitik zur Reduzierung schädlicher Umwelteinflüsse.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 09.03.2016

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Aging aerosol in a well-mixed continuous-flow tank reactor: an introduction of the activation time distribution
Friebel Franz, Mensah Amewu Antoinette (2019), Aging aerosol in a well-mixed continuous-flow tank reactor: an introduction of the activation time distribution, in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 12(5), 2647-2663.
Impact of Isolated Atmospheric Aging processes on the Cloud Condensation Nuclei-activation of Soot Particles
FranzFriebel, LoboPrem, NeubauerDavid, LohmannUlrike, DusseldorpS.D.v., MühlhoferEvelyn, MensahAmewu (2019), Impact of Isolated Atmospheric Aging processes on the Cloud Condensation Nuclei-activation of Soot Particles, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 1-29.
Ozone Concentration versus Temperature: Atmospheric Aging of Soot Particles
FriebelFranz, MensahAmewu Antoinette, Ozone Concentration versus Temperature: Atmospheric Aging of Soot Particles, in Langmuir, 156.

Datasets

Aging aerosol in a well-mixed continuous flow tank reactor: An introduction of the activation time distribution

Author Friebel, Franz
Publication date 13.11.2018
Persistent Identifier (PID) https://doi.org/10.3929/ethz-b-000303444
Repository ETH Research Collection


Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Aerodyne Research Inc. United States of America (North America)
- Publication
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
IEK8/Forschungszentrum Jülich Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Comprehensive Molecular Analytics/Helmholtz Zentrum München Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Institute für Aerosol und Sensortechnik/Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Group Pagels (Aerosol Technology), Lund University Sweden (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry/Paul Scherrer Institut Switzerland (Europe)
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Professur für Verfahrenstechnik/ETH Zurich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
AeroMegt GmbH Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
23rd ETH-Conference on Combustion Generated Nanoparticles Talk given at a conference Cloud droplet activity of soot particles after long-term exposure to ozone and  pinene. 17.06.2019 Zurich, Switzerland Friebel Franz; Mensah Amewu Antoinette;
European Aerosol Conference Poster Aging soot particles at atmospherically relevant ozone concentrations and after coating with  pinen for 16 h in a well-mixed continuous flow aerosol chamber 07.04.2019 Vienna, Austria Friebel Franz;
International Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere Poster CCN-activation of soot particles after exposure to ambient ozone concentrations. A discussion of the impact of the residence time distribution in continuous flow aerosol chambers 03.04.2019 Vienna, Austria Mensah Amewu Antoinette; Friebel Franz;
International Conference on Carboneceous Particles in the Atmosphere Poster The impact of isolated atmospheric aging processes on the CCN activity, density, and fractal dimension of soot particle 03.04.2019 Vienna, Austria Friebel Franz; Mensah Amewu Antoinette;
International Aerosol Conference Poster Well mixed, ambient conditions and long observation times: Aging experiments in a CSTR 02.09.2018 St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America Friebel Franz; Mensah Amewu Antoinette;
International Aerosol Conference Talk given at a conference Temperature matters more than concentration: CCN‐activation of soot after exposure to ozone under atmospheric conditions 02.09.2018 St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America Mensah Amewu Antoinette; Friebel Franz;
22st ETH-Conference on Combustion Generated Nanoparticles Poster New insights to the CCN-activity and LDSA of soot particles after long term exposure to ambient ozone concentrations 18.06.2018 Zurich, Switzerland Friebel Franz; Mensah Amewu Antoinette;
European Aerosol Conference 2017 Talk given at a conference Long term aerosol aging under atmospherically relevant conditions in a CSTR-like aerosol tank 27.08.2017 Zurich, Switzerland Friebel Franz; Mensah Amewu Antoinette;
European Aerosol Conference 2017 Poster CCN-Activation of soot particles after long term exposure to atmospherically relevant ozone concentrations 27.08.2017 Zurich, Switzerland Friebel Franz; Mensah Amewu Antoinette;
21st ETH-Conference on Combustion Generated Nanoparticles Poster CCN-Activation of soot particles after long term exposure to indicated relevant ozone concentrations 19.06.2017 Zurich, Switzerland Friebel Franz; Mensah Amewu Antoinette;
638. WE-Heraeus-Seminar Aerosol, Climate and Health Poster CCN-Activation of soot particles after long term exposure to indicated relevant ozone concentrations 27.03.2017 Bad Honnef, Germany Friebel Franz; Mensah Amewu Antoinette;
International Conference on Aerosol Cycle – Sources, Aging, Sinks, Impacts Poster Long term aerosol aging under indicated relevant conditions in a CSTR-like aerosol tank 21.03.2017 Lille, France Friebel Franz; Mensah Amewu Antoinette;
International Conference on Aerosol Cycle – Sources, Aging, Sinks, Impacts Talk given at a conference CCN-Activation of soot particles after long term exposure to indicated relevant ozone concentrations 21.03.2017 Lille, France Friebel Franz; Mensah Amewu Antoinette;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
AMS users get-together in Zurich 29.08.2017 IAC ETH Zurich, Switzerland

Awards

Title Year
Best Poster Award 2018
Best Student Poster Award 2018

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
132199 Field and laboratory studies of the chemical composition and mixing state of black carbon particles and their ability to act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei 01.11.2010 Project funding (Div. I-III)
168324 Assessing the impact of extended humidification time on the hygroscopic growth of ambient aerosols: Laboratory evaluation 01.07.2016 International short research visits
152813 Measurements of water uptake by fresh and aged wood-burning soot particles in the subsaturated regime 01.12.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

As stated by the IPCC (IPCC, 2013), current climate predictions suffer substantially from uncertainties in assessing the impact of individual forcing agents. While the impact of greenhouse gasses is very well assessed, the impact of aerosol particles on climate can only be provided with a low level of scientific knowledge. Especially the aerosol impact on cloud properties is one of the main contributors to the overall uncertainty. SPACE aims to generate a detailed process understanding of changes in the cloud formation potential of soot particles due to atmospheric ageing processes. Based on experimental results, parameterizations will be developed that will allow retrieval of the cloud formation potential of soot particles from highly time resolved mass spectrometric measurements Aerosol-cloud interactions, i.e. the impact of aerosol particles on clouds, spans a multidimensional space. The numerous types and ageing processes of aerosol particles in combination with the multitude of cloud properties and formation processes generate a challenging field of science. Great progress has been achieved in many subdomains such as the investigation of secondary organic aerosol formation or the cloud formation potential of mineral particles. In comparison, the impact of soot particles on clouds is highly uncertain. SPACE will focus on soot, the second most important anthropogenic emission after CO2 in terms of climate forcing (Bond et al., 2013).Within SPACE, the chemical properties which determine the cloud formation potential of soot particles will be investigated. Up to now, laboratory experiments as well as field measurements give highly divergent results concerning the impact of soot on cloud formation. This is to a large extent due to the variety of soot samples and the variety of ageing processes these particles might have been exposed to. The aim of SPACE is to associate individual ageing processes with specific chemical signatures which in turn can be attributed to changes in cloud formation potential of soot particles. The knowledge gained will be beneficial for the fundamental understanding of cloud processes. This challenging task will be approached by combined measurements of the chemical composition and the determination of the cold and warm cloud formation potential of these particles. The samples will be simultaneously analyzed by a Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP AMS), an Aerosol Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS), a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC), and an ice nucleation particle counter (INPC). Additionally, various physical parameters such as single particle mass, diameter, density, fractal dimension of the agglomerates, and primary particle size will be determined. The two mass spectrometers are the only mobile instruments available in Switzerland capable of analyzing refractory aerosol particles online. In combination with INPC and CCNC, a truly unique set of instrumentation is thus available at the host institution.Resolving the impact of individual ageing processes will be addressed in three stages. First, the impact of heterogeneous oxidation, coating, and in-cloud processing on model soot particles will be investigated in the laboratory. This data set will serve as basis for the development of parameterizations relating mass spectral fingerprints of soot particles to their CCN/INP properties. Second, the parameterizations will be evaluated using wood stove particles under controlled conditions at a certified test facility, since wood is the second most important energy source for heating in Switzerland (Bundesamt für Statistik, 2013). Finally, the generated parameterizations will additionally be applied to ambient measurements performed at a heavily trafficked street canyon in the city center of Zurich, Switzerland. Contrasting rush hour (fresh) vs. weekend (aged) measurements will allow evaluating the parameterizations on diesel soot, one of the most important particle sources in urban areas. The parameterizations developed in SPACE will introduce a new tool for investigating the climate impact of aerosol particles. Large collaborative projects (e.g. EUCAARI, BACCHUS) have been and are attempting to representatively implement aerosol cloud interaction into global circulation models. SPACE will contribute to this effort by introducing a new tool for determining the cloud formation potential of soot particles, thereby significantly expanding the available data for model parameterizations.
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