Project

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Quantifying and modeling a newborn hydrothermal system: The Lusi mud and volcano complex.

Applicant Miller Stephen
Number 160050
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Centre d'hydrogéologie et de géothermie Université de Neuchâtel
Institution of higher education University of Neuchatel - NE
Main discipline Geophysics
Start/End 01.04.2015 - 31.05.2018
Approved amount 520'000.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Geophysics
Other disciplines of Earth Sciences

Keywords (4)

geophysical observations of Lusi; hydrothermal systems; volcano hydrogeology; modeling liquefaction

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
Le 6 mai 2006, sur l’île de Java en Indonésie, un séisme de magnitude 6.3 se produisit à Yogyakarta. Environ 48 heures plus tard, à 250 km de l’épicentre du séisme, dans la ville de Sidoarjo, une éruption de boue se produisit à la surface et donna naissance à LUSI. LUSI a rapidement accéléré sa croissance. La ville d’origine est maintenant enterrée sous 20m de boue qui s’étend sur 4 km2 retenue par un barrage de terre de 10m de haut. Toutes tentatives pour diminuer le débit de cette éruption ont échoué et personne ne sait quand cela pourra s’arrêter. De récentes recherches sur le déclencheur de cette catastrophe naturelle ont montré que les couches géologiques sous-jacentes, responsables de l’éruption, avaient une forme parabolique qui réfléchissaient et qui focalisaient l’énergie du séisme dans la couche d’argilite se trouvant à 1000m de profondeur et déjà soumise à de fortes pressions.
Lay summary

Aujourd’hui, LUSI se comporte comme un système particulier de source d’eau chaude qui jaillit par intermittence (Geyser) toutes les 60-120 secondes, avec une éjection de fluides à plus de 20 mètre de hauteur.  D’autres études géochimiques ont montré qu’à l’échelle tectonique, LUSI est d’une grande rareté. En effet, ce nouveau système hydrothermal est relié à un complexe volcanique proche.

Ce projet vise à contraindre la dynamique de ce système. LUSI permet d’exploiter plusieurs horizons de recherches que se soient d’un système à grande échelle volcanique hydrothermal à une exploitation possible de l’énergie géothermale.

Le but de ce projet est d’utiliser des outils géophysique, comme la gravimétrie et les méthodes magnétotelluriques afin de comprendre la géométrie du sous-sol et les écoulements régissant ce système hydrothermal jusqu’4-5 kilomètres de profondeur. Nous utiliserons aussi des outils de modélisations numériques pour contraindre les propriétés de ce système hydrothermal et estimer les mécanismes probables du à d’éventuel  futur tremblement de terre pouvant engendrer une liquéfaction à grande échelle dans cette région métastable.

 Les résultats de cette recherche nous permettrons de comprendre la dynamique de ce système naturel complexe et rare.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 01.04.2015

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
On May 26, 2006 a magnitude 6.3 earthquake occurred in Yogyakarta on the Indonesian Island of Java, resulting in widespread death and destruction of this ancient city. About 48 hours later, in the town of Sidoarjo about 250 km from the earthquake epicentre, mud began to spill out onto the surface and Lusi was born. Lusi combines LUmpar (mud) and SIdoarjo where it occurred. Lusi quickly accelerated in output, peaking in August of 2006 with eruption rates up to 180,000 cubic meters of mud per day. The former town is now buried beneath about 20 meters of mud that extends over 4 square kilometres. Recent research into what triggered this natural disaster showed that the underlying geologic layers formed a parabolic shape that reflected and focussed the incoming seismic energy. The amplification of energy liquefied a mud layer at about 1000 m depth, allowing it to travel to the surface along a tectonic scale fault that runs through the center of the mud eruption.
Lay summary
Lusi continues today as a vigorous geyser system that erupts water and steam about every 60-120 seconds, with plume heights of about 20 meters. Other research from geochemistry showing that Lusi is likely a geological rarity of a newborn tectonic-scale hydrothermal system linked to the nearby volcano complex, and this project aims to constrain the dynamics of this system. Lusi  offers numerous research possibilities, from large-scale volcanic hydrothermal systems to possibile  geothermal energy exploitation. The focus of this project is to use geophysical tools such as gravity and magnetotelluric methods to constrain the subsurface geometry and flow paths from the hydrothermal fluids emanating from 4-5 kilometres. We will also use numerical modelling tools to constrain the hydrothermal properties of this system, and make mechanistic assessments of the possibility of large-scale liquefaction of the extruded mud layer to eventual future earthquakes in the region that can shake the metastable system. Results from this research will be a better understanding of the dynamics of this rare and complex natural system.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 01.04.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Deep hydrothermal activity driving the Lusi mud eruption
Malvoisin Benjamin, Mazzini Adriano, Miller Stephen A. (2018), Deep hydrothermal activity driving the Lusi mud eruption, in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 497, 42-49.
Constraints on density changes in the funnel-shaped caldera inferred from gravity monitoring of the Lusi mud eruption
Mauri Guillaume, Husein Alwi, Mazzini Adriano, Karyono Karyono, Obermann Anne, Bertrand Guillaume, Lupi Matteo, Prasetyo Hardi, Hadi Soffian, Miller Stephen A. (2018), Constraints on density changes in the funnel-shaped caldera inferred from gravity monitoring of the Lusi mud eruption, in Marine and Petroleum Geology, 90, 91-103.
Insights on the structure of Lusi mud edifice from land gravity data
Mauri Guillaume, Husein Alwi, Mazzini Adriano, Irawan Dwinata, Sohrabi Reza, Hadi Soffian, Prasetyo Hardi, Miller Stephen A. (2018), Insights on the structure of Lusi mud edifice from land gravity data, in Marine and Petroleum Geology, 90, 104-115.
Lusi hydrothermal structure inferred through ambient vibration measurements
Panzera Francesco, D'Amico Sebastiano, Lupi Matteo, Mauri Guillaume, Karyono Karyono, Mazzini Adriano (2018), Lusi hydrothermal structure inferred through ambient vibration measurements, in Marine and Petroleum Geology, 90, 116-124.
More than ten years of Lusi: A review of facts, coincidences, and past and future studies
Miller Stephen A., Mazzini Adriano (2018), More than ten years of Lusi: A review of facts, coincidences, and past and future studies, in Marine and Petroleum Geology, 90, 10-25.
Numerical modeling of the Lusi hydrothermal system: Initial results and future challenges
Sohrabi Reza, Jansen Gunnar, Malvoisin Benjamin, Mazzini Adriano, Miller Stephen A. (2018), Numerical modeling of the Lusi hydrothermal system: Initial results and future challenges, in Marine and Petroleum Geology, 90, 191-200.
HULK – Simple and fast generation of structured hexahedral meshes for improved subsurface simulations
Jansen Gunnar, Sohrabi Reza, Miller Stephen A. (2017), HULK – Simple and fast generation of structured hexahedral meshes for improved subsurface simulations, in Computers & Geosciences, 99, 159-170.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
CHYN/University of Neuchatel, Dr. Boris Galvan Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Sidoarjo Mud Flow Mitigation Agency (BPLS), Indonesia, Prof. Hardi Prasyeto Indonesia (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
ETH-Zurich, Dr. Matteo Lupi Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Physics of Geologic Processes, Dr. Adriano Mazzini Norway (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
EGU Annual Meeting Vienna Austria 2018 Poster GEYSER: 3D thermo-hydrodynamic reactive transport numerical simulator considering porosity and permeability evolution on multi-GPU technology 09.04.2018 Vienna, Austria Sohrabi Reza; Miller Stephen;
EGU Annual Meeting 2017 Poster HULK: Simple and fast generation of structured hexahedral meshes for improved subsurface simulations. 24.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Miller Stephen; Sohrabi Reza;
EGU General Assembly Poster Investigating the Watukosek fault system using combined geophysical methods around Lusi eruption site 24.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Mauri Guillaume;
EGU General Assembly Poster Insights on the structure and activity of Lusi mud edifice from land gravity monitoring 24.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Mauri Guillaume; Miller Stephen;
European Geosciences Union General Assembly Talk given at a conference Numerical modeling for large-scale hydrothermal systems 24.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Sohrabi Reza; Miller Stephen; Malvoisin Benjamin;
EGU General Assembly Talk given at a conference 3D geological model for “Lusi” – a deep geothermal system 24.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Miller Stephen; Sohrabi Reza;
EGU General Assembly Poster Linking the Lusi mud eruption dynamics with regional seismic and magmatic activities: constraints from field data and modelling 24.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Mauri Guillaume;
EGU General Assembly Poster Isotopic and ion analysis of erupting Lusi water for constraints on numerical models 18.04.2016 Vienna, Austria Miller Stephen; Mauri Guillaume;
EGZ General Assembly Poster Continuous multi-component geophysical experiment on LUSI mud edifice: What can we learn from it? 18.04.2016 Vienna, Austria Miller Stephen; Mauri Guillaume;
EGU General Assembly Talk given at a conference Lusi 10 years later: A review 18.04.2016 Vienna, Austria Miller Stephen;
EGU General Assembly Poster Combined geophysical surveys and coring data to investigate the pattern of the Watukosek fault system around the Lusi eruption site, Indonesia 18.04.2016 Vienna, Austria Mauri Guillaume;
EGU General Assembly Talk given at a conference Constraining the thermal structure beneath Lusi: insights from temperature record in erupted clasts 17.04.2016 Vienna, Austria Malvoisin Benjamin; Miller Stephen;
AGU Fall Meeting Poster Combined 2-D Electrical Resistivity and Self Potential Survey to Investigate the Pattern of the Watukosek Fault System Around the Lusi Eruption Site, Indonesia 14.12.2015 San Francisco, United States of America Mauri Guillaume;
13th Swiss Geoscience Meeting Poster Temperature record in clasts expelled from the LUSI mud eruption (Indonesia): evidence for large scale hydrothermal activity 06.11.2015 Basel, Switzerland Malvoisin Benjamin; Miller Stephen;


Abstract

We propose to conduct a suite of geophysical and laboratory investigations to constrain the lithological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and hydrothermal properties of the Lusi hydrothermal complex. Geophysical observations laboratory experiments will be used to constrain numerical modeling of a range of unsolved problems. Specifically, we propose (1) high-resolution micro-gravity studies of the Lusi eruption site and its southward extension towards the active volcanic complex, (2) Magnetotelluric (MT) surveys of the eruption site to constrain dominant fluid pathways in the subsurface, (3) MT studies to the south of the eruption site to search deeper levels for a sill intrusion hypothesized to be hydrothermally driving this system, (4) Geo-electric studies study the shallow subsurface and calibrate our other geophyiscal measurements, (5) Process and incorporate seismic reflection profiles into hydrogeological hydrothermal numerical models, (6) photogrammetry studies using the existing drone at Lusi to explore the possibility that Lusi represents a natural meso-scale analog to plate tectonics, and (7) active seismic surveys to constrain the geometry of the mud basin. We will collaborate closely and synthesize data with other ongoing geochemical and passive seismic monitoring investigations. We also propose to perform numerical modeling studies constrained by geophysical observation to (1) Create 3D geological models to investigate the large-scale hydrogeological and hydrothermal properties of this mud eruption/volcanic arc system. (2) Develop and investigate reactive transport models constrained by geochemical observations acquired from the Lusi vent and surroundings, (3) Couple wave propagation codes to liquefaction models to investigate i) eruptive properties in response to incoming energy of nearby and distant earthquakes and constrained by seismic observations, and ii) assess the potential for a catastrophic and very hazardous event of large-scale liquefaction of the evolved mud basin, and (4) Further develop models of geyser behavior to constrain the properties of the roots of this system.
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