Norm entrepreneurs; Norms diffusion; Mediation; Norms; United Nations; African Union; Non-governmental organizations
Hellmüller Sara, Pring Jamie, Richmond Oliver (2020), How Norms Matter in Mediation: An Introduction, in Swiss Political Science Review
, 26(4), 345-363.
Pring Jamie, Palmiano Federer Julia (2020), The Normative Agency of Regional Organizations and Non‐governmental Organizations in International Peace Mediation*, in Swiss Political Science Review
, 26(4), 364-383.
Hellmüller Sara (2020), Meaning‐Making in Peace‐Making: The Inclusion Norm at the Interplay between the United Nations and Civil Society in the Syrian Peace Process, in Swiss Political Science Review
, 26(4), 384-405.
Hellmüller Sara (2019), Beyond Buzzwords: Civil Society Inclusion in Mediation, in How-Won Jeong (ed.), Rowman & Littlefield, Maryland, 47-63.
Hellmüller Sara, Zahar Marie-Joëlle (2019), UN-led mediation in Syria and civil society
, Accord, London.
Palmiano Federer Julia (2018), We do negotiate with terrorists: navigating liberal and illiberal norms in peace mediation, in Critical Studies on Terrorism
, 12(1), 19-39.
HellmüllerSara, ZaharMarie-Joëlle (2018), Against the Odds: Civil Society in the Intra-Syrian Talks
, International Peace Institute, New York.
HellmüllerSara (2018), Six Aspects to Consider on the Interaction between Local and International Actors in Peace Processes
, International Peace Institute, New York.
Pring Jamie (2017), Including or Excluding Civil Society? The Role of the Mediation Mandate for South Sudan (2013–2015) and Zimbabwe (2008–2009), in African Security
, 10(3-4), 223-238.
Hellmüller Sara, Palmiano Federer Julia, Pring Jamie (2017), Are Mediators Norm Entrepreneurs?
, swisspeace, Bern.
Palmiano Federer Julia, “The Primacy of the Union”: the Cognitive Prior of the Tatmadaw and its Effects on the Myanmar Peace Process, in New England Journal of Public Policy
Palmiano Federer Julia, Cowboy or Maverick? The Normative Agency of NGO Mediators, Bristol University Press, Bristol.
HellmüllerSara, Inclusion and Performance as Sources of Legitimacy, in Richmond Oliver (ed.), Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
PringJamie, Norms and Recognition in Mediation Processes: Promoting Inclusivity in the Mediation of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in South Sudan, in Geis Anna, Clement Maéva, Pfeifer Anna (ed.), Manchester University Press, Manchester.
HellmüllerSara, Shaping the Norm: Inclusivity at the Interplay between the UN and Syrian civil society, in Swiss Political Science Review
HellmüllerSara, The Changing Role of Civil Society Actors in Peacemaking and Peacebuilding, in Hampson Fen Osler, Ozerdem Alp (ed.), Routledge, London / New York.
Palmiano Federer Julia, Hellmüller Sara, Richmond Oliver, Pring Jamie (ed.), The Role of Norms in International Peace Mediation
, Swiss Political Science Review, Switzerland.
Palmiano Federer Julia, The Trouble with Inclusivity: The Unforeseen Consequences of Norm Promotion in Myanmar’s Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement, in Journal of Peacebuilding and Development
Pring Jamie, Towards a more integrated approach? Cooperation among the United Nations, the African Union, and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development in mediation support, in Wählisch Martina, Turner Catherine (ed.), Bristol University Press, Bristol.
Norms play an increasingly important role in mediation processes. Mediators are no longer supposed to only bring a conflict to an end, they are also asked to integrate certain norms into mediation processes. However, although the role and diffusion of norms have been widely researched in international relations and peacebuilding literature, the same does not count for the field of mediation. While the conditions under which mediation leads to a sustainable agreement have been assessed, the role of mediators in norm diffusion has only been treated in a largely prescriptive way in policy debates. This is surprising given the fact that mediation is at the core of a wider peacebuilding process.This project seeks to shed light on the role of mediators in norm diffusion by asking to what extent mediators are norm entrepreneurs defined by Finnemore and Sikkink (1998: 895) as actors who “attempt to convince a critical mass of [actors] to embrace new norms”. More specifically, it addresses the questions of what norms belong to the normative framework for mediation processes; whether mediators promote and imitate norms and how; and which norms have been internalized in mediation processes. Thereby, the project responds to three biases in current research on norm diffusion. First, it also allows insights into those norms that have not diffused in contrast to earlier research which has largely neglected instances of non-diffusion. Second, norm diffusion will neither be seen as a priori positive or negative compared to current analyses which often portray it as inherently positive. Third, the project allows for agency of actors while earlier research mainly focused on the influence of the structure on agents.Methodologically, the project is based on a combination of case study and process-tracing. Three cases of mediators are chosen which are mandated by the most typical actors in the mediation field: an intergovernmental organization (the United Nations (UN)), a regional organization (the African Union (AU)) and a state (Switzerland). On the basis of these three cases, a two-level analysis is conducted. First, and most importantly, the project assesses causal processes at the within-case level focusing on the agency of mediators. It does this through process-tracing because it allows for an in-depth description of a trajectory of change, namely the process of norm diffusion, and analyzes closely the sequences of independent, dependent, and intervening variables. Second, it conducts a comparison at the cross-case level examining how the role of mediators as norm entrepreneurs varies between the three cases. Data is collected through content analysis, interviews, focus group discussions as well as participant observation.The main contribution of the proposed research project is twofold. First, it addresses three important gaps in academic literature on norm diffusion and second, it adds empirical evidence to an often merely policy-based prescriptive debate on the role of mediators in norm diffusion. As such, this project makes a coherent and highly important contribution to scientific debates.