Brain plasticity; Executive functions; Inhibitory control; Magnetic resonance imaging
Sallard Etienne, Hartmann Lea, Ptak Radek, Spierer Lucas (2018), Spatiotemporal brain dynamics underlying attentional bias modifications, in International Journal of Psychophysiology
, 130, 29-39.
Radman Narges, Britz Juliane, Buetler Karin, Weekes Brendan S., Spierer Lucas, Annoni Jean-Marie (2018), Dorsolateral Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Modulates Language Processing but Does Not Facilitate Overt Second Language Word Production, in Frontiers in Neuroscience
, 12, 25.
De Pretto Michael, Rochat Lucien, Spierer Lucas (2017), Spatiotemporal brain dynamics supporting the immediate automatization of inhibitory control by implementation intentions, in Scientific Report
Chavan Camille, Mouthon Michael, Simonet Marie, Hoogewoud Henri-Marcel, Draganski Bogdan, van der Zwaag Wietske, Spierer Lucas (2017), Sustained enhancements in inhibitory control depend primarily on the reinforcement of fronto-basal anatomical connectivity., in Brain structure & function
Hartmann Lea, Sallard Etienne, Spierer Lucas (2016), Enhancing frontal top-down inhibitory control with Go/NoGo training., in Brain structure & function
Chouiter Leila, Holmberg Josefina, Manuel Aurelie L, Colombo Françoise, Clarke Stephanie, Annoni Jean-Marie, Spierer Lucas (2016), Partly segregated cortico-subcortical pathways support phonologic and semantic verbal fluency: A lesion study., in Neuroscience
De Pretto Michael, Sallard Etienne, Spierer Lucas (2016), State dependency of inhibitory control performance: an electrical neuroimaging study., in The European journal of neuroscience
Chavan Camille F., Mouthon Michael, Draganski Bogdan, van der Zwaag Wietske, Spierer Lucas (2015), Differential patterns of functional and structural plasticity within and between inferior frontal gyri support training-induced improvements in inhibitory control proficiency, in HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING
, (7), 2527-2543.
1. Summary: ‘Structural and functional brain plasticity in inhibitory control: towards expertise’1.1 BackgroundInhibitory control (IC), a key aspect of executive functions, refers to the ability to cancel cognitive or motor processes. Deficits in IC participate in the emergence and maintenance of several prominent brain-related disorders including addiction or ADHD. The rehabilitation of these pathologies might thus benefit from training-induced reinforcement of inhibitory control. The development of therapeutic intervention based on inhibitory control training first requires elucidating whether and how inhibitory control proficiency could be improved in healthy individuals and the supporting brain plastic changes. Although the anatomo-functional organization of inhibitory control has been extensively studied, the plasticity of this function remains largely unknown. Using psychophysics and state of the art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches, the present project addresses the neurocognitive mechanisms of training-induced behavioral, functional and structural brain plasticity of inhibitory control. 1.2 Working hypothesesRecent evidence from our and other groups indicate that training regimens based on the practice of specifically designed motor inhibitory control Go/NoGo tasks could reinforce domain-general top-down frontal inhibitory control mechanisms, which should in turn improve various types of behavioral and cognitive inhibitory control. The present project test the following distinct, though interrelated hypotheses:A) Extensive (2 weeks) IC training with a motor IC task will improve IC performance. Behavioral improvements will be accompanied by plastic modifications within the domain-general IC brain network (including right ventrolateral prefrontal cortices and basal ganglia) at the functional (hemodynamic response) and structural levels (grey matter density and white matter microstructure). B) Because such training regimen will modify domain-general IC neurocognitive mechanisms, its effects will generalize to untrained remote tasks involving an IC component: interference resolution, task-set updating and delay discounting. C) Years of intensive practice of a complex activity involving an IC component (fencing, >6000 hours over 10 years) will improve fundamental IC performance and lead to anatomo-functional modifications of domain-general IC brain networks putatively analogous to those induced by the training of projects A and B.1.3 Experimental designs and methodsThe same inhibitory control training regimen is used to induce behavioral and brain plasticity in project A and B. Pre- and post- training psychophysics and/or MRI sessions are used to assess the behavioral and anatomo-functional effects of the training and whether the effects persist after the training (project A), and the transfer of the effects of training to untrained tasks (Project B). Project C examines the anatomo-functional modifications in IC in elite fencing athletes, an expert population that undertook years of intensive practice of an inhibition-related complex activity. Psychophysics is used to identify the behavioral improvements and the generalization patterns induced by the inhibitory control training. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with BOLD signal analyses, diffusion MRI with tract-based spatial statistics on fractional anisotropy (white matter microstructure) and structural MRI with voxel-based morphometry analyses (grey matter volumetry) are used to investigate training-induced plastic changes at the functional and structural levels, respectively.1.4 Expected value of the proposed projectThe primary importance of these projects is conceptual: to answer several fundamental questions on the anatomo-functional organization of inhibitory control and their plasticity, based on a unique combination of behavioral, functional and structural neuroimaging methods and in the study of an expert population. The planned studies are designed to have an immediate clinical applicability, including the development of targeted diagnosis and rehabilitation strategies for neurological and psychiatric conditions with inhibitory control deficits.