Projekt

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High Temperature Solar Gasification of Biomass for Efficient Energy Recovery along with Co-production of Potassic Fertilizer (SOLGAS-B2EF)

Gesuchsteller/in Steinfeld Aldo
Nummer 156474
Förderungsinstrument Indien
Forschungseinrichtung Institut für Energietechnik ETH Zürich
Hochschule ETH Zürich - ETHZ
Hauptdisziplin Maschineningenieurwesen
Beginn/Ende 01.04.2015 - 31.03.2018
Bewilligter Betrag 248'150.00
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Alle Disziplinen (2)

Disziplin
Maschineningenieurwesen
Chemische Verfahrenstechnik

Keywords (9)

biomass; gasification; fertilizer; thermochemical; pyrolysis; solar; syngas; energy; fuel

Lay Summary (Deutsch)

Lead
Das Ziel dieses Projektes ist die thermochemische Umwandlung organischer Bioabfälle mittels konzentrierter Sonnenenergie. Das Produkt dieser Umwandlung ist ein hochwertiges, energiereiches Synthesegas (eine Mischung aus CO und H2). Der Anwendungsbereich von Synthesegas ist vielseitig; zum einem kann es direkt als Brennstoff verwendet werden wie zum Beispiel in einem Zementofen oder einem Kombiprozesskraftwerk mit integrierter Vergasung zur Erzeugung von elektrischem Strom, zum andern kann es in H2 oder flüssig Kohlenwasserstoffe umgewandelt werden.
Lay summary
In Schwellenländern wie Indien wird ein grosser Teil der Ernterückstände vor Ort verbrannt, um die Felder für die nachfolgenden Bodenbewirtschaftungszyklus freizuräumen. Die Ernte besteht hier typischerweise aus Reis, Getreide, Baumwolle, Mais, Hirse, Rohrzucker, Jute, Rapskernen und Erdnüsse. Neben dem Verlust potentiell nutzbarer Energie verursacht diese unkontrollierte Verbrennung die Freisetzung von Russpartikeln und Rauch, zudem beeinflusst sie die Beschaffenheit des Bodens negativ. Neue Technologien welche Anreize geben diese Abfälle (150 Mt pro Jahr)  zu sammeln und zu nutzen, ohne dass der Erde wichtige Nährstoffe entzogen werden, werden dringend benötigt.
Als ein energetisch effizienter und CO2 neutraler Weg wird die Energieproduktion von Bioabfälle mit solarthermischer Vergasung in energiereiches und hochwertiges Syngas vorgeschlagen. Die Vorteile des solarbetriebenen Prozesses gegenüber konventionellen Prozessen sind folgende: 1. Mehr produzierbares Synthesegas pro Rohstoffseinheit, 2. Das Synthesegas wird nicht verunreinigt durch Nebenprodukte aus der Verbrennung, 3. Hochwertigeres Synthesegas dank höheren Vergasungstemperaturen, 4. Eine vorgeschaltete Lufttrennungseinheit wird nicht benötigt. Schlussendlich bietet die solare Vergasung eine effiziente Speicherung der unbeständigen Sonnenenergie in Form einer transportierbaren chemischen Verbindung an. Gujarat, die Region in der sich der indische Partner CSIR-CSMRCI befindet, bietet einer der höchsten Sonneneinstrahlungen in Indien. Das Ziel dieses Projektes ist die indische Biomasse auf ihre Eignung für die solare Dampfvergasung zu testen und eine Prozesskonfigurationen mit hohem ökonomischen und ökologischem Potential für die Zielregion zu identifizieren.
Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 21.03.2015

Lay Summary (Englisch)

Lead
This project aims at the solar thermochemical conversion of waste biomass into energy-rich and high-quality synthesis gas (syngas - a mixture of CO and H2). Syngas can be used as a combustion fuel, e.g. for cement kilns or in IGCC-plants for power generation, or further processed to H2 and liquid hydrocarbon fuels.
Lay summary

In developing countries like India, a large fraction of crop residues is disposed of by simply burning them in situ, mainly for clearing the fields for the subsequent cultivation cycle. In the specific case of India, these crops include rice, wheat, cotton, maize, millet, sugar cane, jute, rapeseed-mustard, and groundnut. Apart from the loss of potentially useful energy, such direct incineration under uncontrolled conditions leads to release of soot particles and smoke, as well as to adverse impacts on soil properties. New technologies providing incentives for the collection and productive utilization of those waste materials (150Mt per year), without depriving the soils of essential nutrients, are strongly required.

As an energy-efficient and CO2-neutral way for energy production from waste biomass, solar thermal gasification into energy-rich and high-quality syngas is proposed. The advantages of the solar-driven process compared to the conventional one are the following: 1. higher syngas output per unit of feedstock, 2. avoidance of syngas contamination by combustion by-products, 3. higher quality of the produced syngas thanks to higher gasification temperatures, 4. Elimination of the upstream air-separation unit. Ultimately, solar gasification offers an efficient means of storing intermittent solar energy in a transportable and dispatchable chemical form. Gujarat, the region where the Indian partner CSIR-CSMRCI is located offers among the highest solar resource in the country. The goal of the project is to test the suitability of biomass waste of Indian origin for solar steam gasification and the identification of process configuration with high economic and ecological potential in the target region.

Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 21.03.2015

Verantw. Gesuchsteller/in und weitere Gesuchstellende

Mitarbeitende

Publikationen

Publikation
A pressurized high-flux solar reactor for the efficient thermochemical gasification of carbonaceous feedstock
(2017), A pressurized high-flux solar reactor for the efficient thermochemical gasification of carbonaceous feedstock, in Fuel, 193, 432-443.

Zusammenarbeit

Gruppe / Person Land
Formen der Zusammenarbeit
CSIR-Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute Indien (Asien)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
- Austausch von Mitarbeitern

Wissenschaftliche Veranstaltungen

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
7th World Renewable Energy Technology Congress Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung “Solar thermochemical conversion of agricultural waste into energy rich syngas 21.08.2016 New Delhi, India, Indien Müller Fabian Lukas;
SOLLAB Doctoral Colloqium on Solar Concentrating Technologies Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung A pressurized high-flux solar reactor for the thermochemical gasification of carbonaceous feedstock 06.06.2016 Cabo de Gata, Spanien Müller Fabian Lukas;


Veranstaltungen zum Wissenstransfer



Selber organisiert

Titel Datum Ort

Auszeichnungen

Titel Jahr
Elected to the Pan-American Academy of Engineering http://www.academiapanamericanaingenieria.org/ 2016
Frank Kreith Energy Award by ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers https://www.asme.org/about-asme/get-involved/honors-awards/achievement-awards/frank-kreith-energy-award 2016

Abstract

In developing countries like India, a large fraction of crop residues is disposed of by simply burning them in situ, mainly for clearing the fields for the subsequent cultivation cycle. In the specific case of India, these crops include rice, wheat, cotton, maize, millet, sugar cane, jute, rapeseed-mustard, and groundnut. Apart from the loss of potentially useful energy, such direct incineration under uncontrolled conditions leads to release of soot particles and smoke, as well as to adverse impacts on soil properties. New technologies providing incentives for the collection and productive utilization of those waste materials (150Mt per year), without depriving the soils of essential nutrients, are strongly required.As an energy-efficient and CO2-neutral way for energy production from waste biomass, solar thermal gasification into energy-rich and high-quality syngas (synthesis gas - a mixture of CO and H2) is proposed. Syngas can be used as a combustion fuel, e.g. for cement kilns or in IGCC-plants for power generation, or further processed to H2 or liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The advantages of the solar-driven process compared to the conventional one are the following: 1. higher syngas output per unit of feedstock, 2. avoidance of syngas contamination by combustion by-products, 3. higher quality of the produced syngas thanks to higher gasification temperatures, 4. Elimination of the upstream air-separation unit. Ultimately, solar gasification offers an efficient means of storing intermittent solar energy in a transportable and dispatchable chemical form. Gujarat, the region where the Indian partner CSIR-CSMRCI is located offers among the highest solar resource in the country, comparable to that of traditional solar energy exploitation regions such as Southern Spain or the South-West of the US.This Indo-Swiss proposal possesses a high synergetic potential, as it joins two partners having deep and complementary specializations allowing to significantly push the development of renewable energy technologies in India. ETH-PREC - the Swiss proponent - possesses profound expertise in the field of solar thermochemical processes. Numerous reactor prototypes for solar gasification of carbonaceous materials and solar thermochemical cycles have been developed and successfully tested at concentrating solar facilities or solar simulators. CSIR-CSMCRI, the Indian proponent, has a 10 year experience in conventional (autothermal) gasification and pyrolysis processes, having operated several types of lab-scale downdraft gasifiers using locally available agro-residues and marine macro-algae. Additionally, CSIR-CSMRCI possesses expertise in the capture of potassium-containing compounds from residual ash for conversion into fertilizer.The goal of the project - to be achieved in 36 months - is to test the suitability of biomass waste of Indian origin for solar steam gasification and the identification of process configuration with high economic and ecological potential in the target region. For its achievement, the following steps are required:1.Identification and evaluation of suitable biomass samples of Indian origin;2.Experimental tests of samples in a 5 kW solar reactor prototype and evaluation of results in terms of syngas composition and energetic performance;3.Characterization of residual ash and fertilizer production;4.Implementation of a heat and mass transfer model of the prototype solar gasifier;5.Techno-economic performance prediction of the process at commercial-scale.In a first step, the Indian partner, supported by the Swiss partner identifies a set of locally available biomass residue samples. Those shall be subjected to characterization to assess their potential for the gasification process. Those samples will then be experimentally tested in a 5 kW indirectly-irradiated packed-bed solar reactor prototype at ETH-PREC’s solar simulator facilities in Switzerland. Evaluation of process performance shall occur in terms of chemical conversion and energy efficiency. Thirdly, residual ash collected after the experimental runs will be collected and sent to the Indian partner, who characterize it and assess its suitability for fertilizer production. A sample amount of fertilizer shall be produced. A heat and mass transfer numerical model of the reactor is to be built by ETH-PREC, with support from CSIR-CSMRCI, in order to understand the physical phenomena occurring during the process. At last, based on the experimental and modeling results, a techno-economic performance prediction of a commercial-scale process shall be carried out, with particular attention paid to its applicability in the target region of Gujarat in Western India.The expected project outcome will be a detailed plan of how the solar gasification technology could be applied in India to increase the sustainability of local energy and fertilizer production. It will point out where the strong and weak points of such a system lie, and therefore will allow to make informed decisions about the R&D steps required in future to bring the technology towards real-world application. The potential for knowledge transfer to industry is high. Both solar energy and biofuels are growing markets in which industry players are trying to position themselves. Given the size, and thus the importance of the Indian market, the incentive to find economically viable and sustainable technologies for the energy sector is strong. Since this project aims at proposing a process for application, complete with economic analysis, the relevance for industry is significant.The research results are an important step on the path directly leading to commercial application of the technology. The direct practical result would be the construction of a 100 - 300 kW reactor (in a pre-existing or dedicated) solar plant, possibly in India, where the suitability of the process for scale-up is experimentally tested. The project can have an impact on the agricultural sector, more specifically in biomass waste recovery. Solar gasification of biomass allows for the utilization of biomass waste which, until now, has been discarded from organized energy production. Once an economic and ecological road to process these materials has been presented, techniques and procedures for their collection are expected to be put into place.
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