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Petrology and kinetics of igneous systems

English title Petrology and kinetics of igneous systems
Applicant Ulmer Peter
Number 156408
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Geochemie und Petrologie ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Geology
Start/End 01.10.2014 - 31.12.2018
Approved amount 468'112.00
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All Disciplines (4)

Discipline
Geology
Geophysics
Geochemistry
Mineralogy

Keywords (7)

clinopyroxene; high-K magmatism; cation diffusion; shoshonites; mantel-petrogenesis; compositional zoning in pyroxene; magma differentiation

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Dieses Forschungsprojekt beinhaltet 2 Doktorandenstellen für eine Dauer von 36 Monate und untersucht die folgenden Fragestellungen: Projekt A umfasst eine experimentelle Studie der Mantel-Petrogenese und der Differentiation „shoshonitischer“ Magmen innerhalb der Kruste und kombiniert diese mit einer Fallstudie des Mittel-Triassischen Magmatismus in den Südalpen. Projekt B ist ein laufendes Projekt das die Kationendiffusion in Klinopyroxen Festkörperlösungen untersucht.
Lay summary

Projekt A kombiniert experimentelle und petrologisch/geochemische Untersuchungen von hoch-K, „shoshonitischen“ Magmen, die in kontinentalem tektonischem Milieu auftreten und als Marker für spezifische tektonische Umgebung und Mantelquellen verwendet werden. Die experimentellen Untersuchungen sollen folgende Fragestellungen beantworten: (1) Zusammensetzung und Schmelzbedingungen der Mantelquelle durch mittels Bestimmung der Hochdruck-Phasenbeziehungen primärer „shoshonitischer“ Mantelschmelzen; und (2) den Einfluss von Druck und Konzentration/Zusammensetzung flüchtiger Phasen auf den Differenzierungspfad „shoshonitischer“ Magmen während dem Aufstieg durch die Kruste und innerhalb krustaler Magmenreservoiren. Die Resultate der experimentellen Studie werden mit den Mittel-Triassischen magmatischen Gesteinen der Südalpen verglichen um allgemeingültige Aussagen zur Genese und Stellung dieser „kryptischen“ Serie magmatischer Gesteine zu machen, die in kein konventionelles Plattentektonisches Schema passen.

Projekt B ist eine experimentelle Untersuchung der Kationen-Interdiffusion in Ca-reichem Klinopyroxen bei niedrigem Druck und unter kontrolliertem Sauerstoffpartialdruck. Die Studie kombiniert etablierte experimentelle Methoden mit „state-of-the-art“ analytischen Methoden ( (ATEM, FIB milling, SIMS und NanoSIMS). Wir verwenden die “seed overgrowth interdiffusion” (SOI) Methode um die Kationen-Interdiffusion entlang den Festkörperlösungen Diopsid (CaMgSi2O6) – CaAl2SiO6 (CaTs) und Diopside - NaFe3+S2O6 (Ägirin) zu untersuchen, die die häufigsten Zonierungsmuster magmatischer Klinopyroene darstellen. Die Resulte werden anschliessend zur Modellierung natürlicher Proben verwendet um Zeitdauer und Raten magmatischer Prozesse während der Differenzierung, Lagerung und dem Transport der Magmen durch die Erdkruste zu quantifizieren.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 26.09.2014

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
This research proposal comprises funding for 2 PhD students for 36 months and addresses 2 different goals: Project A targets the petrogenesis and across crustal differentiation of shoshonitic magmas linked with a case study of the mid-Triassic magmatism in the Southern Alps. Project B is an ongoing project studying cation interdiffusion in clinopyroxene solid-solutions.
Lay summary

Project A is a combined experimental and petrologic/geochemical study on high-K, shoshonitic magmas occurring in continental settings that are used as markers identifying specific environments and mantle sources. The experimental study targets two pertinent issues: (1) source composition and condition of partial melting by investigating the high-pressure phase relations of primary, mantle derived shoshonitic magmas; and (2) the influence of pressure and volatile content on the differentiation paths of primary and derivative shoshonitic magmas during their ascent and storage in the crust. The study is linked to the mid-Triassic shoshonite magmatism in the Dolomites area (Southern Alps) that provides a complete spectrum of plutonic and volcanic rocks from primitive to highly evolved enabling rigorous testing of experimental results and  drawing general conclusions on the evolution shoshonitic magmatism and its significance regarding tectonic environment.

Project B experimentally investigates the cation interdiffusion at low pressures under controlled oxygen fugacity in Ca-rich clinopyroxene solid solutions. The experimental study combines established experimental techniques with state-of-the-art analytical methods (ATEM, FIB milling, SIMS and NanoSIMS). We employ the seed overgrowth interdiffusion technique (SOI) to quantify cation interdiffusion along the diopside – CaAl2SiO6 (CaTs) and diopside - NaFe3+S2O6 (acmite) joins representing the most common clinopyroxene zoning patterns observed in igneous systems. The resulting data will utilized to model zoning in natural samples to extract durations and rates of igneous processes occurring during magma differentiation, storage and transport controlling the fate of magmas passing through the Earth´s crust from their source to the volcanic edifice.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 26.09.2014

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
The influence of water in silicate melt on aluminium excess in plagioclase as a potential hygrometer
Fiedrich Alina M., Martin Lukas H. J., BachmannOlivier, Storck Julian-C., Ulmer Peter, Heinrich Christoph A. (2018), The influence of water in silicate melt on aluminium excess in plagioclase as a potential hygrometer, in Scientific Reports, 8(1), 12421-12421.
Sulfur diffusion in dacitic melt at various oxidation states: Implications for volcanic degassing
Lierenfeld Matthias Bernhard, Zajacz Zoltán, Bachmann Olivier, Ulmer Peter (2018), Sulfur diffusion in dacitic melt at various oxidation states: Implications for volcanic degassing, in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 226, 50-68.
Arc crust formation and differentiation constrained by experimental petrology
Müntener Othmar, Ulmer Peter (2018), Arc crust formation and differentiation constrained by experimental petrology, in American Journal of Science, 318(1), 64-89.
Experimentally Derived Intermediate to Silica-rich Arc Magmas by Fractional and Equilibrium Crystallization at 1·0 GPa: an Evaluation of Phase Relationships, Compositions, Liquid Lines of Descent and Oxygen Fugacity
Ulmer Peter, Kaegi Ralf, Müntener Othmar (2018), Experimentally Derived Intermediate to Silica-rich Arc Magmas by Fractional and Equilibrium Crystallization at 1·0 GPa: an Evaluation of Phase Relationships, Compositions, Liquid Lines of Descent and Oxygen Fugacity, in Journal of Petrology, 59(1), 11-58.
High-resolution stratigraphy and zircon U–Pb geochronology of the Middle Triassic Buchenstein Formation (Dolomites, northern Italy): precession-forcing of hemipelagic carbonate sedimentation and calibration of the Anisian–Ladinian boundary interval
Wotzlaw Jörn-Frederik, Brack Peter, Storck Julian-Christopher (2018), High-resolution stratigraphy and zircon U–Pb geochronology of the Middle Triassic Buchenstein Formation (Dolomites, northern Italy): precession-forcing of hemipelagic carbonate sedimentation and calibration of the Anisian–Ladinian boundary interval, in Journal of the Geological Society, 175(1), 71-85.
Clumped isotope fractionation during phosphoric acid digestion of carbonates at 70 °C
Müller Inigo A., Violay Marie E.S., Storck Julian-Christopher, Fernandez Alvaro, van Dijk Joep, Madonna Claudio, Bernasconi Stefano M. (2017), Clumped isotope fractionation during phosphoric acid digestion of carbonates at 70 °C, in Chemical Geology, 449, 1-14.
Amphibole–melt trace element partitioning of fractionating calc-alkaline magmas in the lower crust: an experimental study
Nandedkar Rohit H., Hürlimann Niklaus, Ulmer Peter, Müntener Othmar (2016), Amphibole–melt trace element partitioning of fractionating calc-alkaline magmas in the lower crust: an experimental study, in Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 171(8-9), 71-71.
Timing and evolution of Middle Triassic magmatism in the Southern Alps (northern Italy)
Strock Julian-Christopher, Brack Peter, Wotzlaw Jörn-Frederik, Ulmer Peter, Timing and evolution of Middle Triassic magmatism in the Southern Alps (northern Italy), in Journal of the Geological Society, online, 1-16.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
EMEZ - ETH Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
NanoSIMS Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
SwissSIMS Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
GSA Annual Meeting 2018 Talk given at a conference Granite formation controlled by phase equilibria in the crustal column. Experimental perspectives from equilibrium and fractional crystallisation 04.11.2018 Indianapolis, United States of America Ulmer Peter;
EMPG-XVI Poster Fractionation experiments of primitive shoshonitic magmas at 8 kbar 17.06.2018 Clermont-Ferrand, France Storck Julian-Christopher; Brack Peter; Ulmer Peter;
EMPG XV 16th International Conference on Experimental Mineralogy Petrology Geochemistry Talk given at a conference Iron redox equilibria in hydrous basaltic melts and Fe2+-Mg exchange between olivine and melt 17.06.2018 Clermont-Ferrand, France Ulmer Peter;
European Geoscience Union, General Assembly 2018 Talk given at a conference Solubility of magnesium silicates and carbonates in high-pressure COH fluids 08.04.2018 Vienna, Austria Ulmer Peter;
European Geoscience Union, General Assembly 2018 Talk given at a conference Granite formation in arcs: one view from high pressure experiments 08.04.2018 Vienna, Austria Ulmer Peter;
European Geosciences Union, General Assembly Talk given at a conference Timing and evolution of Middle Triassic magmatism in the Southern Alps from integrating zircon petrochronology and thermal modelling 08.04.2018 Vienna, Austria Storck Julian-Christopher; Ulmer Peter; Brack Peter;
Goldschmidt Conference 2017 Poster Timing and evolution of the Middle Triassic shoshonitic magmatism in the Southern Alps (Northern Italy 13.08.2017 Paris, France Ulmer Peter; Brack Peter; Storck Julian-Christopher;
34 International Conference on Magmatism of the Earth and Related Strategic Metal Deposits Poster Timescales and geochemical evolution of the Middle Triassic shoshonitic magmatism in the Southern Alps (Northern Italy) . 04.08.2017 Miass, Russia Ulmer Peter; Brack Peter; Storck Julian-Christopher;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2016 Poster A geochronologic framework for Middle Triassic magmatism in the Southern Alps 18.11.2016 Geneva, Switzerland Storck Julian-Christopher; Ulmer Peter; Brack Peter;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2016 Talk given at a conference Bedding patterns in hemipelagic carbonates: the case of the Middle Triassic Buchenstein Formation (Southern Alps, Italy) 18.11.2016 Geneva, Switzerland Brack Peter; Storck Julian-Christopher;
Dolomieu Conference on Carbonte Platforms and Dolomite Poster Geochemical evolution and timescales of Middle Triassic magmatism in the Southern Alps. 04.10.2016 Selva di Val Gardena, Italy Storck Julian-Christopher; Brack Peter; Ulmer Peter;
GeoTirol 2016 Talk given at a conference Timescales and geochemical evolution of mid-Triassic magmatism in the Southern Alps: A high resolution zircon petrochronology study 25.09.2016 Innsbruck, Austria Brack Peter; Storck Julian-Christopher; Ulmer Peter;
Goldschmidt Conference 2016 Poster The effects of oxygen fugacity on sulfur diffusion in dacite melts 26.06.2016 Yokohama, Japan Ulmer Peter; Lierenfeld Matthias;
Goldschmidt Conference 2016 Poster Chlorine isotope determination by SIMS: standard development and application to melt inclusions from subduction zone settings 26.06.2016 Yokohama, Japan Ulmer Peter;
Goldschmidt Conference 2016 Talk given at a conference Experimental constraints on the CO2 content of fluids interacting with the subduction mélange 26.06.2016 Yokohama, Japan Ulmer Peter;
EMPG XV Talk given at a conference 15th International Conference on Experimental Mineralogy Petrology Geochemistry 05.06.2016 Zurich, Switzerland Ulmer Peter;
15th International Conference on Experimental Mineralogy Petrology Geochemistry Talk given at a conference Solubility of forsterite + enstatite and magnesite + enstatite in COH fluids 05.06.2016 Zurich, Switzerland Ulmer Peter;
15th International Conference on Experimental Mineralogy Petrology Geochemistry Talk given at a conference A silica shuttle for Fe transport in subduction zone fluids: Thermodynamic and experimental constraints 05.06.2016 Zurich, Switzerland Ulmer Peter;
15th International Conference on Experimental Mineralogy Petrology Geochemistry Poster Cation diffusion in clinopyroxene solid solutions 05.06.2016 Zurich, Switzerland Lierenfeld Matthias; Ulmer Peter;
Seminar at the Natural Museum of History, Sminthonian Institution Individual talk Differentiation of arc magmas at the crust-mantle boundary: Constraints from the Kohistan Arc (Pakistan) and experimental petrology 07.10.2015 Washington, DC, United States of America Ulmer Peter;
Seminar at the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington Individual talk he generation of granitoid batholiths by fractional crystallization of mantle-derived magmas in deep-crustal hot zones” 05.10.2015 Washington, DC, United States of America Ulmer Peter;
8th Hutton Symposium on granites and related rocks Talk given at a conference The generation of granitic magmas in arc related deep crustal hot zones 20.09.2015 Florianopolis, Brazil Ulmer Peter;
Goldschmidt Conference 2015 Talk given at a conference Generation of intermediate to acidic magmas at convergent plate margins by fractional crystallization in lower crustal magma reservoirs 16.08.2015 Prague, Czech Republic Ulmer Peter;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
EMPG-XV Fifteenth International Symposium on Experimental Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 05.06.2016 Zurich, Switzerland

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Talks/events/exhibitions Vulkane - tickende Zeitbomben German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Talks/events/exhibitions Zerbrechliches Magma German-speaking Switzerland 2016

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
140578 Rheologic, physical and kinetic properties of igneous systems 01.04.2012 Project funding (Div. I-III)
132878 Physical properties of crystal- and bubble-bearing magmas 01.10.2010 Project funding (Div. I-III)
184867 Petrology and kinetics of igneous systems 01.10.2019 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

This research proposal requesting funding for 2 PhD students for 36 months and addresses 2 different goals: Project A targets the petrogenesis and across crustal differentiation of shoshonitic magmas linked with a case study of the mid-Triassic magmatism in the Southern Alps. Project B is an ongoing project studying cation diffusion in clinopyroxene solid-solutions. Project A Shoshonitic magmatism in continental areas is extensively used as a geotectonic marker for specific environments and mantle sources, the most generally accepted is “subduction-related” metasomatism of subcontinental lithospheric mantle that becomes remobilized during subsequent tectonic events. There are widely different models proposed for their mantle sources and conditions of melt generation. Very limited information is available on the differentiation paths of such magmas ascending from mantle depth differentiating in crustal magma chambers on their way towards shallow levels. This prevents linking evident different geochemical trends observed in shoshonitic suites closely related in time and space with either variable source compositions/conditions of partial melting or variable differentiation trends controlled by the temperature-pressure-time evolution of the magmatic system. This experimental study targets two pertinent issues: (1) source composition and condition of partial melting by studying the high-pressure phase assemblages and conditions of multiple saturation of primary, mantle derived shoshonitic magmas under mantle conditions (1-3 GPa, 1100-1400°C); and (2) the influence of pressure and volatile content on the differentiation paths of primary and derivative shoshonitic magmas during their ascent from deep to middle crustal conditions (0.5-1.5 GPa, 800-1300°C). The investigation is linked to magmatic products of the short-lived mid-Triassic shoshonite activity in the Dolomites area of the Southern Alps (northern Italy) that provide a complete spectrum of plutonic and volcanic rocks from most primitive to highly evolved. Middle Triassic sediments and magmatic rocks in this area are currently among the best studied examples regarding the interplay of coeval tectonics, sedimentation and magmatic activity. Age and geochemical data provide tight constraints for a rigorous testing of experimental results which should also allow general conclusions to be drawn on the evolution of continental shoshonitic magmatism and its significance regarding tectonic environment.Project B is an ongoing experimental study (since 1.4.2013) determining the cation interdiffusion coefficients at low pressures under controlled oxygen fugacity in Ca-rich clinopyroxene solid solutions, a common igneous mineral characterized by slow cation diffusion kinetics. The experimental study combines established experimental techniques with state-of-the-art analytical methods (ATEM, FIB milling (both at EMEZ), secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS and NanoSIMS at the Lausanne (SwissSIMS consortium and EPFL respectively) to determine low cation diffusivities in pyroxenes. We employ the SOI (seed/overgrowth interdiffusion) technique to quantify cation interdiffusion along the diopside - CaAl2SiO6 (CaTs) and diopside - NaFe3+S2O6 (acmite) joins representing the most common clinopyroxene zoning patterns observed in igneous systems. This study provides crucial diffusivity data required for the modeling of zoning patterns in natural plutonic and volcanic rock samples in order to extract time durations and/or rates of processes such as magma differentiation, mixing/mingling, storage and transport ultimately controlling the fate of magmas passing through the Earth´s crust from their mantle sources to the volcanic edifices at the Earth´s surface. Clinopyroxenes are particularly useful to constrain long duration (100s to 1000s of years) processes and/or processes operating at slow rates in plutonic igneous environment within the Earth´s crust.
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