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Cloud-resolving climate modeling on future supercomputing platforms

English title Cloud-resolving climate modeling on future supercomputing platforms
Applicant Schär Christoph
Number 154486
Funding scheme Sinergia
Research institution Institut für Atmosphäre und Klima ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Start/End 01.05.2015 - 31.10.2018
Approved amount 1'476'277.00
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All Disciplines (4)

Discipline
Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Fluid Dynamics
Information Technology
Meteorology

Keywords (9)

cloud-resolving modeling; climate change; climate modeling; graphics processing units; high-performance computing; extreme events; convection-resolving modeling; heavy precipitation; droughts

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Klimamodelle verwenden ein dreidimensionales Rechengitter, auf welchem die relevanten Variablen in die Zukunft weitergerechnet werden. Die Feinheit des Rechengitters hat einen entscheidenden Einfluss auf die Qualität der Simulationen. Im vorliegenden Projekt wird erstmals versucht, Klimamodelle über Europa mit einem Gitterabstand von 2 km zu entwickeln und zu verwenden.
Lay summary

Gegenwärtige Klimasimulationen arbeiten mit einem Gitterabstand von typischerweise 10-100 km. Eine weitere Verfeinerung des Rechengitters stellt immense Herausforderungen an die nächste Generation von Klimamodellen. Erstens verlangt sie die Nutzung von neuen Supercomputern, welche eine zunehmend heterogene Architektur aufweisen (unter Verwendung von CPUs und GPUs, d.h. Central and Graphics Processing Units). Zweitens wächst der Bedarf an Mass-Storage in einem Ausmass, welches die Speicherung der Rechenresultate zunehmend in Frage stellt. Drittens besteht erst wenig Erfahrung mit hochauflösenden Klimamodellen. Wohl ist die Bedeutung solcher Modelle für kleine Rechengebiete (z.B. Alpenraum) und kurze Laufzeiten (Wettervorhersage) bekannt, die Anwendung solcher Methoden auf ganze Kontinente (Europa) und lange Zeiträume (Jahrzehnte bis Jahrhunderte) ist jedoch Neuland.

Im vorliegenden Projekt werden die oben genannten Themen interdisziplinär untersucht und dabei neue Modellkonzepte entwickelt und getestet. Das Projektteam verfügt über Kompetenz in den Bereichen Computerwissenschaften, Supercomputing, Klima- und Wettermodelle sowie Extremereignisse.

Das Projekt wird die Entwicklung und Verwendung hochauflösender Klimamodelle vorantreiben. Solche Modelle sind wichtig für verfeinerte Simulationen konvektiver Niederschläge (Gewitter und Regenschauer), und sie werden verbesserte Klimaprojektionen von Extremereignissen (insbesondere Starkniederschlägen, Überschwemmungen und Dürren) ermöglichen und das physikalische Verständnis der entsprechenden Prozesse fördern.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 16.04.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Extraction and Visual Analysis of Potential Vorticity Banners around the Alps
Bader Robin, Sprenger Michael, Ban Nikolina, Radisuhli Stefan, Schar Christoph, Ganther Tobias (2019), Extraction and Visual Analysis of Potential Vorticity Banners around the Alps, in IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 26, 259-269.
Near-surface wind variability over the broader Adriatic region: insights from an ensemble of regional climate models
Belušić Andreina, Prtenjak Maja Telišman, Güttler Ivan, Ban Nikolina, Leutwyler David, Schär Christoph (2018), Near-surface wind variability over the broader Adriatic region: insights from an ensemble of regional climate models, in Climate Dynamics, 50(11-12), 4455-4480.
Near-global climate simulation at 1 km resolution: establishing a performance baseline on 4888 GPUs with COSMO 5.0
Fuhrer Oliver, Chadha Tarun, Hoefler Torsten, Kwasniewski Grzegorz, Lapillonne Xavier, Leutwyler David, Lüthi Daniel, Osuna Carlos, Schär Christoph, Schulthess Thomas C., Vogt Hannes (2018), Near-global climate simulation at 1 km resolution: establishing a performance baseline on 4888 GPUs with COSMO 5.0, in Geoscientific Model Development, 11(4), 1665-1681.
Pan-European climate at convection-permitting scale: a model intercomparison study
Berthou Ségolène, Kendon Elizabeth J., Chan Steven C., Ban Nikolina, Leutwyler David, Schär Christoph, Fosser Giorgia (2018), Pan-European climate at convection-permitting scale: a model intercomparison study, in Climate Dynamics, 1-25.
Climate goals and computing the future of clouds
Schneider Tapio, Teixeira João, Bretherton Christopher S., Brient Florent, Pressel Kyle G., Schär Christoph, Siebesma A. Pier (2017), Climate goals and computing the future of clouds, in Nature Climate Change, 7, 3-5.
Model-Driven Choice of Numerical Methods for the Solution of the Linear Advection Equation
Arteaga Andrea, Fuhrer Oliver, Hoefler Torsten, Schulthess Thomas (2017), Model-Driven Choice of Numerical Methods for the Solution of the Linear Advection Equation, in Procedia Computer Science, 108, 1542-1551.
Enhanced summer convective rainfall at Alpine high elevations in response to climate warming
Giorgi Filippo, Torma Csaba, Coppola Erika, Ban Nikolina, Schär Christoph, Somot Samuel (2016), Enhanced summer convective rainfall at Alpine high elevations in response to climate warming, in Nature Geoscience, 9(8), 584-589.
Towards European-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Simulations
Leutwyler David, Fuhrer Oliver, Lapillonne Xavier, Lüthi Daniel, Schär Christoph (2016), Towards European-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Simulations, in Geoscientific Model Development Discussions, 1-34.
Continental-Scale Climate Simulation at Kilometer-Resolution
Leutwyler David, Fuhrer Oliver, Lapillonne Xavier, Lüthi Daniel, Schär Christoph (2015), Continental-Scale Climate Simulation at Kilometer-Resolution, ETH-Zürich, Zürich.
Winter storm Kyrill in a Continental-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Simulation
Leutwyler David, Fuhrer Oliver, Lapillonne Xavier, Lüthi Daniel, Schär Christoph (2015), Winter storm Kyrill in a Continental-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Simulation, ETH-Zürich, Zürich.
Evaluation of the convection-resolving climate modeling approach on continental scales
Leutwyler David, Lüthi Daniel, Ban Nikolina, Fuhrer Oliver, Schär Christoph, Evaluation of the convection-resolving climate modeling approach on continental scales, in Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.
Percentile indices for assessing changes in heavy precipitation events
Schär Christoph, Ban Nikolina, Fischer Erich M., Rajczak Jan, et al., Percentile indices for assessing changes in heavy precipitation events, in Climatic Change.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
MetOffice, Exeter Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- Publication
COSMO and CLM Community Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb Croatia (Europe)
- Publication
German Weather Service (DWD) Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M), Hamburg Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis Talk given at a conference SimFS: A Simulation Data Virtualizing File System Interface 11.11.2018 Dallas, United States of America Hoefler Torsten; di Girolamo Salvator;
GEWEX-CPCM Workshop 2018 Talk given at a conference Continental-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Change Simulations over Europe 04.09.2018 Boulder, United States of America Ban Nikolina; Schär Christoph; Ban Nikolina; Leutwyler David;
Annual Meeting of the Swiss Physical Society Talk given at a conference Climate Change: From the Greenhouse Effect to High-Resolution Climate Modeling 28.08.2018 Lausanne, Switzerland Schär Christoph;
PASC18 Talk given at a conference SimFS: A Simulation Data Virtualizing File System Interface - How Can We Escape the Data Avalanche in Climate Science? 02.07.2018 Basel, Switzerland di Girolamo Salvator; Hoefler Torsten;
18th Conference on Mountain Meteorology Talk given at a conference High-resolution climate models and mountain meteorology 25.06.2018 Santa Fe, United States of America Fuhrer Oliver; Leutwyler David; Schär Christoph; Ban Nikolina;
EGU General Assembly Poster Precipitation cell tracking in convection-resolving European-scale simulations 09.04.2018 Vienna, Austria Wernli Heini; Schär Christoph; Leutwyler David; Rüdisühli Stefan;
EGU General Assembly Talk given at a conference Precipitation related to fronts and cyclones in a kilometer-scale European climate simulation 09.04.2018 Vienna, Austria Wernli Heini; Schär Christoph; Leutwyler David; Rüdisühli Stefan;
International Conference on Terrestrial Systems Research Talk given at a conference High-resolution climate modeling on emerging supercomputing platforms: Opportunities and challenges 04.04.2018 Bonn, Germany Schulthess Thomas; di Girolamo Salvator; Charpilloz Christophe; Ban Nikolina; Rüdisühli Stefan; Wernli Heini; Fuhrer Oliver; Piaget Nicolas; Hoefler Torsten; Arteaga Andrea; Ban Nikolina; Leutwyler David; Schär Christoph;
ICCARUS Talk given at a conference Precipitation and fronts in a convection-resolving decadal simulation over Europe 28.02.2018 Offenbach, Germany Schär Christoph; Leutwyler David; Wernli Heini; Rüdisühli Stefan;
AGU General Assembly 2017 Talk given at a conference Scaling a Convection-Resolving RCM to Near-Global Scales 11.12.2017 New Orleans, United States of America Schulthess Thomas; Fuhrer Oliver; Leutwyler David; Schär Christoph; Hoefler Torsten;
AGU General Assembly 2017 Talk given at a conference Scaling and Intensification of Extreme Precipitation in Convection- Resolving Climate Change Simulations 11.12.2017 New Orleans, United States of America Ban Nikolina; Schär Christoph; Leutwyler David; Ban Nikolina;
AGU conference Poster A detailed analysis of frontal precipitation in a decadal convection-resolving regional climate simulation over Europe 11.12.2017 New Orleans, United States of America Wernli Heini; Leutwyler David; Rüdisühli Stefan; Schär Christoph;
AGU General Assembly 2017 Poster Representation of Precipitation in a Decade-long Continental-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Simulation 11.12.2017 New Orleans, United States of America Ban Nikolina; Leutwyler David; Schär Christoph; Fuhrer Oliver;
American Geophysical Union Talk given at a conference High-resolution RCMs as pioneers for future GCMs 11.12.2017 New Orleans, United States of America Schär Christoph; Leutwyler David; Rüdisühli Stefan; di Girolamo Salvator; Fuhrer Oliver; Schulthess Thomas; Hoefler Torsten; Piaget Nicolas; Arteaga Andrea; Ban Nikolina; Ban Nikolina; Charpilloz Christophe; Wernli Heini;
2nd Joint International Workshop on Parallel Data Storage & Data Intensive Scalable Computing Systems Talk given at a conference Virtualized Big Data: Reproducing Simulation Output on Demand 13.11.2017 Denver, United States of America Schulthess Thomas; di Girolamo Salvator; Hoefler Torsten;
International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis Talk given at a conference Virtualized Big Data: Reproducing Simulation Output on Demand 12.11.2017 Denver, United States of America Hoefler Torsten; di Girolamo Salvator;
PASC17 Poster Reproducible climate and weather simulations: An application to the COSMO model, Platform for Advanced Scientific Computing 26.06.2017 Lugano, Switzerland Charpilloz Christophe; Arteaga Andrea; Fuhrer Oliver;
PASC17 Talk given at a conference How to escape from the data avalanche of high-resolution climate models? 26.06.2017 Lugano, Switzerland Schär Christoph; Charpilloz Christophe; Fuhrer Oliver; Wernli Heini; Arteaga Andrea; di Girolamo Salvator; Rüdisühli Stefan; Leutwyler David; Schulthess Thomas; Hoefler Torsten;
Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS), 2017 IEEE International Talk given at a conference Transparent Caching for RMA Systems 29.05.2017 Orlando, Florida, United States of America di Girolamo Salvator; Hoefler Torsten;
Seminar presentation at the University of Innsbruck, Austria Individual talk High-resolution Climate Modeling 03.05.2017 Innsbruck, Austria Leutwyler David; Fuhrer Oliver; Ban Nikolina; Schär Christoph;
European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2017 Poster Mixed precision numerical weather prediction on hybrid GPU-CPU supercomputers 24.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Charpilloz Christophe; Fuhrer Oliver;
European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2017 Poster A new climate modeling framework for convection-resolving simulation at continental scale 24.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Hoefler Torsten; Fuhrer Oliver; di Girolamo Salvator; Schär Christoph; Schulthess Thomas; Charpilloz Christophe; Arteaga Andrea;
European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2017 Poster Near-surface wind pattern in regional climate projections over the broader Adriatic region 24.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Ban Nikolina; Leutwyler David; Schär Christoph;
European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2017 Talk given at a conference Scaling and Intensification of Extreme Precipitation in Climate Change Simulations at Kilometer-Scale Resolution 24.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Leutwyler David; Schär Christoph; Ban Nikolina;
EGU General Assembly Talk given at a conference Mixed precision numerical weather prediction on hybrid GPU-CPU supercomputers 24.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Charpilloz Christophe; Fuhrer Oliver;
European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2017 Poster Representation of Precipitation in a Decade-long Continental-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Simulation 24.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Ban Nikolina; Schär Christoph; Leutwyler David; Fuhrer Oliver;
Seminar presentation at Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Spain Individual talk Towards Convection-Resolving Climate Modeling 28.03.2017 Barcelona, Spain Schär Christoph; Fuhrer Oliver; Ban Nikolina; Leutwyler David;
Seminar presentation at Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France Individual talk Towards Convection-Resolving Climate Modeling 21.03.2017 Toulouse, France Ban Nikolina; Leutwyler David; Schär Christoph; Fuhrer Oliver;
Workshop, International Space Science Institute (ISSI) Talk given at a conference Prospects of Regional Climate Modeling: Towards Convection-Resolving Resolution 28.02.2017 Bern, Switzerland Ban Nikolina; Fuhrer Oliver; Schär Christoph; Leutwyler David;
Seminar presentation at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA Individual talk Prospects of Regional Climate Modeling: Towards Convection-Resolving Resolution 30.01.2017 Berkeley, United States of America Ban Nikolina; Schär Christoph; Leutwyler David; Fuhrer Oliver;
AMS Annual Meeting 2017 Talk given at a conference The scaling of short-term precipitation in a changing climate 23.01.2017 Seattle, United States of America Leutwyler David; Schär Christoph; Fuhrer Oliver; Ban Nikolina;
Seminar presentation at the University of Washington Individual talk Prospects of Regional Climate Modeling: Towards Convection-Resolving Resolution 13.01.2017 Seattle, United States of America Leutwyler David; Ban Nikolina; Schär Christoph; Fuhrer Oliver;
Annual Meeting of American Geophysical Union (AGU) 2016 Talk given at a conference A Decade-Long European-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Simulation on GPUs 12.12.2016 San Francisco, United States of America Ban Nikolina; Leutwyler David; Schär Christoph; Fuhrer Oliver;
The International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (SC16) Talk given at a conference Transparent Caching for RMA Systems 13.11.2016 Salt Lake City, United States of America di Girolamo Salvator; Hoefler Torsten;
GEWEX covection-permiting climate modeling workshop Talk given at a conference Challenges in Convection-Resolving Climate Modeling 06.09.2016 Boulder, United States of America Schär Christoph; Leutwyler David; Fuhrer Oliver; Hoefler Torsten; Wernli Heini; Ban Nikolina; Schulthess Thomas;
GEWEX covection-permiting climate modeling workshop Talk given at a conference Scaling and Intensification of Extreme Precipitation in Climate Change Simulations at Kilometer-Scale Resolution 06.09.2016 Boulder, United States of America Schär Christoph; Ban Nikolina;
PASC16 Talk given at a conference Refactoring and Virtualizing a Mesoscale Model for GPUs 08.06.2016 Lausanne, Switzerland Fuhrer Oliver; di Girolamo Salvator; Charpilloz Christophe; Hoefler Torsten; Arteaga Andrea;
PASC16 Talk given at a conference Path to Exascale Computing: Can We Get Serious About Cloud-Resolving Global Models? 08.06.2016 Lausanne, Switzerland Schulthess Thomas;
PASC16 Talk given at a conference A Decade-Long European-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Simulation on GPUs: Computation, Validation and Analyses 08.06.2016 Lausanne, Switzerland Rüdisühli Stefan; Fuhrer Oliver; Schär Christoph; Leutwyler David; Ban Nikolina; Wernli Heini;
PASC16 Poster Climate Change Simulations at Kilometer-Scale Resolution 08.06.2016 Lausanne, Switzerland Ban Nikolina; Schär Christoph;
EGU 2014 Talk given at a conference A Decade-Long Continental-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Simulation on GPUs 22.04.2016 Vienna, Austria Fuhrer Oliver; Leutwyler David; Schär Christoph;
SIAM Conference on Parallel Processing for Scientific Computing Talk given at a conference Bit-Reproducible Climate and Weather Simulations: From Theory to Practice 12.04.2016 Paris, France Fuhrer Oliver; Arteaga Andrea; Charpilloz Christophe;
HD(CP)2 UCP2016 Talk given at a conference A Decade-Long Continental-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Simulation on GPUs 15.02.2016 Berlin, Germany Fuhrer Oliver; Schär Christoph; Leutwyler David;
HD(CP)2 UCP2106 Poster Convection-Resolving Climate Change Simulations: Short-term precipitation extremes in a changing climate 15.02.2016 Berlin, Germany Ban Nikolina; Schär Christoph;
HD(CP)2 UCP2016 Poster Towards online cloud tracking with the COSMO model 15.02.2016 Berlin, Germany Leutwyler David; Piaget Nicolas; Rüdisühli Stefan; Wernli Heini;
Seminar at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Individual talk Towards convection-resolving climate modeling 09.02.2016 Karlsruhe, Germany Leutwyler David; Schulthess Thomas; Ban Nikolina; Schär Christoph; Fuhrer Oliver;
Annual Meeting of American Geophysical Union (AGU) Talk given at a conference Analysis of precipitation extremes using generalized extreme value theory in convection resolving climate simulations 14.12.2015 San Francisco, United States of America Schär Christoph; Ban Nikolina;
Annual Meeting of American Geophysical Union (AGU) Talk given at a conference Towards convection-resolving climate modeling 14.12.2015 San Francisco, United States of America Schär Christoph; Leutwyler David; Ban Nikolina; Schulthess Thomas; Fuhrer Oliver;
CLM Assembly Talk given at a conference A Continental-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Simulation on GPUs 29.09.2015 Belvaux, Luxembourg Leutwyler David; Fuhrer Oliver; Schär Christoph;
PASC15 Talk given at a conference Towards Continental-Scale Convection-Resolving Climate Simulations on GPUs 01.06.2015 Zürich, Switzerland Fuhrer Oliver; Leutwyler David; Schär Christoph;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) New Supercomputers Allow Climate Models to Capture Convection Eos.org: Research Spotlights International 2017
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Mehr Sturzfluten in den Alpen? NZZ German-speaking Switzerland 2016
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Topography modifies summer precipitation response to climate change ETH news International 2016

Awards

Title Year
3rd place in ACM Student Research Competition at the International Conference for High-Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (SC18). Title: “SimFS: A Simulation Data Virtualizing File System Interface”. Dallas, TX, USA, Nov. 2018 2018
Elected as Assistant Professor at the University of Innsbruck 2018
Highly-cited researcher 2018 (Thomson Reuters) 2018
The best poster award in "Climate and Weather" at PASC16 2016
ETH Zurich Latsis Prize for year 2015 2015

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
165941 Diabatic processes in North Atlantic weather systems: synoptic and mesoscale dynamics 01.06.2016 Project funding (Div. I-III)
178503 Convective Self-Aggregation in a Hierarchy of Kilometer-Scale Climate Models 01.06.2018 Early Postdoc.Mobility
177996 Lagrangian analysis of ice cloud formation pathways and their isotopic signals in high-resolution COSMO-iso simulations of the African and Asian monsoon 01.07.2018 PIRE
146834 Diabatic processes in North Atlantic weather systems: dynamics and impact on forecast errors 01.06.2013 Project funding (Div. I-III)
192133 Exploiting km-resolution climate models in the tropics to constrain climate change uncertainties (trCLIM) 01.06.2020 Project funding (Div. I-III)
132614 Towards kilometer-scale climate change scenarios 01.01.2011 Project funding (Div. I-III)
180587 Severe Weather over the Alpine-Adriatic region in a Changing Climate (SWALDRIC) 01.03.2019 Croatian-Swiss Research Programme (CSRP)

Abstract

The development of weather and climate models has made rapid progress in recent years. With the progress of high-performance computing (HPC), the computational resolution of such models will continue to be refined in the next decades. This development offers exciting prospects. From a climate science perspective, a further increase in resolution will make it possible to base such models on a set of equations that is much closer to first principles. In particular, at horizontal resolutions of a few kilometers, the models become cloud resolving and start to explicitly represent the dynamics of deep convective and thunderstorm clouds without the help of semi-empirical parameterizations. This development corresponds to an important quantum jump in climate modeling. It allows reducing some of the key uncertainties in the current generation of climate models, yields an improved representation of the water cycle including the drivers of extreme events (heavy precipitation events, floods, droughts, etc.), and enables more sophisticated climate-change scenarios with better guidance for impact assessment and climate change adaptation measures.From a computer science perspective, this strategy poses major challenges. First, emerging hardware architectures increasingly involve the use of heterogeneous many-core architectures consisting of both CPUs and accelerators (e.g., GPUs). The efficient exploitation of such architectures requires a paradigm shift and has only just started. Second, with increasing computational resolution, the models’ output becomes unbearably voluminous and long-term storage prohibitively expensive. Ultimately, there is no way around conducting the analysis online rather than storing the model output, and performing model reruns (i.e., repeat simulations for refined analysis). These developments pose new challenging computer science questions, which need to be addressed before an efficient exploitation of new hardware systems becomes feasible.The current proposal is a pilot project in this area. Our overarching objective is to develop a continental-scale cloud-resolving climate modeling capability for the next generation of high-performance computing (HPC) architectures. The target set-up for this development is a horizontal resolution of 2 km, 60 to 90 computational levels in the vertical, and a computational domain covering the whole of Europe. The project will start with a GPU-enabled prototype of the COSMO model, which has been developed in a successful collaboration between MeteoSwiss, CSCS, and ETH. This prototype is the first of its kind and it provides an ideal opportunity to tackle emerging issues in an interdisciplinary collaboration between climate and computer scientists. The project will not generate any new climate change scenarios, but it will develop a modeling framework that may be used for such purposes.The project is organized into four subprojects: Subproject A will assess how to efficiently exploit heterogeneous many-core computing architectures for weather and climate models. This will involve addressing key questions such as the relative costs and benefits of higher-order numerical accuracy versus higher spatial resolution. Subproject B will explore the virtualization of climate simulations from a computer science perspective. It addresses the critical question of computational versus mass-storage loads, and develops an online analysis platform for high-resolution models. The primary scientific objectives of subprojects C and D relate to the water cycle in the European summer season. Subproject C will perform, validate and analyze cloud-resolving climate simulations over Europe, and subproject D will exploit the new level of virtualization using Eulerian and Lagrangian perspectives for the online analysis of synoptic features and water transport. Tight interactions between all partners are essential in this strongly interdisciplinary project, in order to jointly develop an innovative and powerful system for climate simulations, which enables addressing a range of scientific questions related to the atmospheric water cycle and extreme events.
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