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Determinants of Frequency-Dependent Survival Selection in Rock-Paper-Scissors Social Systems

Titel Englisch Determinants of Frequency-Dependent Survival Selection in Rock-Paper-Scissors Social Systems
Gesuchsteller/in Fitze Patrick Stefan
Nummer 152929
Förderungsinstrument SNF-Förderungsprofessuren
Forschungseinrichtung Département d'Ecologie et d'Evolution Faculté de Biologie et de Médecine Université de Lausanne
Hochschule Universität Lausanne - LA
Hauptdisziplin Oekologie
Beginn/Ende 01.11.2014 - 31.10.2016
Bewilligter Betrag 735'478.00
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Alle Disziplinen (3)

Disziplin
Oekologie
Zoologie
Molekularbiologie

Keywords (10)

Survival Selection; trans-generational competition; Population dynamics; Frequency Dependent Selection; Rock-Paper-Scissors Game; Coloration; Sexual Selection; Populations Experiments; Zootoca vivipara; common lizard

Lay Summary (Deutsch)

Lead
Faktoren die das frequenz-abhängige Überleben in Schere-Stein-Papier Dynamiken bestimmen
Lay summary

Neue Arten können via sympatrische Artbildung entstehen. Schere-Stein-Papier (SSP) Systeme können in Sympatrie zu schneller Artbildung führen und sie erklären wie genetische Polymorphismen über längere Zeiträume erhalten bleiben. In SSP Spielen existieren drei verschiedene Verhaltensstrategien, ähnlich zum SSP Spiel das von Kindern gespielt wird. In SSP Spielen zerschneidet die Schere das Papier, das Papier umhüllt den Stein und der Stein zertrümmert die Schere. Jede Strategie gewinnt folglich gegen eine Strategie und verliert gegen eine andere Strategie. Keine Strategie gewinnt immer und der Erfolg hängt von der Frequenz der anderen Strategien ab. In diesem Spiel hat die selten Strategie einen Vorteil, was als negative frequenz-abhängige Selektion (nfS) bezeichnet wird. In Folge dessen fluktuieren die drei Strategien in zyklischer Art und Weise. Frequenz-Zyklen wurden in Reptilien, Fischen, Insekten, Asseln, Pflanzen und Bakterien beschrieben. Alle Arten welche SSP spielen sind kurzlebig und ein einziger Mechanismus kann genügend nfS produzieren.  Die einzige bisher bekannte Ausnahme ist die Waldeidechse (Zootoca vivipara), welche mehrere Jahre alt wird. Theoretische Studien zeigten, dass es einen zweiten Mechanismus, welcher zusätzliche frequenz-abhängige Selektion produziert, braucht, um die beobachteten Frequenz-Zyklen erklären zu können. Das vorangehende Projekt zeigte, dass tatsächlich zwei unabhängige Mechanismen existieren: Sexuelle Selektion und Selektion des Überlebens der Jungtiere. Zusammen produzieren sie genügend nsF um die beobachteten Frequenz-Zyklen erklären zu können. Theoretische Studien suggerieren, dass die das Überleben der Jungtiere durch einen Generationenkonflikt zwischen erwachsenen Männchen und Jungtieren bestimmt wird. Es gibt aber alternative Erklärung und folglich ist es nicht klar, ob SSP Spiele die beobachteten Zyklen erklären können.

In diesem Projekt werden wir die Ursachen der negativen frequenz-abhängigen Selektion mittels komplexer Populationsexperimenten erforschen.

Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 22.01.2015

Lay Summary (Englisch)

Lead
Determinants of frequency-dependent survival selection in Rock-Paper-Scissors dynamics
Lay summary

New species may evolve due to sympatric speciation. During sympatric speciation two or more pools of individuals that originally belong to the same species become more and more different over time and at some point they become independent species. Rock-paper-scissors (RPS) social systems may lead to rapid socially mediated speciation and they can maintain genetic polymorphisms in time. RPS games are characterized by three behavioural or evolutionary strategies, which are similar to the game played by children, where rock crushes scissors, paper wraps rock, and scissors cut paper. Each of the three strategies wins over one and loose over another strategy. Thus, none of the strategies wins always and thus wining or loosing depends on the frequency of the other strategies. The rare strategy has an advantage, which is called negative-frequency dependent selection. As a consequence the frequency of the three strategies varies over time in a cyclical manner. RPS-like frequency cycles have been observed in reptiles, fish, insects, isopods, plants, and bacteria. Evidence for RPS games stems with one exception from short-lived species where a single mechanism can produce sufficient negative frequency-dependent selection. However in long-lived species additional frequency-dependent selection is required and in the previous project we showed that together sexual selection and survival selection can produce negative frequency-dependent selection of sufficient magnitude to explain the observed frequency-cycles. Theoretical studies suggest that frequency-dependent survival selection may arise due to a trans-generational conflict between adult males and the juveniles. There are however several alternative explanations and understanding the origin of the survival selection is of crucial importance.

This project will investigate how negative-frequency dependent survival selection arises by running complex population experiments in the Pyrenean populations of the multiannual common lizard.

Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 22.01.2015

Verantw. Gesuchsteller/in und weitere Gesuchstellende

Mitarbeitende

Publikationen

Publikation
Ecological change predicts population dynamics and genetic diversity over 120 000 years.
Horreo Jose Luis, Jiménez-Valverde Alberto, Fitze Patrick S (2016), Ecological change predicts population dynamics and genetic diversity over 120 000 years., in Global change biology, 22(5), 1737-45.
Experimental evidence that sperm maturation drives protandry in an ectotherm.
Breedveld Merel C, Fitze Patrick S (2016), Experimental evidence that sperm maturation drives protandry in an ectotherm., in Oecologia, 182(1), 129-37.
Inter-class competition in stage-structured populations: effects of adult density on life-history traits of adult and juvenile common lizards.
San-Jose Luis M, Peñalver-Alcázar Miguel, Huyghe Katleen, Breedveld Merel C, Fitze Patrick S (2016), Inter-class competition in stage-structured populations: effects of adult density on life-history traits of adult and juvenile common lizards., in Oecologia, 182(4), 1063-1074.
Mate availability affects the conflict between producing one ormultiple annual clutches.
Breedveld Merel, San-Jose Luis M., Romero-Diaz Cristina, Roldan Eduardo, Fitze Patrick S. (2016), Mate availability affects the conflict between producing one ormultiple annual clutches., in Oecologia, 123, 43-51.
Microhabitat selection in the common lizard: implications of biotic interactions, age, sex, local processes, and model transferability among populations.
Peñalver-Alcázar Miguel, Aragón Pedro, Breedveld Merel C, Fitze Patrick S (2016), Microhabitat selection in the common lizard: implications of biotic interactions, age, sex, local processes, and model transferability among populations., in Ecology and evolution, 6, 3594-3607.
Skin sheds as a useful DNA source for lizard conservation.
Horreo J.L. Peláez M.L. Fitze P.S. (2015), Skin sheds as a useful DNA source for lizard conservation., in Phyllomedusa , 14, 73-77.
A matter of time: delayed mate encounter postpones mating window initiation and reduces the strength of female choosiness.
Breedveld M.C. Fitze P.S. (2015), A matter of time: delayed mate encounter postpones mating window initiation and reduces the strength of female choosiness., in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 69, 533-541.
Communal egg-laying in oviparous Zootoca vivipara louislantzi of the Central Pyrenees
Peñalver-Alcázar M. Romero-Diaz C. Fitze P.S. (2015), Communal egg-laying in oviparous Zootoca vivipara louislantzi of the Central Pyrenees, in Herpetology Notes, 8, 4-7.
Population structure of three Psammodromus species in the Iberian Peninsula.
Horreo J.L. Fitze P. (2015), Population structure of three Psammodromus species in the Iberian Peninsula., in PeerJ, 3, e994.
Cumulative frequency-dependent selective episodes allow for rapid morph cycles and rock-paper-scissors dynamics in species with overlapping generations.
San-Jose Luis M, Peñalver-Alcázar Miguel, Milá Borja, Gonzalez-Jimena Virginia, Fitze Patrick S (2014), Cumulative frequency-dependent selective episodes allow for rapid morph cycles and rock-paper-scissors dynamics in species with overlapping generations., in Proceedings. Biological sciences, 281(1788), 20140976-20140976.
Frequency-dependent sexual selection with respect to offspring fitness returns is consistent with predictions from rock-paper-scissors dynamics in the European common lizard.
Fitze Patrick S., Gonzalez Jimena Virginia, San-Jose Luis M., Heulin Benoit, Sinervo Barry (2014), Frequency-dependent sexual selection with respect to offspring fitness returns is consistent with predictions from rock-paper-scissors dynamics in the European common lizard., in Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 2, 1-11.
Geographical and temporal body size variation in a reptile: roles of sex, ecology, phylogeny and ecology structured in phylogeny.
Aragón Pedro, Fitze Patrick S (2014), Geographical and temporal body size variation in a reptile: roles of sex, ecology, phylogeny and ecology structured in phylogeny., in PloS one, 9(8), 104026-104026.
Development of 34 new and multiplexing of seven existing microsatellite loci for Zootoca vivipara (Squamata: Lacertidae).
Horreo Jose Luis, Peláez Maria Luisa, Suárez Teresa, Heulin Benoit, Fitze Patrick S., Development of 34 new and multiplexing of seven existing microsatellite loci for Zootoca vivipara (Squamata: Lacertidae)., in Phyllomedusa, 17(1), 1.
The timing and interval of mate encounter affects investment during mating
Breedveld M.C. Fitze P.S., The timing and interval of mate encounter affects investment during mating, in Biological Journal of the Linnean Society .

Zusammenarbeit

Gruppe / Person Land
Formen der Zusammenarbeit
Station d'Ecologie Experimentale du CNRS à Moulis/ Jean Clobert Frankreich (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
John Pannel Schweiz (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
Benoit Heulin/Université de Rennes Frankreich (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
Jean-François Le Galliard Frankreich (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
Dr. Barry Sinervo/University of California Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika (Nordamerika)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
Ecology and Evolution of Dispersal/Université de Lausanne Schweiz (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
Goupe Roulin/Université de Lausanne Schweiz (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Austausch von Mitarbeitern

Wissenschaftliche Veranstaltungen

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
16th congress of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Experimental evidence hat Rock-Paper-Scissors dynamics can evolve in most species 28.07.2016 Exeter, Grossbritannien und Nordirland Fitze Patrick Stefan;
V Congres of the Spanish Society of Evolutionary Biology (SESBE) Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Experimental evidence that Rock-Paper-Scissors dynamics can evolve in almost all species 18.01.2016 Murcia, Spanien Fitze Patrick Stefan;
V Congres of the Spanish Society of Evolutionary Biology (SESBE) Poster Environmental predictability affects ornamental coloration in the common lizard, Zootoca vivipara 18.01.2016 Murcia, Spanien Fitze Patrick Stefan;
Seminar Series Einzelvortrag Implications of carotenoid-based coloration for sexual selection and population dynamics 14.01.2016 Valencia, Spanien Fitze Patrick Stefan;
Seminar Series Einzelvortrag Implications of Carotenoid-based Coloration for Sexual Selection and Population Dynamics 09.10.2015 Paris, Frankreich Fitze Patrick Stefan;
ESEB Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Context-dependent paternal effects of infection on offspring survival and condition 10.08.2015 Lausanne, Schweiz Kaufmann Joshka;


Selber organisiert

Titel Datum Ort

Veranstaltungen zum Wissenstransfer

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
Seminar Series Vortrag 28.04.2015 Jaca, Spanien


Kommunikation mit der Öffentlichkeit

Kommunikation Titel Medien Ort Jahr
Referate/Veranstaltungen/Ausstellungen Lacértidos de la Alcarria: estudios sobre la Lagartija cenicienta Psammodromus hispanicus International 2016

Verbundene Projekte

Nummer Titel Start Förderungsinstrument
128375 Determinants of Rock-Paper-Scissors Social Systems and its importance for speciation 01.11.2010 SNF-Förderungsprofessuren

Abstract

Rock-paper-scissors (RPS) social systems potentially lead to socially mediated speciation and big radiations. While RPS social systems have previously been thought to be limited to a few special cases (e.g. Uta stansburiana), accumulating evidence indicates that rock-paper-scissors (RPS) social systems are far more widespread than previously thought (Sinervo & Calsbeek, 2006). RPS social systems are nowadays described in reptiles (e.g. Uta stansburiana, Zootoca vivipara), fish (Cyclids), insects (e.g. Ischnura elegans), isopodes (e.g. Paracerceis sculpta), plants (Lythrum salicaria), bacteria (E. coli) (Kerr et al., 2002; Sinervo & Calsbeek, 2006), and even between different species and levels of biological organization (Sinervo & Calsbeek, 2006). Most RPS social systems are suggested to arise due to frequency-dependent selection (FDS). For example, the RPS social systems described in two lizard species, are based on a male colour-polymorphism, which is genetically linked to male reproductive strategy. In both systems it is suggested that the observed male colour-morph frequency cycles are driven by negative frequency-dependent selection (nFDS) arising due to sexual selection. While in Uta stansburiana mainly male-male competition among male colour-morphs explains the observed male colour-morph cycles, a theoretical model in Zootoca vivipara suggested that both male-male competition and context-dependent female mate choice might drive the cycles (Sinervo et al., 2007). First experimental results obtained during the SNF Professorship grant demonstrate that in Zootoca vivipara sexual selection depends on adult male colour morph frequency, that FD survival selection exists in maturing offspring, and that offspring of the male colour morph with highest success during sexual selection survive at a higher rate, than those of morphs with lower success (results of objective 2.1.2.4). These results are consistent with the assumptions of the theoretical models showing that RPS-dynamics may lead to rapid speciation (van Doorn et al., 2004). Most of the theoretical models describing RPS-dynamics make strong assumptions about the determinants of survival selection and the link between the colour morph and behavioural strategies. The generally assume that FD survival selection on maturing offspring is imposed by adult males (Sinervo et al., 2007) and that there exists a genetic linkage between male colour morph and male behavioural strategies (e.g. Sinervo & Lively, 1996; Sinervo et al., 2007), determining the level of competition. However, to date there exists no evidence that offspring survival selection is imposed by trans-generational competition and thus it is not clear whether the evolution of RPS-dynamics requires a genetic correlation between male colour morph and male behaviour. The assumption that the genetic correlation determines morph-dependent offspring survival importantly reduces the likelihood that such complex population dynamics will evolve and alternative scenarios may explain the observed survival selection.In this follow-up project we will therefore experimentally investigate the determinants of the observed survival selection on maturing offspring. More specifically, we will investigate whether trans-generational competition among males is the main determinant and what type of behaviours lead to the observed competition. The project will thus investigate key-determinants of the observed RPS-dynamics, which will allow understanding the likelihood with which such complex dynamics will evolve.
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