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Invasive chestnut diseases in the Balkans and Georgia - epidemiological research and management options.

English title Invasive chestnut diseases in the Balkans and Georgia - epidemiological research and management options.
Applicant Rigling Daniel
Number 152525
Funding scheme SCOPES
Research institution Swiss Federal Research Inst. WSL Direktion
Institution of higher education Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research - WSL
Main discipline Agricultural and Forestry Sciences
Start/End 01.05.2014 - 31.12.2017
Approved amount 238'013.00
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All Disciplines (4)

Discipline
Agricultural and Forestry Sciences
Ecology
Botany
Environmental Research

Keywords (5)

Phytophthora ; Chestnut blight; Epidemiology; Invasive forest pathogens; Biological control

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Epidemiologie und Management von Kastanienkrankheiten im Balkan und Georgien Pflanzenschädlinge werden durch die Zunahme des globalen Handels vermehrt weltweit verschleppt und treffen dabei auf neue anfällige Wirtspflanzen. Betroffen davon ist auch die Edelkastanie in Europa, die durch zwei eingeschleppte Krankheiten bedroht wird. In diesem Projekt werden diese zwei Baumkrankheiten (Kastanienrindenkrebs und Tintenkrankheit) im Balkan, Georgien und der Schweiz untersucht, um Grundlagen für Kontrollmassnahmen zu schaffen.
Lay summary

Inhalt und Ziele des Forschungprojektes

Die Edelkastanie (Castanea sativa) wird in Europa sowohl als Frucht- wie auch als Waldbaum verwendet und hat damit eine grosse ökonomische und ökologische Bedeutung. Zu den wichtigsten Krankheiten der Kastanie gehören der Kastanienrindenkrebs und die Tintenkrankheit. Beide Krankheiten wurden nach Europa eingeschleppt und haben sich schon stark ausgebreitet.

In einem ersten Teil des Projektes wird die Verbreitung der Tintenkrankheit in Kroatien, Mazedonien und Georgien untersucht und abgeklärt welche Krankheitserreger dafür verantwortlich sind. Beim Kastanienrindenkrebs wird mit neusten molekularbiologischen Methoden die Ausbreitung des Erregers in Osteuropa rekonstruiert. Zudem wird die biologische Bekämpfung dieser Krankheit mit spezifischen Pilzviren evaluiert und weiter entwickelt.

 

Wissenschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Kontext des Forschungsprojektes

Das Projekt liefert neue Kenntnisse über zwei wichtige Krankheiten der Edelkastanie, welche als Grundlagen für Bekämpfungsmassnahmen dienen. Dies wird durch eine enge Zusammenarbeit mit Forschungsgruppen aus Kroatien, Mazedonien, Kroatien und der Schweiz erreicht. Dabei wird auch der Wissenstransfer zwischen diesen Ländern gefördert.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 10.05.2014

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight: invasion history, population biology and disease control.
Rigling Daniel, Prospero Simone (2018), Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight: invasion history, population biology and disease control., in Molecular plant pathology, 19, 7-12.
Cryphonectria hypovirus 1- Induced Epigenetic Changes in Infected Phytopathogenic Fungus Cryphonectria parasitica
Nuskern Lucija, Ježić Marin, Liber Zlatko, Mlinarec Jelena, Ćurković Perica Mirna (2017), Cryphonectria hypovirus 1- Induced Epigenetic Changes in Infected Phytopathogenic Fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, in Microbial Ecology.
Phylogenetic and phenotypic characterisation of Sirococcus castaneae comb. nov. (synonym Diplodina castaneae), a fungal endophyte of European chestnut.
Meyer Joana B, Trapiello Estefanía, Senn-Irlet Beatrice, Sieber Thomas N, Cornejo Carolina, Aghayeva Dilzara, González Ana J, Prospero Simone (2017), Phylogenetic and phenotypic characterisation of Sirococcus castaneae comb. nov. (synonym Diplodina castaneae), a fungal endophyte of European chestnut., in Fungal biology, 121(8), 625-637.
Genetic diversity of the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in central Europe and the western part of the Balkan Peninsula, and evidence of marron genotype introgression into wild populations
Poljak Igor, Idžojtić Marilena, Šatović Zlatko, Ježić Marin, Ćurković Perica Mirna, Simovski Bojan, Acevski Jane, Liber Zlatko (2017), Genetic diversity of the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in central Europe and the western part of the Balkan Peninsula, and evidence of marron genotype introgression into wild populations, in Tree Genetics and Genomes, 13(1), 18.
Biological control of chestnut blight in Croatia: an interaction between host sweet chestnut, its pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica and the biocontrol agent Cryphonectria hypovirus 1
Krstin Ljiljana, Katanić Zorana, Ježić Marin, Poljak Igor, Nuskern Lucija, Matković Ivana, Idžojtić Marilena, Ćurković-Perica Mirna (2017), Biological control of chestnut blight in Croatia: an interaction between host sweet chestnut, its pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica and the biocontrol agent Cryphonectria hypovirus 1, in Pest management science , 73(3), 582-589.
Chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) and perspective for biocontrol of the disease with hypovirulence
Supatashvili Archil, Tavadze Bidzina, Rigling Daniel, Sotirovski Kiril (2017), Chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) and perspective for biocontrol of the disease with hypovirulence, in Goncharvov N. (ed.), 274-277.
Low genetic diversequent sexual reproduction of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica in Azerbaijan
Aghayeva Dilzara, Rigling Daniel, Prospero Simone (2017), Low genetic diversequent sexual reproduction of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica in Azerbaijan, in Forest Pathology, 47:e12357, 1-7.
Molecular evolution and invasion pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe: Mutation rate, and selection pressure differ between genome domains
Mlinarec Jelena, Nuskern Lucija, Jezic Marin, Rigling Daniel, Curkovic-Perica Mirna (2017), Molecular evolution and invasion pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe: Mutation rate, and selection pressure differ between genome domains, in Virology, 514, 156-164.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Dr. Mark Double, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University "Ss Kiril & Metodij"; Macedonia (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Dr. Dilzara Aghayeva; Institute of Botany in Baku Aserbaijan (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Prof. dr Marilena Idzojtic, Department of Forest Genetics, Dendrology and Botany, Faculty of Forestr Croatia (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
General Directorate of Forestry (GDF) Turkey (Europe)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Genetic Diversity Center ETH Zürich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. Vaidas Lygis, Natur Research Centre Lithuania (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Agricultural University of Georgia Georgia (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of Zagreb Croatia (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Cantons VS, VD, ZG, SG and TI Switzerland (Europe)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
NGO Kalugerica, Djepiste, Debar Macedonia (Europe)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Prof. Michael Milgroom, Cornell University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Dr. Rade Rusevski; Faculty of Agricultural sciences and food; Department for plant pathology Macedonia (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Exchange of personnel
Dr. Cécile Robin, INRA Bordeaux France (Europe)
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
70 Years Faculty of forestry in Skopje, International Scientific Conference Talk given at a conference Viruses in biocontrol: CHV1-affected epigenetic and biochemical changes in Cryphonectria parasitica 04.10.2017 Skopje, Macedonia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
6. simpozij s međunarodnim sudjelovanjem Kopački rit jučer, danas, sutra 2017. Poster Genotip kestena kao važan čimbenik u biološkoj kontroli raka kore pitomog kestena (The genotype of chestnut as an important factor in biological control of chestnut blight) 28.09.2017 Tikveš, Croatia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
FEMS 2017 Poster Biocontrol of chestnut blight: (in)stable infection of the chestnut blight fungus by Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 09.07.2017 Valencia, Spain Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
FEMS 2017 Poster Laccase Activity change in Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirus 1-infected Cryphonectria parasitica is influenced by culture conditions, fungal isolate and virus strain 09.07.2017 Valencia, Spain Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
IOBC Working Group Integrated Control in Protected Crops Temperate Climate Poster Hypovirulent Cryphonectria parasitica strains for biocontrol of chestnut blight in nurseries 08.06.2017 Niagara Falls, Canada Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
IOBC/EPRS; Biological plant protection: achievements, problems, prospects Talk given at a conference Chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) and perspective for biocontrol of the disease with hypovirulence 24.04.2017 St. Petersburg, Russia Supatashvili Archil;
International Conference Plant Nutrition, Growth & Environment Interactions III Poster Chestnut-fungus-virus interactions for biocontrol of chestnut blight 20.02.2017 Vienna, Austria Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
Natural resources, green technology & sustainable development/2 Poster Mineral composition and heavy metals content of sweet chestnut fruits in five natural populations from central Croatia 05.10.2016 Zagreb, Croatia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
Power of Microbes in Industry and Environment Talk given at a conference Recovery of chestnut from chestnut blight depends on combination of virus strains used for biocontrol 29.09.2016 Krk, Croatia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
Power of Microbes in Industry and Environment Poster Sequence Analysis of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Croatia 28.09.2016 Krk, Croatia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
Power of Microbes in Industry and Environment Poster Epigenetic diversity in natural populations of the invasive fungus Cryphonectria parasitica from south-eastern Europe 28.09.2016 Krk, Croatia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
5. Hrvatski botanički simpozij Poster Genetic diversity of the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in central Europe and western part of Balkan peninsula 22.09.2016 Primošten, Croatia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
5. Hrvatski botanički simpozij Poster Changes in population of Cryphonectria parasitica in Croatia over the last ten years 22.09.2016 Primošten, Croatia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
XIV Meeting of the IOBC-WPRS Working Group Biological Control of Fungal and Bacterial Plant Pathogens Poster Biological control of chestnut blight: an interplay between chestnut, fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 12.09.2016 Berlin, Germany Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
XIV Meeting of the IOBC-WPRS Working Group Biological Control of Fungal and Bacterial Plant Pathogens Poster Long term (in)stability of vegetative incompatibility type diversity and hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica populations 12.09.2016 Berlin, Germany Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
EMBO conference: Viruses of Microbes 2016 Talk given at a conference Ecology and evolution of viruses in invasive fungal plant pathogens 18.07.2016 Liverpool, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Rigling Daniel;
12th Croatian Biological Congress with International Participation Talk given at a conference Diversity of fungus Cryphonectria parasitica in healing chestnut cankers 18.09.2015 Sv. Martin na Muri, Croatia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
From Molecules to the Field, Botanikertagung 2015 Poster Different response of European chestnut to the hypovirus-infected Cryphonectria parasitica isolates 30.08.2015 Munich, Germany Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
XVIII. International Plant Protection Congress Poster Biological control of chestnut blight: persistence of biocontrol agent Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in healed chestnut cankers 24.08.2015 Berlin, Germany Rigling Daniel; Sotirovski Kiril; Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
Joint Meeting of 2nd International Conference on Plant Biology, 21st Symposium of the Serbian Plant Physiology Society and COST ACTION FA1106 QUALITYFRUIT Workshop Talk given at a conference Effect of dynamic changes of vegetative compatibility types in Cryphonectria parasitica populations on biological control of chestnut blight in Croatia 17.06.2015 Petnica, Serbien Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
1st CroViWo - Croatian Virus Workshop - Basic and Translational Virus Research Talk given at a conference Biological control of chestnut blight: effect of host diversity on the prevalence of biocontrol agent – Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 14.11.2014 Rijeka, Croatia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
The interplay of Biomolecules Talk given at a conference Diversity of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Croatia: impact on its fungal host 24.09.2014 Zadar, Croatia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
XVI International Congress on Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions Poster Chestnut genotype plays a significant role in the recovery from chestnut blight disease 06.07.2014 Rhodes, Greece Curkovic-Perica Mirna;


Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
Day and night at the Faculty of Science Performances, exhibitions (e.g. for education institutions) 07.04.2017 Zagreb, Switzerland Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
EuroMAbNet Ab Validation Workshop Workshop 22.09.2016 Opatija, Croatia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
5. Hrvatski botanički simpozij Talk 22.09.2016 Primošten, Croatia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
Day and night at the Faculty of Science Performances, exhibitions (e.g. for education institutions) 15.04.2016 Zagreb, Croatia Curkovic-Perica Mirna;
ICGEB Theoretical and Practical Course “Bioinformatics: Computer Methods in Molecular and Systems Biology” Workshop 22.06.2015 Trieste, Italy Curkovic-Perica Mirna;


Self-organised

Title Date Place

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: radio, television Chestnut blight and possibilities for chestnut production, Risteski, 28.02.2016 Radio Rinia, Crniliste International 2016
Media relations: radio, television Chestnut production and chestnut blight, Sotirovski, 10.09.2015 Radio Emi Rostusa International 2015
Talks/events/exhibitions Diseases and pests of sweet chestnut in Macedonia and possibilities for cultivation International 2015
Media relations: radio, television Scientific circles = znanstveni krugovi 20.11.2015, 17.30 min Croatian public TV International 2015
Print (books, brochures, leaflets) Cancro corticale del castagno. Sintomatologia, biologia e misure di lotta Italian-speaking Switzerland 2014
Print (books, brochures, leaflets) Der Kastanienrindenkrebs. Schadsymptome, Biologie und Gegenmassnahmen German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Print (books, brochures, leaflets) Le chancre de l'écorce du châtaignier. Symptômes, biologie et mesures pour le combattre Western Switzerland 2014
Talks/events/exhibitions Sweet chestnut in Macedonia - characteristics, possibilities and risks International 2014

Awards

Title Year
Conference Grant Valentina Karin, M Sc student received a Conference Grant to attend 12th Croatian Biological Congress with International Participation and present her research results 2015

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
127922 Chestnut blight research in the Balkans and Georgia: population studies and biological control methods 01.11.2009 SCOPES

Abstract

Forests and natural ecosystems are increasingly threatened by invasive pests and pathogens that are spread by trade of plants and plant material (e.g. wood). In this proposal, we will tackle two invasive diseases that affect European chestnut trees (Castanea sativa). Chestnut is an important multipurpose tree species in many rural areas. Fruits are used for food - directly or manufactured, as well as for feeding livestock, while wood is used for fuel, timber, poles, stakes, and as a natural source of tannins. Ink disease is caused by two soil-borne Phytophthora species (P. cinnamomi, P. cambivora) that attack the roots of chestnut trees, but also of other plant species, causing severe decline and mortality. The distribution and impact of the two pathogens in chestnut forests in the Balkans and Georgia is largely unknown. We will conduct intensive surveys and samplings in symptomatic and asymptomatic chestnut stands to determine the incidence and impact of these two pathogens. In addition, we will determine which other Phytophthora species are present in these chestnut ecosystems. Isolations will be done from symptomatic tissue and soil samples using baiting methods and Phytophthora isolates will be identified using morphological and molecular methods.Chestnut blight caused by the ascomycete fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is the second invasive disease that will be studied. The research on this disease will be a continuation of previous collaborations and will include an in depth analysis of the clonal chestnut blight epidemic in Eastern Europe. We will use next-generation sequencing technology to analyse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), which will be used to reconstruct the invasion history of a single C. parasitica genotype that spread across south-eastern Europe. Furthermore, we will test the hypothesis that this genotype spread because it has a greater fitness or virulence compared to other genotypes found in Europe (clonal selection hypothesis). In addition, we will characterize novel Cryphonectria hypoviruses that we previously detected in Georgia and determine their potential for biological control of chestnut blight. Finally, we will conduct a common field experiment in all partner countries to evaluate the efficiency of biological control with natural hypovirulence. We hypothesize that (1) naturally occurring hypoviruses will infect artificially initiated cankers, (2) the infection rates correlates with the incidence of the hypovirus in the population, and (3) fungal vegetative incompatibility barriers significantly reduce hypovirus infection.
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