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Stars, Stellar Explosions, and the Origin of the Elements

English title Stars, Stellar Explosions, and the Origin of the Elements
Applicant Thielemann Friedrich K.
Number 152485
Funding scheme SCOPES
Research institution Departement Physik Universität Basel
Institution of higher education University of Basel - BS
Main discipline Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences
Start/End 01.04.2014 - 31.07.2017
Approved amount 195'000.00
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All Disciplines (3)

Discipline
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences
Theoretical Physics
Nuclear Physics

Keywords (4)

hydrostatic and explosive nucleosynthesis; chemical evolution of galaxies; nuclear reactions and nuclei far from stability; core collapse and thermonuclear supernovae

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Die Erklärung des Ursprung der heutigen Häufigkeitsverteilung der Elemente und ihrer Isotope (im Sonnensystem, in unserer Galaxie - der Milchstrasse -, in anderen Galaxien) ist der wesentliche Inhalt dieses Projekts.
Lay summary
Elemente wie Wasserstoff, Helium, Kohlenstoff, Sauerstoff, Silizium, Kalzium, Eisens, Gold, Silber, Blei bis Uran, enstammen nicht alle aus den gleichen Prozessen in der Entwicklung des Universums. Wasserstoff und Helium (und etwas Lithium) sind ganz früh im Urknall (Big Bang) entstanden, aber alle anderen Elemente sind verknüpft mit der Entwiklung von Sternen, ihren abgeblasenen Winden und/oder Sternexplosionen. Es tragen bei sogenannte Planetarische Nebel und Winde von massreichen Sternen, Core Collapse Supernovae, sowie explosive Prozesse in Doppelsternsystemen, wie Novae, Typ Ia Supernovae, Neutronensternverschmelzungen
etc. Die heutige Verteilung im Sonnensystem ist nur ein "Schnappschuss" zum Zeitpunnkt der Entstehung der Sonne vor 4.5 Millarden Jahren, ansonsten haben die einzelnen beitragenden Prozesse unterschiedliche zeitliche Entwicklungen. Die Beobachtung alter Sterne, und die in ihnen vorliegenden Häufigkeiten, fungieren als Zeugen dieser Entwicklung und können damit auch Aufschluss geben auf die einzelnen Beiträge. Die Voraussage der Häufigkeitsverteilung, die in den einzelnen Objekten ejektiert werden, die Beobachtung der Häufigkeiten in alten Sternen und die Modellierung dieser Beiträge in der Entwicklung unserer (und anderer) Galaxie(n) sind der Inhalt dieses Forschungsprojekts.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 04.04.2014

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Neutron Star Mergers and Nucleosynthesis of Heavy Elements
Thielemann F. -K., Eichler M., Panov I. V., Wehmeyer B. (2017), Neutron Star Mergers and Nucleosynthesis of Heavy Elements, in ANNUAL REVIEW OF NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE SCIENCE, VOL 67, 67, 253-274.
The formation of the Milky Way halo and its dwarf satellites; a NLTE-1D abundance analysisII. Early chemical enrichment ⋆
Mashonkina L., Jablonka P., Sitnova T., Pakhomov Yu., North P. (2017), The formation of the Milky Way halo and its dwarf satellites; a NLTE-1D abundance analysisII. Early chemical enrichment ⋆, in Astronomy & Astrophysics, 608, A89-A89.
Neutron Star Mergers and Nucleosynthesis of Heavy Elements
Thielemann F.-K., Eichler M., Panov I.V., Wehmeyer B. (2017), Neutron Star Mergers and Nucleosynthesis of Heavy Elements, in Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science, 67(1), 253-274.
Observing the metal-poor solar neighbourhood: a comparison of galactic chemical evolution predictions
Mishenina T., Pignatari M., Cote B., Thielemann F. -K., Soubiran C., Basak N., Gorbaneva T., Korotin S. A., Kovtyukh V. V., Wehmeyer B., Bisterzo S., Travaglio C., Gibson B. K., Jordan C., Paul A., Ritter C., Herwig F. (2017), Observing the metal-poor solar neighbourhood: a comparison of galactic chemical evolution predictions, in MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 469(4), 4378-4399.
The formation of the Milky Way halo and its dwarf satellites; a NLTE-1D abundance analysisI. Homogeneous set of atmospheric parameters⋆
Mashonkina L., Jablonka P., Pakhomov Yu., Sitnova T., North P. (2017), The formation of the Milky Way halo and its dwarf satellites; a NLTE-1D abundance analysisI. Homogeneous set of atmospheric parameters⋆, in Astronomy & Astrophysics, 604, A129-A129.
Observing the metal-poor solar neighbourhood: a comparison of galactic chemical evolution predictions*†
Mishenina T., Pignatari M., Côté B., Thielemann F.-K., Soubiran C., Basak N., Gorbaneva T., Korotin S. A., Kovtyukh V. V., Wehmeyer B., Bisterzo S., Travaglio C., Gibson B. K., Jordan C., Paul A., Ritter C., Herwig F. (2017), Observing the metal-poor solar neighbourhood: a comparison of galactic chemical evolution predictions*†, in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 469(4), 4378-4399.
Determination of the Galaxy age by the method of uranium-thorium-plutonium isotopic ratios
Panov I. V., Lutostansky Yu. S., Eichler M., Thielemann F-K. (2017), Determination of the Galaxy age by the method of uranium-thorium-plutonium isotopic ratios, in PHYSICS OF ATOMIC NUCLEI, 80(4), 657-665.
Determination of the Galaxy age by the method of uranium–thorium–plutonium isotopic ratios
Panov I. V., Lutostansky Yu. S., Eichler M., Thielemann F.-K. (2017), Determination of the Galaxy age by the method of uranium–thorium–plutonium isotopic ratios, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 80(4), 657-665.
New aspects of the QCD phase transition in proto-neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae
Hempel Matthias, Heinimann Oliver, Yudin Andrey, Iosilevskiy Igor, Liebendörfer Matthias, Friedrich-Karl Thielemann (2017), New aspects of the QCD phase transition in proto-neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae, in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 861, 012023-012023.
Making Heavy Elements in a rare class of core-collapse supernovae
Thielemann F.-K. Eicher M. Wehmeyer B. Pignatari M. Panov I. (2017), Making Heavy Elements in a rare class of core-collapse supernovae, in Murdin Paul (ed.), 1.
Hot third family of compact stars and the possibility of core-collapse supernova explosions
Hempel Matthias, Heinimann Oliver, Yudin Andrey, Iosilevskiy Igor, Liebendörfer Matthias, Thielemann Friedrich-Karl (2016), Hot third family of compact stars and the possibility of core-collapse supernova explosions, in Physical Review D, 94(10), 103001-103001.
Looking for imprints of the first stellar generations in metal-poor bulge field stars
Siqueira-Mello C., Chiappini C., Barbuy B., Freeman K., Ness M., Depagne E., Cantelli E., Pignatari M., Hirschi R., Frischknecht U., Meynet G., Maeder A. (2016), Looking for imprints of the first stellar generations in metal-poor bulge field stars, in Astronomy & Astrophysics, 593, A79-A79.
Beta-decay half-lives for the r-process nuclei
Panov I. V., Lutostansky Yu. S., Thielemann F. -K. (2016), Beta-decay half-lives for the r-process nuclei, in NUCLEAR PHYSICS A, 947, 1-11.
Beta-decay half-lives for the r-process nuclei
Panov I.V., Lutostansky Yu.S., Thielemann F.-K. (2016), Beta-decay half-lives for the r-process nuclei, in Nuclear Physics A, 947, 1-11.
Beta-delayed fission probabilities of transfermium nuclei, involved in the r-process
Panov I, Lutostansky Yu, Thielemann F-K (2016), Beta-delayed fission probabilities of transfermium nuclei, involved in the r-process, in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 665, 012060-012060.
The Impact of Fission on R-Process Calculations
Eichler M, Arcones A, Käppeli R, Korobkin O, Liebendörfer M, Martinez-Pinedo G, Panov I V, Rauscher T, Rosswog S, Thielemann F-K, Winteler C (2016), The Impact of Fission on R-Process Calculations, in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 665, 012054-012054.
The role of fission on neutron star mergers and its impact on the r-process peaks
Eichler M., Arcones A., Kelic A., Korobkin O., Langanke K., Marketin T., Martinez-Pinedo G., Panov I., Rauscher T., Rosswog S., Winteler C., Zinner N. T., Thielemann F.-K. (2016), The role of fission on neutron star mergers and its impact on the r-process peaks, in CETUP* 2015 – WORKSHOP ON DARK MATTER, NEUTRINO PHYSICS AND ASTROPHYSICS AND PPC 2015 – IXTH INTERNA, Deadwood, South Dakota, USAAIP, Washington.
Some properties of convection in hybrid stars
Yudin A. V., Hempel M., Nadyozhin D. K., Razinkova T. L. (2015), Some properties of convection in hybrid stars, in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 455(4), 4325-4328.
Impact of NLTE on research of early chemical enrichment of the dwarf galaxies
Mashonkina Lyudmila, Jablonka Pascale, North Pierre, Sitnova Tatyana (2015), Impact of NLTE on research of early chemical enrichment of the dwarf galaxies, in Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, 11(S317), 334-335, 11(S317), 334-335.
Half-lifes of short-lived neutron-excess nuclei that participate in the r-process
Panov I.V Lutostansky Yu. Thielemann F.-K. (2015), Half-lifes of short-lived neutron-excess nuclei that participate in the r-process, in Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics, 79, 437.
Mn abundances in the stars of the Galactic disc with metallicities -1.0 < [Fe/H] < 0.3
Mishenina T., Gorbaneva T., Pignatari M., Thielemann F.-K., Korotin S. A. (2015), Mn abundances in the stars of the Galactic disc with metallicities -1.0 < [Fe/H] < 0.3, in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 454(2), 1585.
New insights on Ba overabundance in open clusters. Evidence for the intermediate neutron-capture process at play?
Mishenina T., Pignatari M., Carraro G., Kovtyukh V., Monaco L., Korotin S., Shereta E., Yegorova I., Herwig F. (2015), New insights on Ba overabundance in open clusters. Evidence for the intermediate neutron-capture process at play?, in MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 446(4), 3651-3668.
s -process production in rotating massive stars at solar and low metallicities
Frischknecht Urs, Hirschi Raphael, Pignatari Marco, Maeder André, Meynet George, Chiappini Cristina, Thielemann Friedrich-Karl, Rauscher Thomas, Georgy Cyril, Ekström Sylvia (2015), s -process production in rotating massive stars at solar and low metallicities, in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 456(2), 1803-1825.
Some properties of convection in hybrid stars
Yudin A. V., Hempel M., Nadyozhin D. K., Razinkova T. L. (2015), Some properties of convection in hybrid stars, in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 455(4), 4325-4328.
The early days of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy
Jablonka P., North P., Mashonkina L., Hill V., Revaz Y., Shetrone M., Starkenburg E., Irwin M., Tolstoy E., Battaglia G., Venn K., Helmi A., Primas F., François P. (2015), The early days of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy, in Astronomy & Astrophysics, 583, A67-A67.
THE ROLE OF FISSION IN NEUTRON STAR MERGERS AND ITS IMPACT ON THE r-PROCESS PEAKS
Eichler M., Arcones A., Kelic A., Korobkin O., Langanke K., Marketin T., Martinez-Pinedo G., Panov I., Rauscher T., Rosswog S., Winteler C., Zinner N. T., Thielemann F. -K. (2015), THE ROLE OF FISSION IN NEUTRON STAR MERGERS AND ITS IMPACT ON THE r-PROCESS PEAKS, in ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 808(1), 30.
Absolute parameters and chemical composition of the binary star OU Gem
Glazunova L. V., Mishenina T. V., Soubiran C., Kovtyukh V. V. (2014), Absolute parameters and chemical composition of the binary star OU Gem, in MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 444(2), 1901-1908.
Neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis as a result of mixing between the He and C-O-Ne shells in core-collapse supernovae
Nadyozhin D. K., Panov I. V. (2014), Neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis as a result of mixing between the He and C-O-Ne shells in core-collapse supernovae, in MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 441(1), 733-738.
New insights on Ba overabundance in open clusters. Evidence for the intermediate neutron-capture process at play?
Mishenina T., Pignatari M., Carraro G., Kovtyukh V., Monaco L., Korotin S., Shereta E., Yegorova I., Herwig F. (2014), New insights on Ba overabundance in open clusters. Evidence for the intermediate neutron-capture process at play?, in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 446(4), 3651-3668.
r-process production also in a rare class of core-collapse supernovae
Thielemann F.-K. Eicher M. Wehmeyer B. Pignatari M. Panov I., r-process production also in a rare class of core-collapse supernovae, in Murdin Paul (ed.), Springer Verlag, Heidelberg.
The phase diagram of QCD, third families of proto-compact stars, and the possibility of core-collapse supernova explosions
Hempel M. Heinimann O. Yudin A. Iosilevskiy I. Liebendörfer M. Thielemann F.-K., The phase diagram of QCD, third families of proto-compact stars, and the possibility of core-collapse supernova explosions, in Physical Review Letters.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
National Research Center, ITEP and Kurchatov Institute Russia (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
A. Mezzacappa, Oak Ridge Natl. Lab. and UT Knoxville United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
C. Soubiran, Observatore de Bordeaux France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Odessa National University Ukraine (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
R. Hirschi, Keele University Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
O. Bienaymé, U. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Gabriel Martiinez-Pinedo / GSI and TU Dasrmstadt Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel

Scientific events

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Talks/events/exhibitions Warum gibt es Gold und Silber im Universum? German-speaking Switzerland 2015

Awards

Title Year
elected into the Academia Europaea 2015

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
144514 Astrophysical Processes, their Simulation and Related Nuclear Physics Issues 01.10.2012 Project funding (Div. I-III)
157151 Astrophysical Processes, their Simulation and Related Nuclear Physics Issues 01.10.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

The modeling of stellar evolution, stellar explosions, and the resulting nucleosynthesis (composition in wind or explosive ejecta) requires nuclear physics input like reaction rates, decay properties, and even fission predictions, when the heaviest elements are considered. Observations of stars and supernova explosions/ remnants provide clues for the quality of the modeling. The ejecta affect the evolution of the interstellar gas and thus the initial composition of stars at their formation. As the surface composition of old (unevolved) stars does not alter due to central burning, they mirror the “chemical” evolution of galaxies. Measuring the surface abundances of stars as a function of stellar “metallicity” (enrichment of heavy elements, measured via the Fe/H ratio) witnesses therefore the history of the gas composition in the Galaxy. This provides clues to the ejected abundances throughout galactic history, which in turn, reflect the physical conditions in the contributing sources and are therefore a testing tool for fundamental questions related to theoretical stellar and explosion models.
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