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Using trace elements in aerosol samples for source identification

English title Using trace elements in aerosol samples for source identification
Applicant Furger Markus
Number 150056
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Paul Scherrer Institut
Institution of higher education Paul Scherrer Institute - PSI
Main discipline Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Start/End 01.01.2014 - 31.01.2015
Approved amount 61'043.00
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Keywords (9)

X-ray fluorescence spectrometry; synchrotron radiation; rotating drum impactor; positive matrix factorization; aerosol chemistry; source apportionment; atmospheric chemistry; trace elements; field measurements

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Die Zuordnung von möglichen Emissionsquellen von Umweltaerosolen in Grossstädten ist von Bedeutung, weil eine Reduktion von Feinstaub in dicht besiedelten Gebieten einen positiven Einfluss auf die Gesundheit der Wohnbevölkerung und die Umwelt hat. Eine gute Kenntnis der Quellen ist eine Voraussetzung für optimierte Reduktions- und Ausweichstrategien.
Lay summary

Die wesentlichen Anteile der chemischen Zusammensetzung von Aerosolen (Sulfate, Nitrate, organische Verbindungen) können heute in hoher zeitlicher Auflösung bestimmt werden. Spurenelemente hingegen sind wegen ihrer geringen Konzentration viel aufwändiger zu messen. Zeitreihen von Spurenelementkonzentrationen in Aerosolen bilden die Datenbasis für die Quellenzuordnung, welche auf der Grundlage der Faktoranalyse basiert. Meteorologische Rückwärtstrajektorien ermöglichen die geografische Zuordnung von Quellgebieten der Aerosole. Damit wird eine Verfeinerung der Quellenzuordnung gegenüber bisherigen Ansätzen erreicht.

Unsere Messungen wurden in Marseille (2011)und London (2012) durchgeführt. Die Proben wurden an den Synchrotron-Anlagen SLS in Villigen und HASYLAB/DESY in Hamburg analysiert. Die Auswertungen wurden auf die Winter-Messkampagne in London im Januar/Februar 2012 fokussiert. Durch die Verwendung von Spurenelementen in drei Grössenklassen konnten neun Quellen identifiziert werden. Die Feinstaubsituation in London wird geprägt von anthropogenen Aktivitäten, welche einem Tagesgang unterliegen, sowie von natürlichen, tagesgangunabhängigen Vorgängen (Elemente: Na, Mg). Als wichtige Quelle wurde neben der direkten Emission die Wiederaufwirbelung von Feinstaubpartikeln durch den Strassenverkehr bestätigt (Elemente: Cu, Zr, Sb, Ba, Fe). Regionale Quellen sind durch die Elemente S, K, Pb in der feinsten Partikelgrösse charakterisiert und weisen auf Biomassenverbrennung hin. Die Studie zeigte auch die teilweise massiv erhöhte Belastung der städtischen Luft gegenüber dem Umland.

Mit diesem Wissen können gezielt Reduktionsstrategien im Bereich der Emissionen und/oder Ausweichstrategien im Bereich der Immissionen entwickelt werden. Beides hilft mit, Umwelt- und Gesundheitsschutz zu verbessern und mögliche Schäden zu reduzieren.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 02.03.2015

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Name Institute

Publications

Publication
Advanced source apportionment of size-resolved trace elements at multiple sites in London during winter
Visser S., Slowik J. G., Furger M., Zotter P., Bukowiecki N., Canonaco F., Flechsig U., Appel K., Green D. C., Tremper A. H., Young D. E., Williams P. I., Allan J. D., Coe H., Williams L. R., Mohr C., Xu L., Ng N. L., Nemitz E., Barlow J. F., Halios C. H., Fleming Z. L., Baltensperger U., Prévôt A. S. H. (2015), Advanced source apportionment of size-resolved trace elements at multiple sites in London during winter, in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11291-11309.
Kerb and urban increment of highly time-resolved trace elements in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 winter aerosol in London during ClearfLo 2012
Visser S., Slowik J. G., Furger M., Zotter P., Bukowiecki N., Dressler R., Flechsig U., Appel K., Green D. C., Tremper A. H., Young D. E., Williams P. I., Allan J. D., Herndon S. C., Williams L. R., Mohr C., Xu L., Ng N. L., Detournay A., Barlow J. F., Halios C. H., Fleming Z. L., Baltensperger U., Prévôt A. S. H. (2015), Kerb and urban increment of highly time-resolved trace elements in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 winter aerosol in London during ClearfLo 2012, in Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 15, 2367-2386.
Meteorology, air quality, and health in London: The ClearfLo project
Bohnenstengel S. I., Belcher S. E., Aiken A., Allan J. D., Allen G., Bacak A., Bannan T. J., Barlow J. F., Beddows D. C. S., Bloss W. J., Booth A. M., Chemel C., Coceal O., Di Marco C. F., Dubey M. K., Faloon K. H., Fleming Z. L., Furger M., Gietl J. K., Graves R. R., Green D. C., Grimmond C. S. B., Halios C. H., Hamilton J. F., Harrison R. M. (2015), Meteorology, air quality, and health in London: The ClearfLo project, in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96(5), 779-804.
The first UK measurements of nitryl chloride using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer in central London in the summer of 2012, and an investigation of the role of Cl atom oxidation
Bannan Thomas J., Booth A. Murray, Bacak Asan, Muller Jennifer B. A., Leather Kimberley E., Le Breton Michael, Jones Benjamin, Young Dominique, Coe Hugh, Allan James, Visser Suzanne, Slowik Jay G., Furger Markus, Prévôt André S. H., Lee James, Dunmore Rachel E., Hopkins James R., Hamilton Jacqueline F., Lewis Alastair C., Whalley Lisa K., Sharp Thomas, Stone Daniel, Heard Dwayne E., Fleming Zoë L., Leigh Roland (2015), The first UK measurements of nitryl chloride using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer in central London in the summer of 2012, and an investigation of the role of Cl atom oxidation, in Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120, 5638-5657.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
SLS Optics Group/PSI / Uwe Flechsig Switzerland (Europe)
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Chemistry Department/University of Hamburg / Ursula Fittschen Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
ClearfLo Project/University of Reading Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Aerodyne Inc. / Leah Williams United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
HASYLAB/DESY/ Karen Appel Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Zürcher Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften/ ZHAW/ Peter Lienemann Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
EXRS 2014 - European Conference on X-ray Spectrometry Talk given at a conference Highly time-resolved ambient trace element concentrations in Paris during the MEGAPOLI summer campaign 15.06.2014 Bologna, Italy Furger Markus;
EGU2014 - EGU General Assembly 2014 Talk given at a conference Highly time-resolved trace element concentrations in aerosols during the MEGAPOLI Paris campaign 27.04.2014 Wien, Austria Furger Markus;
9th International Conference on Air Quality - Science and Application Talk given at a conference Highly time- and size-resolved measurements of trace elements during ClearfLo, London 24.03.2014 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany Visser Suzanne;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Projektseite ClearfLo at PSI Webseite International 2014
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Projektseite NF XRF-PMF Webseite International 2014

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
132467 Using trace elements in aerosol samples for source identification 01.01.2011 Project funding (Div. I-III)
162448 Trace elements in ambient aerosols and their sources in large Chinese cities 01.03.2016 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

The identification of possible sources of ambient aerosols in metropolitan environments with the help of trace elements can be done with current statistical source apportionment methods based on factor analysis, like positive matrix factorization (PMF), and with meteorological trajectory modeling for the verification of geographic source areas. These methods will be applied to time series of elemental composition of aerosols sampled with three-stage rotating drum impactors in the field. The samples were analyzed with synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). Significant progress has been achieved in recent years for the main aerosol constituents like organics, sulfates and nitrates, but further efforts are needed to refine our understanding of aerosol chemical and physical characteristics. A better understanding is a major prerequisite to develop optimum mitigation strategies to reduce negative environmental and health effects. Trace elements comprise a relatively small amount of the total aerosol mass. However, they are very well suited for source attribution and will refine the source apportionment based on other measurement techniques.We have analyzed ambient aerosol samples collected with time resolutions of 2 hours and segregated into three different size fractions (aerodynamic diameters 0.1-1.0, 1.0-2.5 and 2.5-10 micrometers). Samples have been collected during several integrated field campaigns in the past years (e.g. in Barcelona 2009, Paris 2009-2010, Los Angeles 2010, Marseille 2011), and in London in 2012. SR-XRF measurements for all samples have been successfully performed at synchrotron beamlines at SLS in Villigen, Switzerland, and at HASYLAB in Hamburg, Germany. The data is awaiting in-depth source apportionment and further analysis.The current grant has supported one PhD student who was responsible for performing field measurements in Marseille and London, and subsequently analyzing the collected samples of these and previous campaigns with SR-XRF and with source apportionment methods. Significant unanticipated difficulties in the calibration and quantification procedures of the spectral measurements have occurred, which ultimately have led to a delay in the current project. In this proposal we describe the research objectives for an additional 12 months of funding needed to complete the source apportionment part of the current project and to finalize the PhD thesis.
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