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Grassland management: designing tomorrow's farmland for biodiversity

English title Grassland management: designing tomorrow's farmland for biodiversity
Applicant Arlettaz Raphaël
Number 149656
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Ökologie und Evolution Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Ecology
Start/End 01.02.2014 - 30.06.2017
Approved amount 595'000.00
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Keywords (11)

conservation biology; agro-ecosystem management; farmland biodiversity; grassland ecology; agriculture; biodiversité; insectes; invertébrés; plantes; prairie; protection de la nature

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
La biodiversité des milieux agricoles a fortement régressé au cours des dernières décennies, entraînant de nombreuses extinctions locales d'espèces. Mises en place dans les années 1990, de nouvelles pratiques agricoles ont permis de corriger quelque peu le tir. Toutefois, ces changements de cap n'ont permis que des progrès limités en matière de préservation de la biodiversité.
Lay summary

Contenu et objectifs du travail de recherche

Après 6 ans de manipulation du régime de fauche au sein des prairies extensives de plaine (2010–2015, module 1) nous avons établi que: 1) l’abondance de certains groupes d'invertébrés augmente parfois massivement (orthoptères, araignées et guêpes parasitoïdes) lorsque la fauche est retardée d’un mois (fauche au 15 juillet) et/ou, mais dans une moindre mesure, lorsqu'un refuge non-fauché est laissé à chaque coupe (fauche au 15 juin); 2) la richesse en espèces augmente également de façon significative, mais pour certains taxons seulement (orthoptères et papillons); et 3) la communauté botanique, au contraire, ne répond pas à ces régimes de fauche alternatifs.

Quant aux prairies de montagne (module 2), les résultats montrent qu’une fertilisation et une irrigation modérées – correspondant à 1/3, maximum 2/3, de la quantité requise pour obtenir un rendement local maximal avec deux récoltes de foin par année – permet à la fois une bonne productivité agricole et la survie d'une diversité floristique et faunistique suffisante pour maintenir des fonctions écosystémiques essentielles. L’objectif du module est clair: proposer une alternative à l’évolution dichotomique des prairies de montagne, qui tendent soit à s’embuissonner après abandon, avec retour progressif à la forêt, soit à être intensifiées de façon outrancière.

 

Contexte scientifique et politique du projet de recherche

Un groupe multidisciplinaire d'experts a accompagné le projet au fil des ans. Il qui comprenait, entre autres, des représentants des offices cantonaux et nationaux de l'environnement et de l'agriculture. Cette collaboration, précocement initiée, a permis de surmonter l'écart habituel qui existe entre science et pratique, en proposant d’emblée un catalogue de mesures de gestion pragmatiques qui peuvent facilement être mises en œuvre par les praticiens et exploitants.


Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 05.04.2017

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
The tremendous changes that have affected agricultural landscapes and farming practices over the last decades have triggered a global farmland biodiversity crisis with severe consequences for crucial ecosystem services. As a response, many countries have implemented agri-environment schemes (AES) that financially support farmers for modifying their practices so as to provide environmental benefits. Yet, the benefits of these schemes for biodiversity are far from evident. Obviously, farmland conservation or restoration requires changes that go beyond the mere extensification of agricultural practices.
Lay summary

The project comprises two modules, one in the Swiss lowlands (Plateau) and one in the mountains (Alps), with scientific questionings and hypotheses specific to these distinct socio-economic and geographical contexts.

In the lowland module we experimentally test novel management regimes that can restore and/or improve biodiversity in extensively managed meadows declared under the Swiss AES. Experiments consist of different mowing regimes, applied at field scale, so as to increase spatial, structural and ecological heterogeneity. In the mountain module we carry out experiments, at site scale, about optimization of fertilization with liquid manure and aerial irrigation among hay meadows for both sustainable biodiversity and agricultural production.

Assessing the long-term changes of various biotic and abiotic components, as well as functional groups at different trophic levels will provide decisive insights into the ecological processes occurring in hay meadows, paving the way for evidence-base guidance of management. It is on purpose that we test modifications that are easily implementable by farmers, as this will enhance their acceptance in later practice. By confronting agronomic data with biodiversity metrics, the present research will thus improve the scientific basis necessary for adapting and/or developing novel, optimally balanced agri-environmental policies in the future.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 05.04.2017

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
A global database for metacommunity ecology, integrating species, traits, environment and space
Jeliazkov Alienor, Mijatovic Darko, Chantepie Stéphane, Andrew Nigel, Arlettaz Raphaël, Barbaro Luc, Barsoum Nadia, Bartonova Alena, Belskaya Elena, Bonada Núria, Brind’Amour Anik, Carvalho Rodrigo, Castro Helena, Chmura Damian, Choler Philippe, Chong-Seng Karen, Cleary Daniel, Cormont Anouk, Cornwell William, de Campos Ramiro, de Voogd Nicole, Doledec Sylvain, Drew Joshua, Dziock Frank, et al. (2020), A global database for metacommunity ecology, integrating species, traits, environment and space, in Scientific Data, 7(1), 6-6.
Larval and phenological traits predict insect community response to mowing regime manipulations
Klink Roel, Menz Myles H. M., Baur Hannes, Dosch Oliver, Kühne Isabel, Lischer Lukas, Luka Henryk, Meyer Sandro, Szikora Timea, Unternährer Debora, Arlettaz Raphaël, Humbert Jean‐Yves (2019), Larval and phenological traits predict insect community response to mowing regime manipulations, in Ecological Applications, 29(4), e01900-e01900.
The impact of mountain hay meadow management on litter decomposition and root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
HerzogC, Lessard-TherrienM, Van der HeijdenM, ArlettazR, HumbertJ-y (2019), The impact of mountain hay meadow management on litter decomposition and root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in Improving sown grasslands through breeding and management, ZurichEGF, Zurich.
Direct and indirect effects of land use on bryophytes in grasslands
Boch Steffen, Allan Eric, Humbert Jean-Yves, Kurtogullari Yasemin, Lessard-Therrien Malie, Müller Jörg, Prati Daniel, Rieder Nora Simone, Arlettaz Raphaël, Fischer Markus (2018), Direct and indirect effects of land use on bryophytes in grasslands, in Science of The Total Environment, 644, 60-67.
Alternative Mähregimes zur Förderung der Artenvielfalt von Wiesen
HumbertJean-Yves, BuriPierrick, UnternährerDebora, ArlettazRaphaël (2018), Alternative Mähregimes zur Förderung der Artenvielfalt von Wiesen, in Agrarforschung Schweiz, 9(9), 314-321.
Des régimes de fauche alternatifs pour favoriser la biodiversité des prairies
HumbertJean-Yves, BuriPierrick, UnternährerDebora, ArlettazRaphaël (2018), Des régimes de fauche alternatifs pour favoriser la biodiversité des prairies, in Recherche Agronomique Suisse, 9(9), 314-321.
Impacts of management intensification on ground-dwelling beetles and spiders in semi-natural mountain grasslands
Lessard-Therrien Malie, Humbert Jean-Yves, Hajdamowicz Izabela, Stańska Marzena, van Klink Roel, Lischer Lukas, Arlettaz Raphaël (2018), Impacts of management intensification on ground-dwelling beetles and spiders in semi-natural mountain grasslands, in Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 251, 59-66.
Experiment-based recommendations for biodiversity-friendly management of mountain hay meadows
Lessard-Therrien Malie, Humbert Jean-Yves, Arlettaz Raphaël (2017), Experiment-based recommendations for biodiversity-friendly management of mountain hay meadows, in Applied Vegetation Science, 20(3), 352-362.
Effects of irrigation on phosphorus in soil, soil microbes and plants of semi-natural grasslands
Landwehr A, Oberson A, Lessard-Therrien M, Humbert J-Y, Arlettaz R, Huguenin-Elie O (2017), Effects of irrigation on phosphorus in soil, soil microbes and plants of semi-natural grasslands, in Grassland resources for extensive farming systems in marginal lands: major drivers and future scenar, Alghero, ItalyWageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
No detrimental effects of delayed mowing or uncut grass refuges on plant and bryophyte community structure and phytomass production in low-intensity hay meadows
van Klink Roel, Boch Steffen, Buri Pierrick, Rieder Nora, Humbert Jean-Yves, Arlettaz Raphaël (2017), No detrimental effects of delayed mowing or uncut grass refuges on plant and bryophyte community structure and phytomass production in low-intensity hay meadows, in Basic and Applied Ecology, 20, 1-9.
Promoting diverse communities of wild bees and hoverflies requires a landscape approach to managing meadows
Meyer Sandro, Unternährer Debora, Arlettaz Raphaël, Jean-Yves Humbert, Myles Menz (2017), Promoting diverse communities of wild bees and hoverflies requires a landscape approach to managing meadows, in Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 239, 376-384.
Delayed mowing promotes planthoppers, leafhoppers and spiders in extensively managed meadows
Buri Pierrick, Humbert Jean-Yves, Stańska Marzena, Hajdamowicz Izabela, Tran Eléonore, Entling Martin H., Arlettaz Raphaël (2016), Delayed mowing promotes planthoppers, leafhoppers and spiders in extensively managed meadows, in Insect Conservation and Diversity, 9, 536-545.
Functional response of leaf- and planthoppers to modern fertilisation and irrigation of hay meadows
Andrey Aline, Humbert Jean-Yves, Arlettaz Raphaël (2016), Functional response of leaf- and planthoppers to modern fertilisation and irrigation of hay meadows, in Basic and Applied Ecology, 17, 627-637.
Habitat heterogeneity favors asexual reproduction in natural populations of grassthrips
Lavanchy Guillaume, Lessard‐Therrien Malie, Humbert Jean-Yves, ..., Arlettaz Raphaël, Schwander Tanja (2016), Habitat heterogeneity favors asexual reproduction in natural populations of grassthrips, in Evolution, 70(8), 1780-1790.
Impacts of nitrogen addition on plant biodiversity in mountain grasslands depend on dose, application duration and climate: a systematic review
Humbert Jean-Yves, Dwyer John, Andrey Aline, Arlettaz Raphaël (2016), Impacts of nitrogen addition on plant biodiversity in mountain grasslands depend on dose, application duration and climate: a systematic review, in Global Change Biology, 22, 110-120.
Simple modifications of mowing regime promote butterflies in extensively managed meadows: Evidence from field-scale experiments
Bruppacher Laura, Pellet Jérôme, Arlettaz Raphaël, Humbert J-Y (2016), Simple modifications of mowing regime promote butterflies in extensively managed meadows: Evidence from field-scale experiments, in Biological Conservation, 196, 196-202.
Leaving an uncut grass refuge promotes butterfly abundance in extensively managed lowland hay meadows in Switzerland
Isabel Kühne, Raphaël Arlettaz, Jérôme Pellet, Laura Bruppacher, Jean-Yves Humbert (2015), Leaving an uncut grass refuge promotes butterfly abundance in extensively managed lowland hay meadows in Switzerland, in Conservation Evidence, 12, 25-27.
New and remarkable leafhoppers and planthoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) from Switzerland
Trivellone V, Knop E, Turrini T, Andrey A, Humbert J-Y, Kunz G (2015), New and remarkable leafhoppers and planthoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) from Switzerland, in Bulletin de la Société Entomologique Suisse, (88), 273-284.
EU agricultural reform fails on biodiversity
G. Pe’er L. V. Dicks P. Visconti R. Arlettaz A. Báldi T. G. Benton S. Collins M. Dieterich R (2014), EU agricultural reform fails on biodiversity, in Science, 344(6188), 1090-1091.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Agridea, Regula Benz Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Canton, Marion Sattler Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Prof. Dr Martin H. Entling Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Canton VD, Catherine Strehler-Perrin Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Canton FR, Jacques Frioud Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Canton BE, Oliver Rutz Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon, Thomas Walter & Olivier Huguenin Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Canton VS, Frédéric Obrist & Peter Keusch Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Canton AG, Markus Peter Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Canton NE, Marie-France Cattin Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Department of Zoology, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities Poland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Canton GR, Josef Hartmann Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
University of Bern, Dr Myles Menz Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Federal Office for Agriculture, Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Federal Office for the Environment, Sarah Pearson Perret Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
External Seminars at the DEE of the University of Lausanne 2018 Individual talk Assessing the value of agri-environment schemes for biodiversity: current status and opportunities 24.10.2019 Lausanne, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves;
GfÖ Annual Meeting 2019 Talk given at a conference Larval and phenological traits predict insect community response to mowing regime manipulations 2019 03.09.2019 Münster, Germany Humbert Jean-Yves;
Lecture Series in Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern 2019 Individual talk Assessing the value of agri-environment schemes for biodiversity: current status and opportunities 05.03.2019 Bern, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves; Arlettaz Raphaël;
Séminaire à l'Institut des Sciences de l'Environnement, Université de Genève 2018 Individual talk Quel régime de fauche pour favoriser la biodiversité des prairies extensives du Plateau suisse ? 19.04.2018 Genève, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves;
ENTOMO.CH 2018 Talk given at a conference Larval and phenological traits predict invertebrate community response to manipulation of mowing regime in extensively managed grasslands 02.03.2018 Berne, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves;
15th Assembly of the Biodiversity Exploratories 2018 Talk given at a conference Plant and invertebrate responses to manipulation of mowing regime in extensively managed meadows: results and knowledge transfer 20.02.2018 Wernigerode, Germany Humbert Jean-Yves;
Mini symposium - Persistence of plant and invertebrate communities 2017 Individual talk Larval and phenological traits predict invertebrate community response to manipulation of mowing regime in extensively managed grasslands 14.12.2017 Utrecht, Netherlands Humbert Jean-Yves;
ECOLOGY ACROSS BORDERS 2017 Poster Larval and phenological traits predict invertebrate community response to manipulation of mowing regime in extensively managed grasslands 11.12.2017 Ghent, Belgium Arlettaz Raphaël; Humbert Jean-Yves; van Klink Roel;
Seminar serie at Georg-August-Universität 2017 Individual talk Optimal balance between yield and biodiversity in montane and subalpine meadows 03.05.2017 Göttinger, Germany Humbert Jean-Yves;
Internal seminar Section of Conservation Biology, University of Basel 2016 Individual talk Increasing spatio-temporal heterogeneity for biodiversity (plants and invertebrates) in extensively managed lowland meadows 31.10.2016 Basel, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves;
46th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of Germany, Austria and Switzerland 2016 Talk given at a conference Using life-history traits to predict arthropod responses to grasslands management amid species pool influenc 05.10.2016 Marburg, Germany van Klink Roel;
International Conference ”Biodiversity conservation on farmlands at crossroads” 2016 Talk given at a conference Delaying mowing and leaving uncut refuges in extensively managed meadows – effects on plants and invertebrates 27.09.2016 Pulawy, Poland Humbert Jean-Yves;
46th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of Germany, Austria and Switzerland 2016 Talk given at a conference Tradeoffs in maintaining plant and invertebrate biodiversity and hay productivity in montane semi-natural grasslan 05.09.2016 Marburg, Germany Lessard-Therrien Malie;
ICCB-ECCB 2015: 27th International Congress for Conservation Biology & 4th European Congress for Conservation Biology Poster WILD BEE SPECIES CAN BE ENHANCED BY LEAVING UNCUT REFUGES WITHIN LOWLAND AES GRASSLANDS 02.08.2015 Montpellier, France Unternährer Debora; Arlettaz Raphaël; Humbert Jean-Yves;
ICCB-ECCB 2015: 27th International Congress for Conservation Biology & 4th European Congress for Conservation Biology Poster OPTIMIZING FARMING PRACTICES FOR BIODIVERSITY IN MONTANE AND SUBALPINE GRASSLANDS 02.08.2015 Montpellier, France Humbert Jean-Yves; Arlettaz Raphaël; Lessard-Therrien Malie;
ICCB-ECCB 2015: 27th International Congress for Conservation Biology & 4th European Congress for Conservation Biology Talk given at a conference Nitrogen addition impacts plant biodiversity in mountain grasslands, but magnitude of effects depends on climatic context: a systematic review 02.08.2015 Montpellier, France Arlettaz Raphaël; Humbert Jean-Yves;
Student Conference on Conservation Science 2015 Poster Restoration of spatio-temporal heterogeneity in extensively managed lowland hay meadows 24.03.2015 Cambridge, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Unternährer Debora;
Student Conference on Conservation Science 2015 Poster Biodiversity and farming practices in montane and subalpine agro-ecosystems 24.03.2015 Cambridge, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Lessard-Therrien Malie;
9th European Conference on Ecological Restoration 2014 (SER2014) Talk given at a conference Restoration of spatio-temporal heterogeneity in extensively managed lowland meadows 04.08.2014 Oulu, Finland Humbert Jean-Yves;


Self-organised

Title Date Place

Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
SBS: Assemblée Générale 2019 / SBG: Hauptversammlung 2019 Talk 28.09.2019 Châteaux d'Oex, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves;
Surfaces de promotion de la biodiversité : état actuel et opportunités ? BLW 2019 Talk 12.03.2019 OFAG, Bern, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves;
Wissenstransfer in der Biodiversitätsförderung. Organisé par Agridea 2017 Talk 21.11.2017 Olten, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves;
Journée d’échanges sur les projets réseau. Organisé par Agridea 2017 Talk 07.11.2017 Yverdon-le-Bains, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves;
Austausch Extensive Naturwiesen 2017 Workshop 19.09.2017 Bern, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves;
Projekt Grasland-Management: Welche Pflegemassnahmen führen zu einer optimalen Förderung der Biodiversität? 2017 Talk 14.03.2017 Berne, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves;
Le “Grassland management project” de l’université de Berne 2017 Workshop 13.03.2017 Sion, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves; Lessard-Therrien Malie; Arlettaz Raphaël;
Fachtagung pro natura «Nouvelles voies pour la biodiversité des zones cultivées» «Neue Wege zur Biodiversität im Kulturland» 2016 Talk 08.04.2016 Münsingen, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves;
5. Berner Naturgipfel: Vernetzungsprojekte 17+ im Kanton Bern Information und Mitwirkung 2015 Workshop 18.09.2015 INFORAMA Rütti, Zollikofen, Switzerland Humbert Jean-Yves;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
« Biodiversitätsförderflächen – Zustand und Möglichkeiten » BFF Tagung 2018 27.11.2018 Bern, Switzerland
Séance du groupe d'accompagnement 2016 23.02.2016 Bern, Switzerland
Séance du groupe d'accompagnement 2016 23.02.2016 Bern, Switzerland
Séance du groupe d'accompagnement 2015 17.03.2015 Bern, Switzerland
Séance du groupe d'accompagnement 2014 04.03.2014 Bern, Switzerland

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Talks/events/exhibitions Paysage et biodiversité : Réseau « La Frontière » 2019 Western Switzerland 2019
Talks/events/exhibitions Weiterbildung Berater Kanton BE 2017 German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Talks/events/exhibitions WEITERBILDUNG VERNETZUNGSBERATUNG 2017 German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Talks/events/exhibitions Labiola-Jubiläum: Thema Rückzugsstreifen 2016 German-speaking Switzerland 2016
Talks/events/exhibitions Diversité des herbages et valorisation des fourrages 2015 Western Switzerland 2015

Awards

Title Year
Volz Awards The publication "Bruppacher, L., Pellet, J., Arlettaz, R., Humbert, J.-Y., 2016. Simple modifications of mowing regime promote butterflies in extensively managed meadows: Evidence from field-scale experiments. Biol. Conserv. 196, 196-202." won the Volz-Preis, for the best publication coming out of a MSc thesis of the Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern 2014–2016. Prize attributed to Laura Bruppacher who did her MSc within this SNF project. 2016

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
158573 Does fertilisation decrease biodiversity in temperate montane grasslands? 01.11.2014 International short research visits
125398 Grassland management: designing tomorrow's farmland for biodiversity 01.03.2010 Project funding (Div. I-III)
172953 Restoring grassland biodiversity: from degraded, species-poor to integral stable-state ecosystems 01.11.2017 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

The research programme, launched in 2010, aims at developing and evaluating meadowland management practices that can maintain and/or improve farmland biodiversity for sustaining fundamental agro-ecosystem processes and services.The tremendous changes that have affected agricultural landscapes and farming practices over the last decades have triggered a global farmland biodiversity crisis with severe consequences for crucial ecosystem services. As a response, many countries have implemented agri-environment schemes (AES) that financially support farmers for modifying their practices so as to provide environmental benefits. Yet, the benefits of these schemes for biodiversity are far from evident. Obviously, farmland conservation or restoration requires changes that go beyond the mere extensification of agricultural practices.The project comprises two modules, one in the Swiss lowlands (Plateau) and one in the mountains (Alps), with scientific questionings and hypotheses specific to these distinct socio-economic and geographical contexts.In the lowland module we experimentally test novel management regimes that can restore and/or improve biodiversity in extensively managed meadows declared under the Swiss AES. Experiments consist of different mowing regimes, applied at field scale, so as to increase spatial, structural and ecological heterogeneity. In the mountain module we carry out experiments, at site scale, about optimization of fertilization with liquid manure and aerial irrigation among hay meadows for both sustainable biodiversity and agricultural production.Assessing the long-term changes of various biotic and abiotic components, as well as functional groups at different trophic levels will provide decisive insights into the ecological processes occurring in hay meadows, paving the way for evidence-base guidance of management. It is on purpose that we test modifications that are easily implementable by farmers, as this will enhance their acceptance in later practice. By confronting agronomic data with biodiversity metrics, the present research will thus improve the scientific basis necessary for adapting and/or developing novel, optimally balanced agri-environmental policies in the future.
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