Project

Back to overview

Grounding - Metaphysics, Science, and Logic

English title Grounding - Metaphysics, Science, and Logic
Applicant Correia Fabrice
Number 147685
Funding scheme Sinergia
Research institution Institut de philosophie Faculté des lettres Université Neuchâtel
Institution of higher education University of Neuchatel - NE
Main discipline Philosophy
Start/End 01.12.2013 - 30.11.2017
Approved amount 1'080'157.00
Show all

Keywords (13)

Science; Causality; Truthmaking; Modality; Liar-paradoxes; Essence; Grounding; Metaphysics; Dependence; Explanation; Truth; Logic; Counterfactuals

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
L’idée selon laquelle la réalité s’organise en différents niveaux, possédant divers degrés de « fondamentalité » (par exemple selon l’ordre : physique, chimique, biologique, social), est au cœur de nombreuses conceptions de notre monde. Une manière naturelle de préciser cette idée fait appel à la notion de fondation. La théorie de cette notion a été au centre des débats philosophiques ces dernières années. Ce projet s’inscrit dans ce mouvement et a pour objectif d’approfondir ces débats.
Lay summary

Si le concept de fondation (« grounding ») a été utilisé en philosophe depuis ses débuts, son étude systématique a été largement (mais pas complètement) négligée jusqu’au début des années 2000. Les débats contemporains sur ce concept posent certaines questions centrales : Comment ce concept doit-il être compris ? Peut-il être défini en d’autres termes ? Quelles relations entretient-il avec d’autres concepts philosophiquement importants ? Quel rôle peut-il jouer dans les diverses disciplines philosophiques ? Ce projet considère de telles questions, ainsi que d’autres questions connexes, en se focalisant sur trois disciplines où le concept de fondation est généralement considéré comme jouant un rôle central : la métaphysique, la philosophie des sciences naturelles et la logique.

Contexte scientifique : Le concept de fondation a été – directement ou indirectement, et plus ou moins récemment – un objet d’étude au sein de chacune de ces trois disciplines. Mais les travaux pertinents ont été dans leur ensemble réalisés isolément, au détriment d’une meilleure compréhension du concept. L’aspect interdisciplinaire de ce projet en est pour cette raison une caractéristique remarquable.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 16.10.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Grounding and Dependence
Schnieder Benjamin (2020), Grounding and Dependence, in Synthese, 197, 95-124.
Grounding, Essence, and Identity
Correia Fabrice & Skiles Alex (2019), Grounding, Essence, and Identity, in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 98(3), 642-670.
Grounding, mental causation, and overdetermination
Clark Michael & Wildman Nathan (2018), Grounding, mental causation, and overdetermination, in Synthese, 195, 3723-3733.
Intrinsic Properties and Relations
Plate Jan (2018), Intrinsic Properties and Relations, in Inquiry, 61, 783-853.
On Shaky Ground?
Wildman Nathan (2018), On Shaky Ground?, in Bliss R. and Priest G. (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 275.
What grounds what grounds what
Clark Michael (2018), What grounds what grounds what, in Philosophical Quarterly, 68, 38.
A Note on Morato on Modality and Explanation
Wildman N. (2017), A Note on Morato on Modality and Explanation, in Erkenntnis, 82, 967.
An Abductive Theory of Constitution
Casini Lorenzo & Baumgartner Michael (2017), An Abductive Theory of Constitution, in Philosophy of Science, 84, 214.
An Impure Logic of Representational Grounding
Correia Fabrice (2017), An Impure Logic of Representational Grounding, in Journal of Philosophical Logic, 46, 507.
Fondation Métaphysique
Carnino Pablo (2017), Fondation Métaphysique, in L'Encyclopédie Philosophique, 1.
How Objective Are Biological Functions?
Weber Marcel (2017), How Objective Are Biological Functions?, in Synthese, 4741.
Intuitionism vs. Classicism. A Mathematical Attack on Classical Logic -- by Nick Haverkamp
Walker Jan (2017), Intuitionism vs. Classicism. A Mathematical Attack on Classical Logic -- by Nick Haverkamp, in Dialectica, 71, 641.
La question de l'ontologie (French translation of Kit Fine's "The Question of Ontology")
Correia Fabrice (2017), La question de l'ontologie (French translation of Kit Fine's "The Question of Ontology"), in Schneider L. Nef F. and Schmitt Y. (ed.), Vrin, Paris, 55.
Malfunctions and Teleology: On the (Dim) Chances of Statistical Accounts of Functions
Casini Lorenzo (2017), Malfunctions and Teleology: On the (Dim) Chances of Statistical Accounts of Functions, in European Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 7, 319.
Multiple reference and vague objects
Merlo Giovanni (2017), Multiple reference and vague objects, in Synthese, 194, 2645.
Ontological Dependence
Correia Fabrice (2017), Ontological Dependence, in Burkhardt Hans et al. (ed.), Philosophia, Munich, 379.
Optimalism and the Grounds of Existential Truths
Schnieder Benjamin & Kappes Yannic (2017), Optimalism and the Grounds of Existential Truths, in Phil. Jahrbuch, 124, 264.
Real Definitions
Correia Fabrice (2017), Real Definitions, in Philosophical Issues, 27, 52.
Which Kind of Causal Specificity Matters Biologically?
Weber Marcel (2017), Which Kind of Causal Specificity Matters Biologically?, in Philosophy of Science, 84, 574.
Agent-based models and causality: a methodological appraisal
Casini Lorenzo & Manzo Gianluca (2016), Agent-based models and causality: a methodological appraisal, in The IAS Working Paper Series, 7, 1.
Anything at All – the Deepest and the Shallowest Question
Schnieder Benjamin & Kappes Yannic (2016), Anything at All – the Deepest and the Shallowest Question, in Philosophische Yahrbuch, 543.
Anything at All – the Deepest and the Shallowest Questionx
B. Schnieder & Y. Kappes (2016), Anything at All – the Deepest and the Shallowest Questionx, in Philosophische Yahrbuch, 543.
Can Interventions Rescue Glennan’s Mechanistic Account of Causality?
Casini Lorenzo (2016), Can Interventions Rescue Glennan’s Mechanistic Account of Causality?, in British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 1155.
Grounding is Not Superinternal
Carnino Pablo (2016), Grounding is Not Superinternal, in Thought: a journal of philosophy, 24.
How (not) to be a modalist about essence
Wildman Nathan (2016), How (not) to be a modalist about essence, in Jago Mark (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 177.
How to Model Mechanistic Hierarchies
Casini Lorenzo (2016), How to Model Mechanistic Hierarchies, in Philosophy of Science, 946.
In Defence of a Logic for ‘Because’
Schnieder Benjamin (2016), In Defence of a Logic for ‘Because’, in Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logic, 160.
Logically Simple Properties and Relations
Plate Jan (2016), Logically Simple Properties and Relations, in Philosophers' Imprint, 1.
On the Incompatibility of Biological Dynamical Mechanisms and Causal Graphs
Weber Marcel (2016), On the Incompatibility of Biological Dynamical Mechanisms and Causal Graphs, in Philosophy of Science, 959.
On the Logic of Factual Equivalence
Correia Fabrice (2016), On the Logic of Factual Equivalence, in Review of Symbolic Logic, 103.
Subjectivism and the Mental
Merlo Giovanni (2016), Subjectivism and the Mental, in Dialectica, 311.
Wissenschaftlicher Pluralismus und die Bio-Gerontologie
Weber Marcel (2016), Wissenschaftlicher Pluralismus und die Bio-Gerontologie, in A. Blum et al (ed.), Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg, 107.
Without Reason?
Schnieder Benjamin and Steinberg Alex (2016), Without Reason?, in Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 97, 523.
A Puzzle About Partial Grounding
Clark Michael (2015), A Puzzle About Partial Grounding, in Thought, 4(3), 189.
Das Meisterargument in Platons Euthyphron
Schnieder Benjamin (2015), Das Meisterargument in Platons Euthyphron, in History of Philosophy and Logical Analysis, 227.
Editorial and Interview with F. Correia, B. Schnieder, and M. Weber
Casini Lorenzo (2015), Editorial and Interview with F. Correia, B. Schnieder, and M. Weber, in The Reasoner, 9(2), 9.
Logical Grounding and First-Degree Entailments
Correia Fabrice (2015), Logical Grounding and First-Degree Entailments, in Grazer Philosophische Studien, 91, 3.
The Asymmetry of “Because”
Schnieder Benjamin (2015), The Asymmetry of “Because”, in Grazer Philosophische Studien, 91, 131.
Bolzano on Causation and Grounding
Schnieder Benjamin (2014), Bolzano on Causation and Grounding, in Journal of the History of Philosophy, 52, 309-337.
Essence et fondation
Carnino Pablo (2014), Essence et fondation, in The Ethics Forum, 9(2), 190.
Experimental Modeling in Biology. In-vivo Representation and Stand-ins as Modeling Strategies
Weber Marcel (2014), Experimental Modeling in Biology. In-vivo Representation and Stand-ins as Modeling Strategies, in Philosophy of Science, 81, 756.
From Grounding to Truth-Making: Some Thoughts
Correia Fabrice (2014), From Grounding to Truth-Making: Some Thoughts, in Reboul Anne (ed.), Springer, Berlin, 85.
Logical Grounds
Correia Fabrice (2014), Logical Grounds, in Review of Symbolic Logic, 7(1), 31.
New Directions in the Philosophy of Science
Weber Marcel et al. (ed.) (2014), New Directions in the Philosophy of Science, Springer, Berlin.
Not-so-minimal Models. Between Isolation and Imagination
Casini Lorenzo (2014), Not-so-minimal Models. Between Isolation and Imagination, in Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 44(5), 646.
On the Reduction of Grounding to Essence
Carnino Pablo (2014), On the Reduction of Grounding to Essence, in Studia Philosophica Estonica, 7(2), 56.
Qu'est-ce qu'une vache ?
Weber Marcel (2014), Qu'est-ce qu'une vache ?, in O. Massin & A. Meylan (ed.), Ithaque, Paris, 1.
Reference, Truth, and Biological Kinds
Weber Marcel (2014), Reference, Truth, and Biological Kinds, in Dutant Julien et al. (ed.), University of Geneva, Geneva, 422.
Report on the Project “Grounding: Metaphysics, Science and Logic”
Casini Lorenzo (2014), Report on the Project “Grounding: Metaphysics, Science and Logic”, in The Reasoner, 8(9), 101.
Review of Writing the Book of the World by T. Sider
Wildman Nathan (2014), Review of Writing the Book of the World by T. Sider, in European Journal of Philosophy, 22(S2), e21.
Philosophie der Lebenswissenschaften: Entwicklungen und Tendenzen
Weber Marcel et al. (2013), Philosophie der Lebenswissenschaften: Entwicklungen und Tendenzen, in Information Philosophie, 4, 14.
More on the Reduction of Necessity to Essence
Correia Fabrice, More on the Reduction of Necessity to Essence, in Dumitru Mircea (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Scientific Realism: Biology
Weber Marcel, Scientific Realism: Biology, in Saatsi J. (ed.), Routledge, London.
The Logic of Relative Fundamentality
Correia Fabrice, The Logic of Relative Fundamentality, in Synthese.
Thought Experiments in Biology
Weber Marcel et al., Thought Experiments in Biology, in Brown J. R. et al. (ed.), Routledge, London.
Three questions about immunity to error through misidentification
G. Merlo, Three questions about immunity to error through misidentification, in Erkenntnis.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Dr. Stephan Krämer, University of Hamburg Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. Jonathan Schaffer, Rutgers United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Dr. Jon Litland, Oslo Norway (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Katharina Felka, University of Hamburg Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Øystein Linnebo, Oslo Norway (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Dr. Richard Woodward, Hamburg Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Sven Rosenkranz, Barcelona, ICREA Spain (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. Ricki Bliss, Lehigh University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Dr. Francesca Poggiolesi, Paris, IHPST France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Kevin Mulligan, University of Geneva & eidos Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. Stephan Leuenberger, Glasgow Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Dr. Dan López de Sa, Barcelona Spain (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. Kit Fine, NYU United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Johannes Korbmacher, MCMP, LMU, Munich Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events



Self-organised

Title Date Place
Logic and Metaphysics, East and West II 01.09.2017 Hamburg, Germany
Grounding and Consciousness 06.08.2017 Florence, Italy
Ground in Philosophy of Science 13.09.2016 Genève, Switzerland
Metaphysics and Logic, East and West 01.09.2016 Shanghai, China
Haecceitism and Individuals 26.08.2016 Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Bolzano’s Philosophy of Grounding 06.06.2016 Helsinki, Finland
The Metaphysics of Grounding 29.04.2016 Dresden, Germany
Grounds in Biology 19.06.2015 Geneva, Switzerland
Problèmes de premier ordre et de second ordre en métaphysique 08.06.2015 Ovronnaz, Switzerland
Truth and Grounds 24.05.2015 Ascona, Switzerland

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
164937 Haecceitism as a Theory of Individual Essences 01.09.2016 Doc.Mobility
164867 Grounding and Explanation 01.02.2016 Doc.Mobility
159472 Essences, Identities and Individuals 01.04.2015 Project funding (Div. I-III)
169810 Mechanistic Constitution in the Special Sciences 01.03.2017 Project funding (Div. I-III)
150289 The Nature of Existence: Neglected Questions at the Foundations of Ontology 01.11.2013 Project funding (Div. I-III)
135262 Essence and Metaphysical Grounds 01.09.2011 SNSF Professorships
157792 The Metaphysics of Time and its Occupants: Reconciling the Manifest Image and Contemporary Science 01.08.2015 Temporary Backup Schemes

Abstract

The idea that reality is not constituted by a mere juxtaposition of facts, but rather displays a complex network of facts of various degrees of "fundamentality" or "basicness", is probably as old as philosophical and scientific thinking about reality itself. What determines these degrees of fundamentality is most naturally thought of as the relation of one fact holding in virtue of other facts - or, as philosophers currently like to say, the relation of one fact being grounded in other facts.The notion of grounding has been prominent throughout the history of philosophy, and it can be found at work already in Plato’s Euthyphro and in Aristotle’s conception of the four causes (aitia). Yet it has not been a proper object of serious philosophical inquiry since Bernard Bolzano’s Wissenschaftslehre (1837) - a truly ground-breaking but largely neglected work - until very recently.Things indeed changed only in the last decade or so, starting with Kit Fine’s seminal article "The Question of Realism" (2001), and subsequent publications by two of the three applicants for this project in the mid 2000’s, Fabrice Correia and Benjamin Schnieder. By now, the notion of grounding has re-entered the philosophical stage and has become a hot topic, propagated in particular by the work of leading philosophers such as Kit Fine, Gideon Rosen and Jonathan Schaffer. While sceptical attacks have been launched, they have already been rebutted, and the general idea of grounding has been widely accepted and recognised as one of the most important notions to be used in order to describe and account for the structure of reality.The recent comeback of grounding at the forefront of philosophical inquiry may be attributed to two main factors. There is, in the first place, the relatively recent renewal of philosophical interest in realist metaphysics - and, more generally, in areas of inquiry which purport to describe an objective, mind-independent reality. This renewal of interest followed a long period of scepticism or even sheer dismissal, most often associated with philosophical movements as diverse as the Kantian school, the positivists of the Vienna Circle, and advocates of the linguistic turn and natural language analysis. And there is, in the second place, the even more recent tendency of philosophers to minimise (but without ignoring) the general requirement of ideological economy, which has had an excessive influence on theoretical philosophising during the greatest part of the 20th century. By minimising this requirement, philosophers have felt free to use certain conceptual resources which would have been otherwise prohibited, in particular certain broadly Aristotelian concepts like those of essence or substance - or again, the concept of grounding.Because the renaissance of grounding is a very recent phenomenon, the contemporary debate about a number of central issues concerning the notion - e.g. how it is exactly to be understood, what its connections with other important notions are, what role it can be taken to play in various debates and areas of inquiry - is currently fully underway, and many other such issues are still to be addressed. The current research project purports to further this debate, by selecting and addressing some among the most important of these issues.An important assumption of this project, which has been defended by a number of authors, is that grounding comes in various sorts or types. In this project, we focus on the core notion of metaphysical grounding, and on three other notions which are intimately connected to it, viz. causal, logical and conceptual grounding. These four notions play a central role in the three philosophical disciplines regrouped within the project, namely metaphysics, the philosophy of natural science, and logic. The general overall goal we expect to achieve is to further our understanding and knowledge of these various sorts of grounding relations, as well as their interrelations to other important concepts employed in these three interconnected disciplines. A notable feature of the project is that it takes on board the philosophy of science, whereas the current debate mainly involves metaphysics and logic. This, as it were, fixes an oddity, since the general idea of some facts grounding other facts - in particular, the idea of some facts causally grounding other facts and the idea of some facts grounding the facts of causation themselves - is certainly central to the natural sciences.
-