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Commentary of the World Anti-Doping Code

English title Commentary of the World Anti-Doping Code
Applicant Rigozzi Antonio
Number 147134
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut de droit de la santé Faculté de droit Université de Neuchâtel
Institution of higher education University of Neuchatel - NE
Main discipline Legal sciences
Start/End 01.05.2013 - 31.05.2017
Approved amount 500'000.00
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Keywords (4)

sport; doping; law; arbitration

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
Le dopage est l’une des menaces les plus graves auquel le sport est confronté. Dès lors, les organisations sportives et les Etats ont fait de la lutte antidopage l’une de leurs priorités. Ils ont créé à cet effet l’Agence Mondiale Antidopage qui s’est vue confier la responsabilité d’adopter le Code mondial antidopage. Celui-ci constitue l’instrument juridique sur lequel repose l’ensemble des politiques de lutte contre le dopage autant du point de vue des organisations sportives que des Etats.
Lay summary

Objectifs et contenu du travail de recherche

La recherche entreprise fera suite à la Conférence mondiale sur le dopage dans le sport qui se déroulera à Johannesburg du 12 au 15 novembre 2013. Elle aura pour ambition d’étudier de manière systématique le nouveau régime juridique introduit par le Code mondial antidopage révisé, notamment afin d’en favoriser une mise en œuvre harmonisée par le Tribunal Arbitral du Sport (TAS) dès son entrée en vigueur, le 1er janvier 2015.

Les résultats de cette étude seront présentés sous la forme d’un Commentaire du Code mondial antidopage. En plus d’une analyse juridique des différentes dispositions du Code, celui-ci comprendra un dépouillement de l’ensemble des prises de position qui ont été réalisées par les « stakeholders » dans le cadre du processus de consultation qui a accompagné la révision, de la jurisprudence topique du TAS et de la doctrine pertinente, offrant ainsi pour la première fois une perspective globale du régime juridique gouvernant la lutte contre le dopage.

Contexte scientifique et social du projet de recherche

Ce projet s’inscrit dans une volonté de rendre le régime juridique de la lutte contre le dopage plus compréhensible pour les acteurs concernés – organisations sportives, sportifs, praticiens du droit du sport, académiques – en tenant compte non seulement de la nécessité légitime des institutions sportives de lutter contre le dopage, mais également du besoin tout aussi important de s’assurer que les droits fondamentaux et procéduraux des athlètes soient respectés.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 29.04.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
2017 Macolin Anti-Doping Summit Talk given at a conference Independence’ of the anti-doping process: From the involvement of international federations to the role of CAS 28.04.2017 Macolin, Switzerland Rigozzi Antonio;
2017 Macolin Anti-Doping Summit Talk given at a conference How to make better use of experts in doping matters 28.04.2017 Macolin, Switzerland Viret Marjolaine;
2017 Macolin Anti-Doping Summit Talk given at a conference Does the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code Punish “Real Cheaters” More Harshly 28.04.2017 Macolin, Switzerland Wisnosky Emily;
Tackling Doping in Sport 2017 Talk given at a conference Science and the Law: the Athlete Biological Passport System 08.03.2017 Londres, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Viret Marjolaine;
Tackling Doping in Sport 2016 Talk given at a conference 2015 WADC: what next? – Priorities for the next revision 10.03.2016 Londres, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Wisnosky Emily; Viret Marjolaine;
Tackling Doping in Sport 2015 Talk given at a conference Does 2 + 2015 = 4 years? Doing the math under the new WADC sanctioning regime 18.03.2015 Londres, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Wisnosky Emily; Viret Marjolaine;
Tackling Doping in Sport 2014 Talk given at a conference Innovation versus legal scrutiny in anti-doping: A new presumption of scientific validity fo the 2015 WADA Code 19.03.2014 Londres, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Viret Marjolaine;
5th ASDS Academic Forum Individual talk Evidence in Doping Control at the Crossroads of Science and Law 06.03.2014 Neuchâtel, Switzerland Viret Marjolaine;
Asser Sports Law Lunch & Learn Individual talk WADA Code 2015 - The Key Changes 11.12.2013 La Haye, Netherlands Wisnosky Emily; Viret Marjolaine;


Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Frühjahrsakademie - Deutsche Studienstiftung: Doping und Sportgerichtsbarkeit Talk 30.03.2014 Annecy, France


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) WADC Commentary Project International 2014

Abstract

Doping is an ancient phenomenon. However, the fight against doping has become serious and professionalized only in the last two decades. The progress has been fast and spectacular: today athletes are required to provide bodily samples both in- and out-of-competition and to disclose whereabouts information so that they can be tested at any time, anywhere. The anti-doping organizations have created a centralized database containing all the athletes’ personal and physiological data and run sophisticated computer programs on such data to obtain evidence of doping. Law enforcement agencies are increasingly associated with the fight against doping and share the results of their investigations with the sports governing bodies. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has become the key actor in the fight against doping and acts as a de facto private legislator on the international scene. The WADA has enacted the World Anti-Doping Code (“WADAC”, “WADA Code” or “Code”) which is meant to constitute “the fundamental and universal document” upon which the fight against doping is conducted both by the sports governing bodies and the nation states (the vast majority of which have incorporated the core elements of the Code in their legislation by concluding an international convention to that effect under the aegis of the UNESCO Convention Against Doping in Sports).Such a legal scheme is unprecedented in international law and raises very interesting legal questions as to its legitimacy. Given the severity of the anti-doping regime established by the WADA (in particular that it is based on strict liability, contains evidentiary rules aimed at facilitating proof of doping, includes limited possibilities of exoneration and imposes draconian obligations for the athletes and very serious sanctions), the athletes are increasingly challenging their doping bans. Furthermore, some legal scholars have suggested that the system is becoming unfair towards the athlete. Under the Code, the relevant legal challenges are brought in the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), with a very limited possibility to review the CAS award by filing an action to set aside the award in the Swiss Supreme Court (which is the first indication of the pivotal role played by Swiss law in the international anti-doping legal scene). Such challenges will inevitably raise interesting and complex legal issues that are largely unexplored. Through the proposed analysis of the WADC the applicant seeks to systematically analyze, discuss and criticize the anti-doping regime instituted by the Code. Such analysis will be the basis of a book devoted to all of the legally relevant aspects of anti-doping regulation. The critical analysis of WADA’s work in light of the revision of the WADC that is planned to come into force in 2015, as well as the study of relevant doctrine and case law, will constitute the basis for the publication of the first ever comprehensive work on the legal aspects of the modern anti-doping effort, taking into account not only the legitimate need to strengthen the fight against doping but also the equally important need to ensure that the athletes’ fundamental and procedural rights are duly respected.
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