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Using cosmogenic 36Cl to determine periods of enhanced seismicity in western Anatolia

Applicant Akçar Naki
Number 147065
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Geologie Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Geology
Start/End 01.07.2013 - 30.09.2017
Approved amount 318'196.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Geology
Geochronology

Keywords (5)

Dating; Exposure; Earthquake; Neotectonic; Turkey

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Das 36Cl bildet sich während den Abschnitten der tektonischen Ruhe in den exponierten Bruchflächen des anstehenden Kalksteinfels. Infolgedessen können seismisch aktive Perioden sowie jene der seismischen Ruhe aufgrund der Verbreitung der gemessenen 36Cl Konzentrationen bestimmt werden. Diese Methode ermöglicht es einerseits Informationen über die Zeitspanne mit bezeichnender Bruchbildung zu liefern und andererseits die Relativbewegungsraten an Störungen abzuschätzen.
Lay summary

Bestimmung der seismisch aktiven Perioden in west-Anatolien mit kosmogenem 36Cl

Détermination des périodes d'activité sismique en Anatolie occidentale par l’isotope cosmogénique 36Cl

Using cosmogenic 36Cl to determine periods of enhanced seismicity in western Anatolia

Lead

In unserem Projekt bezwecken wir in situ produziertes kosmogenisches 36Cl einzusetzen um das Muster vergangener seismischer Aktivität entlang drei grosser Verwerfungssysteme im westlichen Anatolien deutlich zu machen. Dies ist eine der seismisch aktivsten-  und rasch auseinanderdriftenden Regionen der Welt. In einem ersten Schritt wollen wir die seismischen Ereignisse ermitteln. Weiterhin soll mit der Entwicklung eines neuen mathematischen Codes die zeitliche Abfolge der Ereignisse rekonstruiert werden, und zudem werden durchschnittliche Bewegungsraten dieser Events berechnet.

Wissenschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Kontext des Forschungsprojekts

Verlässliche, langfristige Erdbebenmodelle im östlichen Mittelmeerraum, welche über den historischen Zeitraum (> 464 v. Chr.) hinausreichen, sind notwendig für das Erdbebenkatastrophenmanagment und die Katastrophenvorbeugung. Aus dem Datieren der exponierten Abschiebungsbruchflächen mittels 36Cl können wichtige Eingabeparameter für solche Erdbebenmodelle gewonnen werden.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 09.09.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Fault Scarp Dating Tool - a MATLAB code for fault scarp dating using in-situ chlorine-36 supplemented with datasets of Yavansu and Kalafat faults
Tikhomirov Dmitry, Amiri Nasim Mozafari, Ivy-Ochs Susan, Alfimov Vasily, Vockenhuber Christof, Akçar Naki (2019), Fault Scarp Dating Tool - a MATLAB code for fault scarp dating using in-situ chlorine-36 supplemented with datasets of Yavansu and Kalafat faults, in Data in Brief, 26, 104476-104476.
Holocene seismic activity of the Priene–Sazlı Fault revealed by cosmogenic 36Cl,Western Anatolia, Turkey
MOZAFARI Nasim, SÜMER Ökmen, TIKHOMIROV Dmitry, IVY-OCHS Susan, ALFIMOV Vasily, VOCKENHUBER Christof, İNCİ Uğur, SÖZBİLİR Hasan, AKÇAR Naki (2019), Holocene seismic activity of the Priene–Sazlı Fault revealed by cosmogenic 36Cl,Western Anatolia, Turkey, in TURKISH JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES, 28(3), 410-437.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Tectonics Group at Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Neotectonic Group at the Middle East Technical University, Ankara Turkey (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
The Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics at ETH Zurich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Engineering Geology Group at the Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul Turkey (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Exogene Geology Group at Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Neotectonic Group at the Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir Turkey (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Quaternary Geology and Paleoclimate Group at Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
INQUA 2015 Congress Talk given at a conference Determination of paleoseismic activity with cosmogenic 36Cl: a case study from the Western Anatolian Extensional Province 26.07.2017 Nagoya, Japan Mozafari Amiri Nasim; Akçar Naki;
AGU Fall Meeting 2016 Talk given at a conference Holocene Time-slip history of normal fault scarps in western Turkey: 36Cl surface exposure dating 12.12.2016 San Francisco, United States of America Mozafari Amiri Nasim; Akçar Naki;
14th Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2015 Talk given at a conference Holocene seismic activity of the Yavansu fault, western Turkey 18.11.2016 Geneva, Switzerland Akçar Naki; Mozafari Amiri Nasim;
13th Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2015 Talk given at a conference Holocene destructive seismic periods in Western Anatolia: pace tracking beyond historical data 20.11.2015 Basel, Switzerland Mozafari Amiri Nasim; Akçar Naki;
INQUA 2015 Congress Poster Revealing the seismically active periods beyond the historical archives: Fault scarp dating with 36Cl 26.07.2015 Nagoya, Japan Akçar Naki; Mozafari Amiri Nasim;
European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015 Poster Using 36Cl fault scarp dating to model Holocene paleoseismic activity in the Büyük Menderes graben, western Turkey 12.04.2015 Vienna, Austria Akçar Naki; Mozafari Amiri Nasim;
European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015 Poster Determination of paleoseismic activity over a large time-scale: Fault scarp dating with 36Cl 12.04.2015 Vienna, Austria Mozafari Amiri Nasim; Akçar Naki;
12th Swiss Geoscience meeting 2014 Talk given at a conference Recurrence behavior of destructive earthquakes in Western Anatolia, Turkey: Insights from cosmogenic 36Cl dating method 21.11.2014 Fribourg, Switzerland Akçar Naki; Mozafari Amiri Nasim;
Earth Surface Processes & Paleobiosphere (ESPP) Poster Determination of the recurrence time of Holocene major earthquakes in Priene-Sazlı fault, Western Anatolia using cosmogenic 36Cl fault scarp dating 24.10.2014 Lausanne, Switzerland Akçar Naki; Mozafari Amiri Nasim;
The 8th International Symposium on Eastern Mediterranean Geology (ISEMG) Talk given at a conference The Holocene seismic activity and slip rates of the Priene-Sazli fault, Western Anatolia 13.10.2014 Muğla, Turkey Akçar Naki; Mozafari Amiri Nasim;
DEUTSCHE QUARTÄRVEREINIGUNG (DEUQUA) 2014 Talk given at a conference Fault scarp dating to reveal landscape evolution in a tectonically active setting: Insights from Eastern Mediterranean 24.09.2014 Innsbruck, Austria Akçar Naki; Mozafari Amiri Nasim;
European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2014 Poster Reconstructing the paleoseismic history of the Priene-Sazlı Fault using 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide dating method, Western Anatolia, Turkey 27.05.2014 Vienna, Austria Akçar Naki; Mozafari Amiri Nasim;
CH-QUAT 2014 Poster The early Holocene seismic activity of Büyük Menderes graben, Western Anatolia, Turkey: Fault scarp dating with cosmogenic 36Cl 22.03.2014 Bern, Switzerland Mozafari Amiri Nasim; Akçar Naki;
11th Swiss Geoscience meeting 2013 Poster Using cosmogenic 36Cl to determine periods of enhanced seismicity in western Anatolia, Turkey 16.11.2013 Lausanne , Switzerland Mozafari Amiri Nasim; Akçar Naki;


Abstract

The 36Cl method of the ‘exposure dating’ of limestone bedrock normal faults surfaces was introduced in 1998 and has been applied at several sites in Italy, Greece, Israel and our recent work in Turkey. Because seismicity and thus rupture along the high angle normal faults that we propose to study is sporadic, periods of marked uplift of the footwall block alternate with periods of quiescence. During period of quiescence 36Cl builds up in the exposed limestone bedrock scarps, consequently periods of seismic activity and inactivity can be examined based on the distribution of measured 36Cl concentrations. This method affords the opportunity to glean information on the timing of periods of significant rupture and to estimate fault slip rates. In our project, we aim to use in situ produced cosmogenic 36Cl to reveal patterns of past seismic activity along three major fault systems in the western Anatolia, one of the seismically most active and rapidly extending regions in the world. First, we will identify seismic events. Second, we will develop a new mathematical code to reconstruct the chronology of these events. Third, we will calculate average slip rates for these events. We propose to analyze more than 300 limestone samples from well-exposed sections of bedrock fault scarps for in-situ produced cosmogenic 36Cl. In a recently published pilot study (Akçar et al., in press), we showed that this method can be used successfully in western Turkey. We have established international scientific collaboration with Active Fault Research Groups at the Dokuz Eylül University in Izmir and Middle East Technical University in Ankara. Based on our and our collaborators assessment of suitability characteristics for the exposed fault surfaces, we have chosen to study the (1) Manisa, (2) Efes and (3) Kusadasi active graben-bounding fault systems in western Anatolia. To achieve these goals, we apply for financial support for one PhD student, who will be supervised by PD Dr. Naki Akçar. The proposal PI, PD Dr. Akçar, has many years of experience in supervising and advising PhD students in the aspects of sampling, laboratory work, and data interpretation in cosmogenic nuclide applications to Geomorphology. For this study we will undertake three field campaigns in the summers of 2013, 2014 and 2015. Each campaign will start with a reconnaissance study and then the precise segment of each fault scarp to be sampled will be selected. The best preserved part of the exposed scarp surface at its highest displacement and its part under the colluvium will be sampled along 15 cm wide strip parallel to the slip direction. During this continuous sampling, 10 cm high slabs perpendicular to the slip direction will be collected. The PhD student will prepare the samples for the 36Cl measurements at the ETH Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) facility at Zürich-Hönggerberg (group of Prof. Dr. Hans-Arno Synal). An important component of this research project will be the improvement of the basic models for calculation of 36Cl production (especially from thermal and epithermal neutron capture) below ground. Such parameters are key for calculating 36Cl production and are internationally the least understood of all production parameters in cosmogenic nuclide methods today. The PhD student will develop the mathematical and conceptual toolbox to identify breaks in the 36Cl concentration vs. height profiles at each fault scarp based on a statistical optimization method we will develop. By this way, we will determine seismic events, their timing and amplitude. Afterwards, we will calculate average slip rates for these events. Our project will produce scientific knowledge on (1) seismic events reflected by discontinuous movements on the fault scarps, (2) amplitude, timing and frequency of these events in the past and average slip rates, and (3) extension of paleoseismic record into the past. The final academic products of the project will be one PhD Thesis and at least four publications in international journals, which are listed in Science Citation Index®.
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