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4D Analogue modelling of oblique extension: from continental rifting to passive margin formation

Applicant Schreurs Guido
Number 147046
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Geologie Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Geology
Start/End 01.04.2013 - 31.10.2017
Approved amount 270'852.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Geology
Geophysics

Keywords (10)

oblique extension; oblique rifting; Taupo Rift; extension; transtension; passive margin; Atlantic margin; continental rifting; numerical modelling; analogue modelling

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Kontinentale Gräben und passive Kontinentränder entstehen durch Dehnung der Lithosphärenplatten, die die äussere Schale der Erde ausmachen. Obwohl kontinentale Gräben und passive Kontinentränder mittels geophysikalischen und geologischen Methoden intensiv untersucht wurden, ist deren 3D Geometrie nur lückenhaft erfasst und die Prozesse, die zu ihrer heutigen Geometrie geführt haben, sind noch unvollständig verstanden.
Lay summary

Ziele des Forschungsprojekts

Unser primäres Ziel ist, zu einem besseren Verständnis der 3D Geometrie kontinentaler Gräben und passiver Kontinentränder beizutragen. Dazu werden wir Analogmodelle ausführen, die mittels Röntgentomographie analysiert werden und es uns ermöglichen die 3D Entwicklung der Strukturen im Detail zu analysieren. Insbesondere werden wir den Einfluss von schräger Divergenz untersuchen. Ausserdem werden wir die Analogmodelle mit numerischen Modellen und mit geologischen und geophysikalischen Studien natürlicher Beispiele vergleichen.

Wissenschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Kontext des Forschungsprojekts

Unser Projekt wird neue und wichtige Einsichten in die Entstehung und 3D Geometrie kontinentaler Gräben und passiver Kontinentränder liefern. Die Gebiete auf der Erde, in denen sich solche geologischen Strukturen befinden, sind oft dichtbevölkert, regelmässig von Naturkatastrophen (Erdbeben, Rutschungen) betroffen und führen ausserordentlich wichtige Erdöl – und Erdgaslagerstätten. Unsere Ergebnisse werden somit nicht nur wissenschaftlich relevant sein, sondern sie werden auch dazu beitragen, ein besseres Verständnis für die Gefährdung durch Naturkatastrophen zu entwickeln, als auch eine wichtige Stütze bei der Exploration von natürlichen Ressourcen sein.

 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 03.04.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Rift propagation in rotational versus orthogonal extension: Insights from 4D analogue models
Zwaan Frank, Schreurs Guido, Rosenau Matthias (2019), Rift propagation in rotational versus orthogonal extension: Insights from 4D analogue models, in Journal of Structural Geology, 103946-103946.
A systematic comparison of experimental set-ups for modelling extensional tectonics
Zwaan Frank, Schreurs Guido, Buiter Susanne J. H. (2019), A systematic comparison of experimental set-ups for modelling extensional tectonics, in Solid Earth, 10(4), 1063-1097.
Effects of sedimentation on rift segment and transfer zone evolution in orthogonal and oblique extension settings: Insights from analogue models analysed with 4D X-ray computed tomography and digital
Zwaan Frank, Schreurs Guido, Adam Jürgen (2018), Effects of sedimentation on rift segment and transfer zone evolution in orthogonal and oblique extension settings: Insights from analogue models analysed with 4D X-ray computed tomography and digital, in Global and Planetary Change, 110-133.
How oblique extension and structural inheritance influence rift segment interaction: Insights from 4D analog models
Zwaan Frank, Schreurs Guido (2017), How oblique extension and structural inheritance influence rift segment interaction: Insights from 4D analog models, in Interpretation-a Journal of Subsurface Characterization, 5(1), 119-138.
Insights into the effects of oblique extension on Continental rift interaction from 3D analogue and numerical models
Zwaan Frank, Schreurs Guido, Naliboff John, Buiter Susanne J.H. (2016), Insights into the effects of oblique extension on Continental rift interaction from 3D analogue and numerical models, in Tectonophysics, 693, 239-260.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Geological Survey of New Zealand, GNS Science New Zealand (Oceania)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Norwegian Geological Survey (NGU) and PGP/University of Oslo Norway (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Royal Holloway, University of London Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2017 Talk given at a conference Effects of sedimentation on rift basin and transfer zone evolution: insights from 4D analogue models 17.10.2017 Davos, Switzerland Zwaan Frank; Schreurs Guido;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2017 Poster 4D Analogue modelling of rift propagation in orthogonal and scissor tectonic settings 17.10.2017 Davos, Switzerland Schreurs Guido; Zwaan Frank;
SUBITOP workshop 2017 Talk given at a conference Studying oblique extension and transfer zones: 4D analogue models and X-ray CT analysis 17.07.2017 Utrecht, Netherlands Zwaan Frank; Schreurs Guido;
EGU 2017 Poster An attempt to model rift propagation 23.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Schreurs Guido; Zwaan Frank;
EGU 2017 Talk given at a conference Studying scissor tectonics with 4D analogue models 23.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Schreurs Guido; Zwaan Frank;
EGU 2017 Poster How sedimentation affects rift segment interaction during oblique extension: a 4D analogue modelling study 23.04.2017 Vienna, Austria Schreurs Guido; Zwaan Frank;
SwissSed Meeting 2017 Poster Influence of sedimentation on rift and transfer zone development: Insights from 4D analogue tectonic models 25.02.2017 Fribourg, Switzerland Schreurs Guido; Zwaan Frank;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2016 Talk given at a conference Effects of oblique extension and structural inheritance on rift interaction: results from 4D analogue models 18.11.2016 Geneva, Switzerland Schreurs Guido; Zwaan Frank;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2016 Poster 4D analogue modelling of scissor tectonics 18.11.2016 Geneva, Switzerland Schreurs Guido; Zwaan Frank;
GeoMod2016 Poster A new analogue modelling machine to study scissor tectonics 17.10.2016 Montpellier, France Schreurs Guido; Zwaan Frank;
GeoMod2016 Talk given at a conference Studying scissor tectonics: a 4D analog modeling approach 17.10.2016 Montpellier, France Schreurs Guido; Zwaan Frank;
GeoMod2016 Poster Influences of oblique extension and structural inheritance on rift interaction: a 4D analog modeling study 17.10.2016 Montpellier, France Zwaan Frank; Schreurs Guido;
ILP TopoEurope 2016 Talk given at a conference 4D Analogue modeling revealing the effects of oblique extension and structural inheritance on rift interaction 02.10.2016 Clermont-Ferrand, France Zwaan Frank; Schreurs Guido;
EGU 2016 Poster How oblique extension and structural inheritance control rift segment linkage: insights from 4D analogue models 17.04.2016 Vienna, Austria Zwaan Frank; Schreurs Guido;
EGU 2015 Talk given at a conference Effects of Oblique Extension on Transfer Zones in Continental Rifts (4D Analogue Modelling) 12.04.2016 Vienna, Austria Zwaan Frank; Schreurs Guido;
AGU Fall Meeting 2015 Poster A 4D analogue modelling study assessing the effects of transtension and inherited structures on rift interaction 12.12.2015 San Francisco, United States of America Schreurs Guido; Zwaan Frank;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2015 Talk given at a conference Transtension and structural inheritance in 4D analogue models of continental rift interaction 20.11.2015 Basel, Switzerland Zwaan Frank; Schreurs Guido;
DRT 2015 (Deformation, Rheology, Tectonics) Talk given at a conference Effects of Transtension on Rift Interaction (a 4D Analogue Modelling Study) 09.09.2015 Aachen, Germany Zwaan Frank; Schreurs Guido;
Analog Modeling of Tectonic Processes: A Workshop for the Analogue Modeling Community Individual talk Analogue Modelling Comparison (invited talk) 13.05.2015 Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America Schreurs Guido;
Analog Modeling of Tectonic Processes: A Workshop for the Analogue Modeling Community Individual talk Analogue Modelling of Rift Interaction and Rift Reactivation (invited talk) 13.05.2015 Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America Schreurs Guido;
Structural Geology Seminar at the Geologisches Institut, ETH Zürich Individual talk 4D Analogue Modeling of Rifting (invited talk) 29.04.2015 Zürich, Switzerland Schreurs Guido;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2014 Talk given at a conference 4D Modeling of transfer zones in continental rifts 21.11.2014 Fribourg, Switzerland Schreurs Guido; Zwaan Frank;
PETEX2014 E&P Industry Conference and Exhibition, London Poster 4D Modeling of transfer zones in continental rifts 18.11.2014 London, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Schreurs Guido; Zwaan Frank;
GeoMod2014 Talk given at a conference 4D Modeling of Transfer Zones in Continental Rifts 31.08.2014 Potsdam, Germany Zwaan Frank; Schreurs Guido;


Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
3rd Science Night at the University of Bern 2017 Performances, exhibitions (e.g. for education institutions) 16.09.2017 Bern, Switzerland Schreurs Guido;
Nationaler Zukunftstag 2016 Performances, exhibitions (e.g. for education institutions) 11.10.2016 Bern, Switzerland Schreurs Guido;
Nationaler Zukunftstag 2015 Performances, exhibitions (e.g. for education institutions) 12.11.2015 Bern, Switzerland Schreurs Guido;
Laboratory demo for pupils of Gymnasium Kirchenfeld, Bern Performances, exhibitions (e.g. for education institutions) 28.01.2015 Bern, Switzerland Schreurs Guido;
Nationaler Zukunftstag 2014 Performances, exhibitions (e.g. for education institutions) 13.11.2014 Bern, Switzerland Schreurs Guido;
Nationaler Zukunftstag 2013 Performances, exhibitions (e.g. for education institutions) 14.11.2013 Bern, Switzerland Schreurs Guido;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media Plate tectonics in the sandbox of the University of Bern Geobrief (KNGMG & NOW-ALW), No. 1 International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Plattentektonik im Sandkasten / La tectonique des plaques dans un bac à sable GeoPanorama, Swiss Academy of Sciences German-speaking Switzerland Italian-speaking Switzerland Western Switzerland Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland 2015

Awards

Title Year
Early Post-Doc Mobility Scholarship for an analogue-modelling related project at the University of Florence, in Italy, starting in March 2018 2017

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
109320 Mountain building processes: a combined field and experimental approach 01.10.2005 Project funding (Div. I-III)
67952 Basin inversion and nappe tectonics: A combined experimental and field approach 01.10.2002 Project funding (Div. I-III)
178731 4D Analogue modelling of oblique rifts and obliquely rifted margins 01.12.2018 Project funding (Div. I-III)
55411 Fold-and-thrust structures evolving from laterally heterogeneous layered sequences: a combined field and experimental approach 01.04.1999 Project funding (Div. I-III)
122143 Mountain building and basin formation processes: a combined experimental and field approach 01.10.2008 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

1. 4D Analogue modelling of oblique extension: from continental rifting to passive margin formationDivergence of continental plates results in the formation of continental rifts and passive continental margins. Although intensely studied through geological and geophysical methods, in particular because of their hydrocarbon potential, the 3D geometries and fault styles of rifts and passive margins and the processes that have led to their present-day geometry remain poorly understood. In our opinion, a comprehensive understanding of the formation of rifts and margins needs to come from combining observations of their present-day structure with results of analogue and numerical modelling studies. Most rifts and passive margins have experienced oblique relative motion during at least part of their evolution and in this proposal we focus on oblique divergence of rifts and passive margins. The primary objective of this proposal is to determine how oblique divergence affects the geometry, faulting style and surface evolution of continental rifts and passive margins. To do so, we will build 3D analogue transtension models. The specific objectives of the scaled brittle-viscous analogue modelling experiments are to assess the following parameters that are generally considered to play an important role on the 3D geometry of rifts and passive margins: (1) variations in divergence direction (from one experiment to the next); (2) variations in divergence rate (from one experiment to the next); (3) symmetric vs. asymmetric divergence; (4) variations in divergence direction and divergence rate during multi-phase rifting; (5) syn-extensional sedimentation (6) pre-existing heterogeneities (e.g., viscous weak zones or pre-cut faults in the brittle layers) (7) variations in divergence direction and rate along strike; (8) the role of irregular margin shapes. As analogue materials we will use well-characterised viscous silicones and brittle, granular materials such as quartz sand, corundum sand and microbeads. We will analyse the evolution of our analogue models by X-ray CT analysis, which will allow us to record and analyse their 4D (3D geometry with time) evolution. In addition, we will analyse the spatial and temporal distribution of 3D strain accumulation in analogue models through digital image correlation techniques of X-ray CT images (with external collaborator Jürgen Adam). A full visualisation of the models and a full quantification of their strain will facilitate comparisons with 3D numerical models. We aim to gain new insights in the 3D character of natural rift systems and passive margins, such as the Taupo Rift, the East African rift system and the Atlantic margins, through analogue modelling. We will compare our results with selected numerical models run by external collaborators to the project (Susanne Buiter, Susan Ellis) and we will test our model results against observations from existing and on-going field and seismic studies of oblique rifts and passive margin (e.g. with external collaborator Pilar Villamor). Our results will improve the understanding of the evolution of oblique rifts and passive margins, a benefit that is important for hydrocarbon exploration, seismic hazard analysis and landscape analysis. The experimental results will deliver information on the physical parameters of deformation, which in turn may be transferred to natural settings to unravel the geometric and kinematic evolution during oblique rifting and passive margin formation.
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