Project

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Mineral resources: Physical dynamics driving chemical enrichment of rare metals

Applicant Heinrich Christoph
Number 146651
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Geochemie und Petrologie ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Geology
Start/End 01.04.2013 - 31.03.2016
Approved amount 846'300.00
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All Disciplines (5)

Discipline
Geology
Mineralogy
Geochronology
Geochemistry
Other disciplines of Earth Sciences

Keywords (14)

mineral resources; hydrothermal fluids; Argentina, Utah, Papua New Guinea; Romania, Serbia ; geochemistry; magmatic hydrothermal system; finite-element simulation; hydrodynamics; geochronology; isotope analysis; stable isotope; laser-ablation ICPMS; fluid inclusions; ion microprobe

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Erzlagerstätten liefern essentielle Rohmaterialien für unsere Industrie, einschliesslich strategischer Metalle wie Cu, Zn, In, Mo, Re, U, Ag und Au, deren Bedarf nicht durch Recycling gedeckt werden kann. Dieses Projekt untersucht die geologischen Prozesse, die zu lokalen chemischen Anreicherungen dieser Metalle in der Erdkruste führen. Die Resultate helfen, neue Rohstoffvorkommen im Untergrund zu lokalisieren, die mit tragbarem Aufwand (Kosten, Umwelt, Energie) erschlossen werden können.
Lay summary

Lagerstätten wertvoller Metalle bilden sich im Erdinnern durch Auflösung, Fliesstransport und Wiederausfällung aus heissem Wasser (sogenannten hydrothermalen Fluiden). Unser Projekt untersucht die physikalischen Prozesse von Energieverteilung und Fluid-Transport, welche der chemischen Anreicherung der Spurenelemente zugrunde liegt. In einer Zusammenarbeit von vier Doktoranden und Doktorandinnen mit Experten in unserer Gruppe an der ETH Zürich verbinden wir (a) numerische Computersimulationen der Fliessprozesse mit (b) genauen isotopischen Bestimmungen der geologischen Zeitdauer solcher Prozesse in der Natur und (c) der chemischen Analyse mikroskopischer Fluid-Einschlüsse in Mineralien. Eine Doktorandin wird in ihrem Teilprojekt die Fluid-Fliessprozesse unter Vulkanen durch numerische Simulation untersuchen und die theoretischen Resultate mit Isotopenanlysen an der Ionensonde ‘SwisSIMS’ in Lausanne testen. Zwei weitere Doktoranden machen hochpräzise Altersdatierungen an zwei der jüngsten Kupferlagerstätten der Welt, um die Zeitdauer des Erzbildungsprozesses einzugrenzen und damit die numerischen Modelle zu prüfen. Eine dritte Doktorandin analysiert Fluid-Einschlüsse mit einem neu bei uns aufgebauten Laser-Ablations-Massenspekrometer, um den selektiven Transport von Gold in dampfartigen Fluiden bei hoher Temperatur, aber relativ geringem Druck, zu testen und so die Bildung von Gold-Adern unter Vulkanen besser zu verstehen.


Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 01.04.2013

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Ore deposits are our primary source of industrial raw materials, including strategic metals such as Cu, Zn, In, Mo, Re, U, Ag, and Au. This project is aimed at understanding the geological processes that lead to localised chemical enrichment of these metals in the Earth’s crust. A physical understanding is essential to predict the sub-surface locations where we can find new high-grade resources, which can be developed with minimal environmental impact as existing mines will become depleted.
Lay summary

Most resources of rare metals are formed by dissolution, transport and re-precipitation of elements by hot water (hydrothermal fluid) circulating through the Earths interior. This collaborative project aims at quantifying the physical processes driving ore metal enrichment in magmatic-hydrothermal environments, combining three complementary approaches: (a) numerical modelling of hydrothermal fluid flow and heat transport (b) high-precision isotope geochronology of young magmatic-hydrothermal systems, and (c) tracing the composition of evolving fluids by microanalysis of fluid inclusions. 

One PhD student will study the flow of complex multi-phase fluids, the transport of heat and mass, and their feedbacks affecting the permeability of fractured rocks. She will then test the results of numerical models with ion-probe microanalysis of stable-isotope variations in vein minerals. The physical models yield hard constraints on the duration of ore-forming processes, based on the balance of conductive and convective energy fluxes. 

Two other PhD students will develop and apply advanced isotopic analysis, to determine the duration of ore-forming processes based on field-derived geological data for specific young ore systems where absolute age dating is most precise. 

A fourth PhD student will investigate the composition of high-temperature fluids using microanalysis of fluid inclusions preserved in minerals. She will apply a laser technique linked to a new ultra-sensitive analytical instrument, with a focus on small inclusions in minerals other than quartz, to test the relibaility of fluid-inclusion preservation and to obtain information of fluids generating metallic ores in garnet-rich replacement deposits.


Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 01.04.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Fluid Inclusion Analysis of other Host Minerals besides Quartz: Application to Granite-Related Quartz-Topaz Veins and Garnet Skarns in Porphyry Copper-Gold Ore Systems
SchlöglovaKaterina (2018), Fluid Inclusion Analysis of other Host Minerals besides Quartz: Application to Granite-Related Quartz-Topaz Veins and Garnet Skarns in Porphyry Copper-Gold Ore Systems, ETH Zurich, Zürich.
The Magmatic to Hydrothermal Evolution of Porphyry Cu-Au Deposits - A Zircon Perspective
LargeSimon J. E. (2018), The Magmatic to Hydrothermal Evolution of Porphyry Cu-Au Deposits - A Zircon Perspective, ETH Zurich, Zurich.
The Physical and Chemical Interplay between Magmatic and Meteoric Fluids in Hydrothermal Systems: In-Situ Oxygen Isotope Measurements and Numerical Simulations
FeketeSzandra (2017), The Physical and Chemical Interplay between Magmatic and Meteoric Fluids in Hydrothermal Systems: In-Situ Oxygen Isotope Measurements and Numerical Simulations, ETH Zurich, Zürich.
Timing and Duration of Mineralisation at the Bajo de la Alumbrera Porphyry Copper Deposit and the Petrogenetic Link to Explosive Volcanism
Buret Yannick (2017), Timing and Duration of Mineralisation at the Bajo de la Alumbrera Porphyry Copper Deposit and the Petrogenetic Link to Explosive Volcanism, ETH Zurich, Zürich.
High-precision zircon U/Pb geochronology by ID-TIMS using new 10(13) ohm resistors
von Quadt Albrecht, Wotzlaw Joern-Frederik, Buret Yannick, Large Simon J. E., Peytcheva Irena, Trinquier Anne, von Quadt Albrecht, Wotzlaw Joern-Frederik, Buret Yannick, Large Simon J. E., Peytcheva Irena, Trinquier Anne, von Quadt Albrecht, Wotzlaw Joern-Frederik, Buret Yannick, Large Simon J. E., Peytcheva Irena, Trinquier Anne, von Quadt Albrecht, Wotzlaw Joern-Frederik, Buret Yannick, Large Simon J. E., Peytcheva Irena, Trinquier Anne (2016), High-precision zircon U/Pb geochronology by ID-TIMS using new 10(13) ohm resistors, in Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 31(3), 658-665.
Numerical Simulation of Reactive Fluid Flow on Unstructured Meshes
Fowler Sarah Jane, Kosakowski Georg, Driesner Thomas, Kulik Dmitrii A., Wagner Thomas, Wilhelm Stefan, Masset Olivier, Fowler Sarah Jane, Kosakowski Georg, Driesner Thomas, Kulik Dmitrii A., Wagner Thomas, Wilhelm Stefan, Masset Olivier, Fowler Sarah Jane, Kosakowski Georg, Driesner Thomas, Kulik Dmitrii A., Wagner Thomas, Wilhelm Stefan, Masset Olivier, Fowler Sarah Jane, Kosakowski Georg, Driesner Thomas, Kulik Dmitrii A., Wagner Thomas, Wilhelm Stefan, Masset Olivier (2016), Numerical Simulation of Reactive Fluid Flow on Unstructured Meshes, in Transport in Porous Media , 112(1), 283-312.
A Middle Ordovician Age for the Laisvall Sandstone-Hosted Pb-Zn Deposit, Sweden: A Response to Early Caledonian Orogenic Activity
Saintilan Nicolas J., Schneider Jens, Stephens Michael B., Chiaradia Massimo, Kouzmanov Kalin, Waelle Markues, Fontbote Lluis, Saintilan Nicolas J., Schneider Jens, Stephens Michael B., Chiaradia Massimo, Kouzmanov Kalin, Waelle Markues, Fontbote Lluis, Saintilan Nicolas J., Schneider Jens, Stephens Michael B., Chiaradia Massimo, Kouzmanov Kalin, Waelle Markues, Fontbote Lluis, Saintilan Nicolas J., Schneider Jens, Stephens Michael B., Chiaradia Massimo, Kouzmanov Kalin, Waelle Markues, Fontbote Lluis (2015), A Middle Ordovician Age for the Laisvall Sandstone-Hosted Pb-Zn Deposit, Sweden: A Response to Early Caledonian Orogenic Activity, in Economic Geology, 110(7), 1779-1801.
Alpine thermal events in the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (southeastern Serbia)
Antić Milorad D., Kounov Alexandre, Trivić Branislav, Wetzel Andreas, Peytcheva Irena, Quadt Albrecht von, Antić Milorad D., Kounov Alexandre, Trivić Branislav, Wetzel Andreas, Peytcheva Irena, Quadt Albrecht von, Antić Milorad D., Kounov Alexandre, Trivić Branislav, Wetzel Andreas, Peytcheva Irena, Quadt Albrecht von, Antić Milorad D., Kounov Alexandre, Trivić Branislav, Wetzel Andreas, Peytcheva Irena, Quadt Albrecht von (2015), Alpine thermal events in the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (southeastern Serbia), in International Journal of Earth Sciences , 105, 1485-1505.
GEMSFITS: Code package for optimization of geochemical model parameters and inverse modeling
Miron George D., Kulik Dmitrii A., Dmytrieva Svitlana V., Wagner Thomas, Miron George D., Kulik Dmitrii A., Dmytrieva Svitlana V., Wagner Thomas, Miron George D., Kulik Dmitrii A., Dmytrieva Svitlana V., Wagner Thomas, Miron George D., Kulik Dmitrii A., Dmytrieva Svitlana V., Wagner Thomas (2015), GEMSFITS: Code package for optimization of geochemical model parameters and inverse modeling, in Applied Geochemistry, 55, 28-45.
Geologic controls on supercritical geothermal resources above magmatic intrusions
Scott Samuel, Driesner Thomas, Weis Philipp, Scott Samuel, Driesner Thomas, Weis Philipp, Scott Samuel, Driesner Thomas, Weis Philipp, Scott Samuel, Driesner Thomas, Weis Philipp (2015), Geologic controls on supercritical geothermal resources above magmatic intrusions, in Nature Communications , 6, 7837.
Lithology and Hydrothermal Alteration Control the Distribution of Copper Grade in the Prominent Hill Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold Deposit (Gawler Craton, South Australia)
Schlegel Tobias U., Heinrich Christoph A., Schlegel Tobias U., Heinrich Christoph A., Schlegel Tobias U., Heinrich Christoph A., Schlegel Tobias U., Heinrich Christoph A. (2015), Lithology and Hydrothermal Alteration Control the Distribution of Copper Grade in the Prominent Hill Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold Deposit (Gawler Craton, South Australia), in Economic Geology, 110(8), 1953-1994.
Magmatic geochemistry and geochronology in relation to the geodynamic and metallogenic evolution of the Banat Region and the Apuseni Mountains of Romania
Gallhofer Daniela, Gallhofer Daniela, Gallhofer Daniela, Gallhofer Daniela (2015), Magmatic geochemistry and geochronology in relation to the geodynamic and metallogenic evolution of the Banat Region and the Apuseni Mountains of Romania, ETH, Zurich.
Salt precipitation in magmatic-hydrothermal systems associated with upper crustal plutons
Lecumberri-Sanchez Pilar, Steele-MacInnis Matthew, Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Bodnar Robert J., Lecumberri-Sanchez Pilar, Steele-MacInnis Matthew, Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Bodnar Robert J., Lecumberri-Sanchez Pilar, Steele-MacInnis Matthew, Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Bodnar Robert J., Lecumberri-Sanchez Pilar, Steele-MacInnis Matthew, Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Bodnar Robert J. (2015), Salt precipitation in magmatic-hydrothermal systems associated with upper crustal plutons, in Geology, 43(12), 1063-1066.
Tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic evolution of the Late Cretaceous arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen
Gallhofer Daniela, von Quadt Albrecht, Peytcheva Irena, Schmid Stefan M., Heinrich Christoph A., Gallhofer Daniela, von Quadt Albrecht, Peytcheva Irena, Schmid Stefan M., Heinrich Christoph A., Gallhofer Daniela, von Quadt Albrecht, Peytcheva Irena, Schmid Stefan M., Heinrich Christoph A., Gallhofer Daniela, von Quadt Albrecht, Peytcheva Irena, Schmid Stefan M., Heinrich Christoph A. (2015), Tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic evolution of the Late Cretaceous arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen, in Tectonics, 34(9), 1813-1836.
The dynamic interplay between saline fluid flow and rock permeability in magmatic-hydrothermal systems
Weis P., Weis P., Weis P., Weis P. (2015), The dynamic interplay between saline fluid flow and rock permeability in magmatic-hydrothermal systems, in Geofluids, 15(1-2), 350-371.
The Prominent Hill iron oxide – Cu – Au deposit in South Australia – A deposit formation model based on geology, geochemistry, stable isotopes and fluid inclusions
Schlegel Tobias U., Schlegel Tobias U., Schlegel Tobias U., Schlegel Tobias U. (2015), The Prominent Hill iron oxide – Cu – Au deposit in South Australia – A deposit formation model based on geology, geochemistry, stable isotopes and fluid inclusions, ETH, Zurich.
Trace elements in magnetite from massive iron oxide-apatite deposits indicate a combined formation by igneous and magmatic-hydrothermal processes
Knipping Jaayke L., Bilenker Laura D., Simon Adam C., Reich Martin, Barra Fernando, Deditius Artur P., Waelle Markus, Heinrich Christoph A., Holtz Francois, Munizaga Rodrigo, Knipping Jaayke L., Bilenker Laura D., Simon Adam C., Reich Martin, Barra Fernando, Deditius Artur P., Waelle Markus, Heinrich Christoph A., Holtz Francois, Munizaga Rodrigo, Knipping Jaayke L., Bilenker Laura D., Simon Adam C., Reich Martin, Barra Fernando, Deditius Artur P., Waelle Markus, Heinrich Christoph A., Holtz Francois, Munizaga Rodrigo, Knipping Jaayke L., Bilenker Laura D., Simon Adam C., Reich Martin, Barra Fernando, Deditius Artur P., Waelle Markus, Heinrich Christoph A., Holtz Francois, Munizaga Rodrigo (2015), Trace elements in magnetite from massive iron oxide-apatite deposits indicate a combined formation by igneous and magmatic-hydrothermal processes, in Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 171, 15-38.
Witwatersrand gold deposits formed by volcanic rain, anoxic rivers and Archaean life
Heinrich Christoph A., Heinrich Christoph A., Heinrich Christoph A., Heinrich Christoph A. (2015), Witwatersrand gold deposits formed by volcanic rain, anoxic rivers and Archaean life, in Nature Geoscience, 8(3), 206-209.
A new aqueous activity model for geothermal brines in the system Na-K-Ca-Mg-H-Cl-SO4-H2O from 25 to 300°C
Hingerl Ferdinand F., Wagner Thomas, Kulik Dmitrii A., Thomsen Kaj, Driesner Thomas, Hingerl Ferdinand F., Wagner Thomas, Kulik Dmitrii A., Thomsen Kaj, Driesner Thomas, Hingerl Ferdinand F., Wagner Thomas, Kulik Dmitrii A., Thomsen Kaj, Driesner Thomas, Hingerl Ferdinand F., Wagner Thomas, Kulik Dmitrii A., Thomsen Kaj, Driesner Thomas (2014), A new aqueous activity model for geothermal brines in the system Na-K-Ca-Mg-H-Cl-SO4-H2O from 25 to 300°C, in Chemical Geology , 381, 78-93.
Fluid Evolution and Uranium (-Mo-F) Mineralization at the Maureen Deposit (Queensland, Australia): Unconformity-Related Hydrothermal Ore Formation with a Source in the Volcanic Cover Sequence
Hurtig Nicole C., Heinrich Christoph A., Driesner Thomas, Herrmann Walter, Wall Vic, Mathison Ian, Hurtig Nicole C., Heinrich Christoph A., Driesner Thomas, Herrmann Walter, Wall Vic, Mathison Ian, Hurtig Nicole C., Heinrich Christoph A., Driesner Thomas, Herrmann Walter, Wall Vic, Mathison Ian, Hurtig Nicole C., Heinrich Christoph A., Driesner Thomas, Herrmann Walter, Wall Vic, Mathison Ian (2014), Fluid Evolution and Uranium (-Mo-F) Mineralization at the Maureen Deposit (Queensland, Australia): Unconformity-Related Hydrothermal Ore Formation with a Source in the Volcanic Cover Sequence, in Economic Geology, 109(3), 737-773.
Fluid inclusion measurements by laser ablation sector-field ICP-MS
Waelle M., Heinrich C. A., Waelle M., Heinrich C. A., Waelle M., Heinrich C. A., Waelle M., Heinrich C. A. (2014), Fluid inclusion measurements by laser ablation sector-field ICP-MS, in Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 29(6), 1052-1057.
Fluids and Ore Formation in the Earth's Crust
Heinrich Christoph A., Candela Philip A., Heinrich Christoph A., Candela Philip A., Heinrich Christoph A., Candela Philip A., Heinrich Christoph A., Candela Philip A. (2014), Fluids and Ore Formation in the Earth's Crust, in Holland Heinrich, Holland Heinrich, Holland Heinrich, Holland Heinrich (ed.), Elsevier , Amsterdam, 1-28.
Gold concentrations in metamorphic fluids: A LA-ICPMS study of fluid inclusions from the Alpine orogenic belt
Rauchenstein-Martinek K., Wagner T., Waelle M., Heinrich C. A. (2014), Gold concentrations in metamorphic fluids: A LA-ICPMS study of fluid inclusions from the Alpine orogenic belt, in Chemical Geology, 385, 70-83.
Hydrodynamic modeling of magmatic-hydrothermal activity at submarine arc volcanoes, with implications for ore formation
Gruen Gillian, Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Heinrich Christoph A., de Ronde Come E. J., Gruen Gillian, Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Heinrich Christoph A., de Ronde Come E. J., Gruen Gillian, Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Heinrich Christoph A., de Ronde Come E. J., Gruen Gillian, Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Heinrich Christoph A., de Ronde Come E. J. (2014), Hydrodynamic modeling of magmatic-hydrothermal activity at submarine arc volcanoes, with implications for ore formation, in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 404, 307-318.
Hydrothermal fluids in epithermal and porphyry Au deposits in the Central Slovakia Volcanic Field
Kodera Peter, Lexa Jaroslav, Fallick Anthony E., Waelle Markus, Biron Adrian, Kodera Peter, Lexa Jaroslav, Fallick Anthony E., Waelle Markus, Biron Adrian, Kodera Peter, Lexa Jaroslav, Fallick Anthony E., Waelle Markus, Biron Adrian, Kodera Peter, Lexa Jaroslav, Fallick Anthony E., Waelle Markus, Biron Adrian (2014), Hydrothermal fluids in epithermal and porphyry Au deposits in the Central Slovakia Volcanic Field, in Gold-Transporting Hydrothermal Fluids in the Earth's Crust, 402, 177-206.
Hydrothermal, multiphase convection of H2O-NaCl fluids from ambient to magmatic temperatures: a new numerical scheme and benchmarks for code comparison
Weis P., Driesner T., Coumou D., Geiger S., Weis P., Driesner T., Coumou D., Geiger S., Weis P., Driesner T., Coumou D., Geiger S., Weis P., Driesner T., Coumou D., Geiger S. (2014), Hydrothermal, multiphase convection of H2O-NaCl fluids from ambient to magmatic temperatures: a new numerical scheme and benchmarks for code comparison, in Geofluids, 14(3), 347-371.
Magmatic evolution of pre-ore volcanics and porphyry intrusives associated with the Altar Cu-porphyry prospect, Argentina
Gatzoubaros M., von Quadt A., Gallhofer D., Rey R., Gatzoubaros M., von Quadt A., Gallhofer D., Rey R., Gatzoubaros M., von Quadt A., Gallhofer D., Rey R., Gatzoubaros M., von Quadt A., Gallhofer D., Rey R. (2014), Magmatic evolution of pre-ore volcanics and porphyry intrusives associated with the Altar Cu-porphyry prospect, Argentina, in Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 55, 58-82.
Magmatic salt melt and vapor: Extreme fluids forming porphyry gold deposits in shallow subvolcanic settings
Kodera Peter, Heinrich Christoph A., Waelle Markus, Lexa Jaroslav, Kodera Peter, Heinrich Christoph A., Waelle Markus, Lexa Jaroslav, Kodera Peter, Heinrich Christoph A., Waelle Markus, Lexa Jaroslav, Kodera Peter, Heinrich Christoph A., Waelle Markus, Lexa Jaroslav (2014), Magmatic salt melt and vapor: Extreme fluids forming porphyry gold deposits in shallow subvolcanic settings, in Geology, 42(6), 495-498.
Melt and Fluid Inclusions in Hydrothermal Veins: The Magmatic to Hydrothermal Evolution of the Elatsite Porphyry Cu-Au Deposit, Bulgaria
Stefanova Elitsa, Driesner Thomas, Zajacz Zoltan, Heinrich Christoph A., Petrov Paraskev, Vasilev Zlati, Stefanova Elitsa, Driesner Thomas, Zajacz Zoltan, Heinrich Christoph A., Petrov Paraskev, Vasilev Zlati, Stefanova Elitsa, Driesner Thomas, Zajacz Zoltan, Heinrich Christoph A., Petrov Paraskev, Vasilev Zlati, Stefanova Elitsa, Driesner Thomas, Zajacz Zoltan, Heinrich Christoph A., Petrov Paraskev, Vasilev Zlati (2014), Melt and Fluid Inclusions in Hydrothermal Veins: The Magmatic to Hydrothermal Evolution of the Elatsite Porphyry Cu-Au Deposit, Bulgaria, in Economic Geology, 109(5), 1359-1381.
Physical-chemical properties and metal budget of Au-transporting hydrothermal fluids in orogenic deposits
Bersani Danilo, Lottici Pier Paolo, Garofalo Paolo S., Fricker Mattias B., Guenther Detlef, Bersani Danilo, Lottici Pier Paolo, Garofalo Paolo S., Fricker Mattias B., Guenther Detlef, Bersani Danilo, Lottici Pier Paolo, Garofalo Paolo S., Fricker Mattias B., Guenther Detlef, Bersani Danilo, Lottici Pier Paolo, Garofalo Paolo S., Fricker Mattias B., Guenther Detlef (2014), Physical-chemical properties and metal budget of Au-transporting hydrothermal fluids in orogenic deposits, in Gold-Transporting Hydrothermal Fluids in the Earth's Crust, 402, 71-102.
Red bed and basement sourced fluids recorded in hydrothermal Mn-Fe-As veins, Sailauf (Germany): A LA-ICPMS fluid inclusion study
Fusswinkel Tobias, Wagner Thomas, Wenzel Thomas, Waelle Markus, Lorenz Joachim, Fusswinkel Tobias, Wagner Thomas, Wenzel Thomas, Waelle Markus, Lorenz Joachim, Fusswinkel Tobias, Wagner Thomas, Wenzel Thomas, Waelle Markus, Lorenz Joachim, Fusswinkel Tobias, Wagner Thomas, Wenzel Thomas, Waelle Markus, Lorenz Joachim (2014), Red bed and basement sourced fluids recorded in hydrothermal Mn-Fe-As veins, Sailauf (Germany): A LA-ICPMS fluid inclusion study, in Chemical Geology, 363, 22-39.
The Physical Hydrology of Ore-Forming Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems
Weis Philipp, Weis Philipp, Weis Philipp, Weis Philipp (2014), The Physical Hydrology of Ore-Forming Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems, in Society of Economic Geologists. Special Publications Series , Society of Economic Geologists. Special Publications Series , Society of Economic Geologists. Special Publications Series , Society of Economic Geologists. Special Publications Series (ed.), Society of Economic Geologists, Inc., Littleton, CO, 59-75.
The Porphyry Cu-(Mo-Au) Deposit at Altar (Argentina): Tracing Gold Distribution by Vein Mapping and LA-ICP-MS Mineral Analysis
Zwahlen Carmen, Cioldi Stefania, Wagner Thomas, Rey Roger, Heinrich Christoph, Zwahlen Carmen, Cioldi Stefania, Wagner Thomas, Rey Roger, Heinrich Christoph, Zwahlen Carmen, Cioldi Stefania, Wagner Thomas, Rey Roger, Heinrich Christoph, Zwahlen Carmen, Cioldi Stefania, Wagner Thomas, Rey Roger, Heinrich Christoph (2014), The Porphyry Cu-(Mo-Au) Deposit at Altar (Argentina): Tracing Gold Distribution by Vein Mapping and LA-ICP-MS Mineral Analysis, in Economic Geology, 109(5), 1341-1358.
The Serra Pelada Au-Pd-Pt Deposit, Carajas, Brazil: Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Zoning of Hydrothermal Alteration
Berni Gabriel V., Heinrich Christoph A., Lobato Lydia M., Wall Victor J., Rosiere Carlos A., Freitas Marcelo A., Berni Gabriel V., Heinrich Christoph A., Lobato Lydia M., Wall Victor J., Rosiere Carlos A., Freitas Marcelo A., Berni Gabriel V., Heinrich Christoph A., Lobato Lydia M., Wall Victor J., Rosiere Carlos A., Freitas Marcelo A., Berni Gabriel V., Heinrich Christoph A., Lobato Lydia M., Wall Victor J., Rosiere Carlos A., Freitas Marcelo A. (2014), The Serra Pelada Au-Pd-Pt Deposit, Carajas, Brazil: Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Zoning of Hydrothermal Alteration, in Economic Geology, 109(7), 1883-1899.
U-Pb dating of CA/non-CA treated zircons obtained by LA-ICP-MS and CA-TIMS techniques: impact for their geological interpretation
von Quadt A., Gallhofer D., Guillong M., Peytcheva I., Waelle M., Sakata S., von Quadt A., Gallhofer D., Guillong M., Peytcheva I., Waelle M., Sakata S., von Quadt A., Gallhofer D., Guillong M., Peytcheva I., Waelle M., Sakata S., von Quadt A., Gallhofer D., Guillong M., Peytcheva I., Waelle M., Sakata S. (2014), U-Pb dating of CA/non-CA treated zircons obtained by LA-ICP-MS and CA-TIMS techniques: impact for their geological interpretation, in Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 29(9), 1618-1629.
Volumetric Properties of Mixed Electrolyte Aqueous Solutions at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures. The System KCl NaCl H2O to 523.15 K, 40 MPa, and Ionic Strength from (0.1 to 5.8) mol.kg(-1)
Zezin Denis, Driesner Thomas, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Zezin Denis, Driesner Thomas, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Zezin Denis, Driesner Thomas, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Zezin Denis, Driesner Thomas, Sanchez-Valle Carmen (2014), Volumetric Properties of Mixed Electrolyte Aqueous Solutions at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures. The System KCl NaCl H2O to 523.15 K, 40 MPa, and Ionic Strength from (0.1 to 5.8) mol.kg(-1), in Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data , 59, 736-749.
Volumetric Properties of Mixed Electrolyte Aqueous Solutions at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures. The System KCl–NaCl–H2O to 523.15 K, 40 MPa, and Ionic Strength from (0.1 to 5.8) mol·kg–1
Zezin Denis, Driesner Thomas, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Zezin Denis, Driesner Thomas, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Zezin Denis, Driesner Thomas, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Zezin Denis, Driesner Thomas, Sanchez-Valle Carmen (2014), Volumetric Properties of Mixed Electrolyte Aqueous Solutions at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures. The System KCl–NaCl–H2O to 523.15 K, 40 MPa, and Ionic Strength from (0.1 to 5.8) mol·kg–1, in Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, 59(3), 736-749.
Volumetric Properties of Mixed Electrolyte Aqueous Solutions at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures. The Systems CaCl2-NaCl-H2O and MgCl2-NaCl-H2O to 523.15 K, 70 MPa, and Ionic Strength from (0.1 to 18) mol.kg(-1)
Zezin Denis, Driesner Thomas, Scott Samuel, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Wagner Thomas, Zezin Denis, Driesner Thomas, Scott Samuel, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Wagner Thomas, Zezin Denis, Driesner Thomas, Scott Samuel, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Wagner Thomas, Zezin Denis, Driesner Thomas, Scott Samuel, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Wagner Thomas (2014), Volumetric Properties of Mixed Electrolyte Aqueous Solutions at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures. The Systems CaCl2-NaCl-H2O and MgCl2-NaCl-H2O to 523.15 K, 70 MPa, and Ionic Strength from (0.1 to 18) mol.kg(-1), in Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, 59(8), 2570-2588.
Adakitic magmatism in post-collisional setting: An example from the Early-Middle Eocene Magmatic Belt in Southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece
Marchev Peter, Georgiev Stoyan, Raicheva Raya, Peytcheva Irena, von Quadt Albrecht, Ovtcharova Maria, Bonev Nikolay, Marchev Peter, Georgiev Stoyan, Raicheva Raya, Peytcheva Irena, von Quadt Albrecht, Ovtcharova Maria, Bonev Nikolay, Marchev Peter, Georgiev Stoyan, Raicheva Raya, Peytcheva Irena, von Quadt Albrecht, Ovtcharova Maria, Bonev Nikolay, Marchev Peter, Georgiev Stoyan, Raicheva Raya, Peytcheva Irena, von Quadt Albrecht, Ovtcharova Maria, Bonev Nikolay (2013), Adakitic magmatism in post-collisional setting: An example from the Early-Middle Eocene Magmatic Belt in Southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece, in Lithos, 180, 159-180.
An anorogenic pulse in a typical orogenic setting: The geochemical and geochronological record in the East Serbian latest Cretaceous to Palaeocene alkaline rocks
Cvetkovic Vladica, Saric Kristina, Prelevic Dejan, Genser Johann, Neubauer Franz, Hoeck Volker, von Quadt Albrecht, Cvetkovic Vladica, Saric Kristina, Prelevic Dejan, Genser Johann, Neubauer Franz, Hoeck Volker, von Quadt Albrecht, Cvetkovic Vladica, Saric Kristina, Prelevic Dejan, Genser Johann, Neubauer Franz, Hoeck Volker, von Quadt Albrecht, Cvetkovic Vladica, Saric Kristina, Prelevic Dejan, Genser Johann, Neubauer Franz, Hoeck Volker, von Quadt Albrecht (2013), An anorogenic pulse in a typical orogenic setting: The geochemical and geochronological record in the East Serbian latest Cretaceous to Palaeocene alkaline rocks, in Lithos, 180, 181-199.
Fluid mixing forms basement-hosted Pb-Zn deposits: Insight from metal and halogen geochemistry of individual fluid inclusions
Fusswinkel Tobias, Wagner Thomas, Waelle Markus, Wenzel Thomas, Heinrich Christoph A., Markl Gregor, Fusswinkel Tobias, Wagner Thomas, Waelle Markus, Wenzel Thomas, Heinrich Christoph A., Markl Gregor, Fusswinkel Tobias, Wagner Thomas, Waelle Markus, Wenzel Thomas, Heinrich Christoph A., Markl Gregor, Fusswinkel Tobias, Wagner Thomas, Waelle Markus, Wenzel Thomas, Heinrich Christoph A., Markl Gregor (2013), Fluid mixing forms basement-hosted Pb-Zn deposits: Insight from metal and halogen geochemistry of individual fluid inclusions, in Geology, 41(6), 679-682.
Geochronology, geochemistry and isotope tracing of the Oligocene magmatism of the Buchim-Damjan-Borov Dol ore district: Implications for timing, duration and source of the magmatism
Lehmann St, Barcikowski J., von Quadt A., Gallhofer D., Peytcheva I., Heinrich C. A., Serafimovski T., Lehmann St, Barcikowski J., von Quadt A., Gallhofer D., Peytcheva I., Heinrich C. A., Serafimovski T., Lehmann St, Barcikowski J., von Quadt A., Gallhofer D., Peytcheva I., Heinrich C. A., Serafimovski T., Lehmann St, Barcikowski J., von Quadt A., Gallhofer D., Peytcheva I., Heinrich C. A., Serafimovski T. (2013), Geochronology, geochemistry and isotope tracing of the Oligocene magmatism of the Buchim-Damjan-Borov Dol ore district: Implications for timing, duration and source of the magmatism, in Lithos, 180, 216-233.
Late-metamorphic veins record deep ingression of meteoric water: A LA-ICPMS fluid inclusion study from the fold-and-thrust belt of the Rhenish Massif, Germany
Marsala Achille, Wagner Thomas, Waelle Markus, Marsala Achille, Wagner Thomas, Waelle Markus, Marsala Achille, Wagner Thomas, Waelle Markus, Marsala Achille, Wagner Thomas, Waelle Markus (2013), Late-metamorphic veins record deep ingression of meteoric water: A LA-ICPMS fluid inclusion study from the fold-and-thrust belt of the Rhenish Massif, Germany, in Chemical Geology, 351, 134-153.
Mafic injection as a trigger for felsic magmatism: A numerical study
Schubert M., Driesner T., Gerya T. V., Ulmer P., Schubert M., Driesner T., Gerya T. V., Ulmer P., Schubert M., Driesner T., Gerya T. V., Ulmer P., Schubert M., Driesner T., Gerya T. V., Ulmer P. (2013), Mafic injection as a trigger for felsic magmatism: A numerical study, in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 14(6), 1910-1928.
Major and trace-element composition and pressure-temperature evolution of rock-buffered fluids in low-grade accretionary-wedge metasediments, Central Alps
Miron George D., Wagner Thomas, Waelle Markus, Heinrich Christoph A., Miron George D., Wagner Thomas, Waelle Markus, Heinrich Christoph A., Miron George D., Wagner Thomas, Waelle Markus, Heinrich Christoph A., Miron George D., Wagner Thomas, Waelle Markus, Heinrich Christoph A. (2013), Major and trace-element composition and pressure-temperature evolution of rock-buffered fluids in low-grade accretionary-wedge metasediments, Central Alps, in Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 165(5), 981-1008.
Solubility and partitioning behavior of Au, Cu, Ag and reduced S in magmas
Zajacz Zoltan, Candela Philip A., Piccoli Philip M., Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Waelle Markus, Zajacz Zoltan, Candela Philip A., Piccoli Philip M., Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Waelle Markus, Zajacz Zoltan, Candela Philip A., Piccoli Philip M., Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Waelle Markus, Zajacz Zoltan, Candela Philip A., Piccoli Philip M., Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Waelle Markus (2013), Solubility and partitioning behavior of Au, Cu, Ag and reduced S in magmas, in Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 112, 288-304.
Temporal and spatial relationships between porphyry and epithermal systems: a hydrological perspective
Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Heinrich Christoph A., Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Heinrich Christoph A., Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Heinrich Christoph A., Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Heinrich Christoph A. (2013), Temporal and spatial relationships between porphyry and epithermal systems: a hydrological perspective, in Proceedings of the 12th Biennial SGA Meeting, 12–15 August 2013, Uppsala, Sweden The Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA), S.l..
Tethyan mantle metasomatism creates subduction geochemical signatures in non-arc Cu-Au-Te mineralizing magmas, Apuseni Mountains (Romania)
Harris Caroline R., Pettke T., Heinrich C. A., Rosu E., Woodland S., Fry B., Harris Caroline R., Pettke T., Heinrich C. A., Rosu E., Woodland S., Fry B., Harris Caroline R., Pettke T., Heinrich C. A., Rosu E., Woodland S., Fry B., Harris Caroline R., Pettke T., Heinrich C. A., Rosu E., Woodland S., Fry B. (2013), Tethyan mantle metasomatism creates subduction geochemical signatures in non-arc Cu-Au-Te mineralizing magmas, Apuseni Mountains (Romania), in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 366, 122-136.
The interplay of non-static permeability and fluid flow as a possible pre-requisite for supercritical geothermal resources
Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas, Weis Philipp, Driesner Thomas (2013), The interplay of non-static permeability and fluid flow as a possible pre-requisite for supercritical geothermal resources, in Energy Procedia, 40, 102-106.
The Molecular-Scale Fundament of Geothermal Fluid Thermodynamics
Driesner Thomas, Driesner Thomas, Driesner Thomas, Driesner Thomas (2013), The Molecular-Scale Fundament of Geothermal Fluid Thermodynamics, in Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry , 76, 5-33.
Thermodynamic properties of aqueous NaCl solutions to 1073 K and 4.5 GPa, and implications for dehydration reactions in subducting slabs
Mantegazzi Davide, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Driesner Thomas, Mantegazzi Davide, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Driesner Thomas, Mantegazzi Davide, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Driesner Thomas, Mantegazzi Davide, Sanchez-Valle Carmen, Driesner Thomas (2013), Thermodynamic properties of aqueous NaCl solutions to 1073 K and 4.5 GPa, and implications for dehydration reactions in subducting slabs, in Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 121, 263-290.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Prof. S. Schmid (Department of Earth Sciences, ETH Zürich) Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. L. Jackson (chief geologist OTML) PapuaNew Guinea (Oceania)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Profs. D. Vance and M. Schönbächler (same institute at ETH Zürich) Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. S. Geiger (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh) Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Dr. I. Seghedi (Romanian Academy, Bucharest) Romania (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. O. Bachmann (same institute at ETH Zürich) Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
SUERC (Glasgow) Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Dr. V. Cvetkovic (Centre of Isotope Research, Belgrade) Serbien (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Mr. J. Bruna Novillo (chief geologist Minera Alumbrera) Argentina (South America)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Dr. A.-S. Bouvier (University of Lausanne) Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Mr. K. Schroeder (senior mine geologist, Kennecott - Rio Tinto) United States of America (North America)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Dr. F. Márquez-Zavalía (CONICET, Mendoza) Argentina (South America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Oz Minerals (Melbourne and Adelaide) Australia (Oceania)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Dr. S. Matthäi (University of Leoben) Austria (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
V.M. Goldschmidt Conference Talk given at a conference Using Zircon Petrochronology to Constrain Timescales of Porphyry Cu Formation: An Example from Bajo de la Alumbrera, NW Argentina 16.08.2015 Prague, Czech Republic Buret Yannick;
GSN Symposium Talk given at a conference Au-mineralising Fluids in the Carlin and Battle Mountain-Eureka Trends – Insights from Fluid Inclusion Studies 14.05.2015 Sparks, United States of America Large Simon Johann Eyre;
GSN Symposium Poster Timescale of Ore Formation at the Young Ok Tedi Cu-Au Porphyry Deposit 14.05.2015 Sparks, United States of America Large Simon Johann Eyre;
State Of The Arc Talk given at a conference Physical and chemical constraints on arc magmatism from hydrothermal ore deposits 13.04.2015 Montserrat, Antigua and Barbuda Heinrich Christoph;
AGU FAll Meeting Poster Timescales of Porphyry Cu Formation: Bajo de la Alumbrera, NW Argentina 15.12.2014 San Francisco, United States of America Buret Yannick;
AGU Fall Meeting Poster U–Pb Dating of CA/non-CA Treated Zircons Obtained by LA-ICP-MS and CA-TIMS Techniques: Impact for their Geological 15.12.2014 San Francisco, United States of America von Quadt Albrecht;
AGU Fall Meeting Talk given at a conference Zircon crystallization and the lifetimes of ore-forming magmatic hydrothermal Systems 15.12.2014 San Francisco, United States of America von Quadt Albrecht;
CBGA Congress Talk given at a conference U/PB DATING OF CA-TREATED ZIRCONS OBTAINED BY LA-ICP-MS AND ID-TIMS: CONSTRAINTS FOR THE LIFE TIMES OF ORE DEPOSITS AND THEIR GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION 24.09.2014 Tirana, Albania von Quadt Albrecht;
CBGA Congress Poster Timing of polymetallic Pb-Zn mineralisation in the Laki district, southern Bulgaria – constraints from 40Ar/39Ar dates 24.09.2014 Tirana, Albania Buret Yannick;
V.M.Goldschmidt Conference Talk given at a conference U/Pb Dating of CA and non-CA Treated Zircons Obtained by LA-ICP-MS and TIMS Techniques: Impact for their Geological Interpretation 08.06.2014 Sacramento, United States of America von Quadt Albrecht;
ACROFI fluid inclusion conference Talk given at a conference Fluid Inclusion Microanalysis by LA-ICPMS: Basics and Some Recent Advances 16.05.2014 Xian, China Heinrich Christoph;
V.M.Goldschmidt Conference Talk given at a conference Invited: Why so Much Gold in the Archean? Some Thoughts Linking the Witwatersrand Gold Endowment to Hydrothermal Processes 25.08.2013 Firenze, Italy Heinrich Christoph;
V.M.Goldschmidt Conference Talk given at a conference CA-U-Pb Zircon Dating Obtained by the LA-ICP-MS System: Impact for their Interpretations 25.08.2013 Firenze, Italy von Quadt Albrecht;
V.M.Goldschmidt Conference Talk given at a conference Subduction-Related to Post-Arc Magmatism and Cu-Au-Te Metallogeny in the Carpathian Orogen, Romania 25.08.2013 Firenze, Italy Gallhofer Daniela;
ESIR Workshop XII Talk given at a conference Keynote lecture: Dating of lifetimes of Cu-Au porphyry systems: limits of TIMS and LA-ICP MS 24.07.2013 Freiberg, Germany von Quadt Albrecht;


Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
Mineralische Rohstoffe: Was bestimmt die Grenzen verantwortungsvoller Nutzung? Talk 25.10.2015 ETH focusTERRA, Switzerland Heinrich Christoph;
Science City: Thema Rohstoffe Talk 07.09.2014 ETH Zürich Hönggerberg, Switzerland Heinrich Christoph;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Short Course "The chain of processes making magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits" 17.08.2015 KIGAM, Daejeon, Korean Republic (South Korea)

Awards

Title Year
Best Paper Award of 'GEOFLUID' to Weis, Driesner, Coumou and Geiger, all funded collaborators of precursor SNSF projects 2014

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
141843 COTHERM - COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modelling of geotTHERMal systems 01.09.2012 Sinergia
172851 Key problems of heat and mass transfer in the earth's crust 01.05.2017 Project funding (Div. I-III)
166151 Mineral resources: Physical dynamics driving chemical enrichment of rare metals 01.04.2016 Project funding (Div. I-III)
155999 The impact of the physical micro-environment of impurities in snow on their re-distribution during metamorphism, chemical reactivity, and transfer to ice core archives. 01.05.2015 Project funding (Div. I-III)
143778 Causes and time scales of fluid release from magma chambers related to ore-forming magmatic-hydrothermal systems, II. 01.12.2012 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Ore deposits are our primary source of industrial raw materials, including rare metals such as Cu, Zn, In, Mo, Re, U, Ag, Au and many others. Most economic deposits are formed by local chemical enrichment in the Earth’s crust, in a process involving dissolution and re-precipitation by hydrothermal fluids. This chemical process is driven by the physical dynamics of the Earth’s crust and mantle. Explaining the spatial and temporal distribution of resources throughout Earth’s history requires understanding the energy required for transporting materials - solids, melts and fluids - at all scales from lithospheric plates to small veins. Thus, physical energy is the key factor that drives localised enrichment of rare elements, in conjunction with chemical gradients in mineral solubility. The idea of this project is to quantify the physical processes driving ore metal enrichment in magmatic-hydrothermal environments, combining three approaches in which ETH’s Fluids and Mineral Deposits Group has pioneering expertise and technical capabilities: • Numerical modelling of multiphase hydrothermal fluid flow• High-precision isotope geochronology of young magmatic-hydrothermal systems • Tracing fluid composition by microanalysis of minerals and fluid inclusions. A particular strength of our research programme is the close connection of conceptual theory, advanced analytical and computational techniques and a solid grounding in geological observations. Field work at major ore systems in cooperation with industrial companies, who contribute invaluable data sets about subsurface geology and geophysics, is an essential training component for our PhD students, and inspires and sharpens our research questions. The practical purpose of this project is to extend basic knowledge for future exploration of essential mineral resources, but also to develop tools and understanding that helps in developing geothermal energy, a new field in which our group is increasingly active through international collaboration. This proposal seeks funding for the first three years of a project expected to extend into a second period of similar duration. It prepares the way to expand from our main expertise in magma-driven fluid systems into lower-temperature basin-hosted ore systems and low-enthalpy geothermal systems. Here, we present three subprojects that will jointly contribute to the central questions of understanding the origin and localisation of world-class mineral deposits related to hydrous magmatism.Subproject A. The physical dynamics of magmatic - meteoric fluid interaction in high-grade ore formation:How does focused flow of complex multi-phase fluids, the advection of heat and mass, and the permeability of rocks influence each other, to generate distinct ore deposit types in magmatic-hydrothermal systems? A PhD student will explore these feedbacks by numerical simulation with our CSMP++ modelling code, with a particular focus on the interaction between saline magmatic fluids and surface-derived external fluids. In-situ ion-probe microanalysis of stable-isotope variations in vein minerals will complement and ground-truth these generic models.Subproject B. Measuring the time scales of magmatism and hydrothermal fluid flow:How long does it take to form a porphyry copper deposit? This apparently simple question has more than one answer because geological processes from the lithosphere scale of magma evolution to the small scale of mineral precipitation in a vein operate on vastly different time scales. In this subproject, two PhD students will develop and apply advanced geochronological and isotopic tracing methods to determine the duration of geological processes that drive magma evolution, fluid transport and ore formation using very young systems where dating precision will be maximised.Subproject C. The chemistry of hydrothermal transport, partitioning and precipitation of ore metals:What is the composition of single- and two-phase fluids near the magma - rock interface, and how do fluids evolve chemically while flowing to the site of ore deposition? Such fluids are inaccessible to direct sampling but preserved in fluid inclusions in minerals. A PhD student will develop a new ultra-sensitive analytical instrument for fluid-inclusion microanalysis. This innovation will give us access to small inclusions in minerals other than quartz because recent evidence indicates selective diffusional exchange of some elements through the channel structure of this host mineral.
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