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KAP-MIRA: Key Atmospheric Parameters by Microwave Radiometry

English title KAP-MIRA: Key Atmospheric Parameters by Microwave Radiometry
Applicant Kämpfer Niklaus
Number 146388
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für angewandte Physik Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Start/End 01.04.2013 - 31.03.2015
Approved amount 500'000.00
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Keywords (8)

Ozon; Wasserdampf; Temperature; Windgeschwindigkeit; Fernerkundung; Remote Sensing; Mikrowellen-Radiometrie; Klima

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Wasserdampf und Ozon sind zwei lebenswichtige atmosphärische Spurengase. Ozon schützt die Biosphäre vor schädlichem UV-Licht und Wasserdampf ist das wichtigste natürliche Treibhausgas, zudem spielt es eine Rolle im hydrologischen Zyklus. Beide Spurengase haben einen Einfluss auf den Strahlungshaushalt der Erde und können selbst durch klimatische Änderungen beeinflusst werden. Es besteht eine komplexe Verknüpfung zwischen der Menge und der Temperatur als auch mit dynamischen Grössen, wie Wind.
Lay summary

Inhalt und Ziel des Forschungsprojekts

Es ist wichtig Schlüssel Parameter der Atmosphäre wie Temperatur, Wind, Ozon und Wasserdampf genau zu messen, damit atmosphärische Prozesse besser verstanden werden können. Dies ist mittels Fernerkundungs-Methoden möglich. Das Institut für angewandte Physik der Universität Bern ist weltweit führend im Bereich der Mikrowellen-Fernerkundung von wichtigen Parametern zur Charakterisierung der Atmosphäre. 

Das Ziel des Forschungsprojektes ist es, die Höhenverteilung von Ozon, Was­ser­dampf, Temperatur und Wind in der mittleren Atmosphäre (ca. 20 – 80km Höhe) zu bestimmen und zeitliche Variationen über verschiedene Zeitskalen zu untersuchen. Dabei sind tageszeitliche Fluktuationen bis zu Trendanalysen über mehrere Jahre von Interesse. Zum diesem Zweck werden selbst entwickel­te Mikrowellen-Radiometer eingesetzt. Weltweit neuartig ist ein Instrument zur Bestimmung der Windgeschwindigkeit in der mittleren Atmosphäre. Zusätzlich zu unseren festinstallierten Geräten in Bern, Zimmerwald und Seoul, für Ozon Wasserdampf und Temperatur, werden mobile Geräte für Wasserdampf und Wind in Messkampagnen in den Tropen und der Arktis eingesetzt. Die erhaltenen Daten werden analysiert und mit Modellrechnungen verglichen.

Wissenschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Kontext des Forschungsprojekts

Unsere Forschungsarbeit liefert einmalige Daten zum Verständnis atmosphä­rischer Prozesse. Diese Daten werden im Rahmen von NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) der interessierten Öffentlichkeit zugänglich gemacht. 


Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 08.04.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Design and Characterization of a Peltier-Cold Calibration Target for a 110-GHz Radiometer
Fernandez Susana, Murk Axel, Kaempfer Niklaus (2015), Design and Characterization of a Peltier-Cold Calibration Target for a 110-GHz Radiometer, in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, 53(1), 344-351.
GROMOS-C, a novel ground based microwave radiometer for ozone measurement campaigns
Fernandez Susana, Murk Axel, Kämpfer Niklaus (2015), GROMOS-C, a novel ground based microwave radiometer for ozone measurement campaigns, in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, 8, 1-48.
Trajectory mapping of middle atmospheric water vapor by a mini network of NDACC instruments
Lainer Martin, Kämpfer Niklaus, Tschanz Brigitte, Nedoluha Gerald E., Ka Soohyun, Oh Jung Jin (2015), Trajectory mapping of middle atmospheric water vapor by a mini network of NDACC instruments, in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 15(8), 12777-12819.
Zeeman effect in atmospheric O2 measured by ground-based microwave radiometry
Navas-Guzman Francisco, Kämpfer Niklaus, Murk Axel, Larsson Richard, Buehler Stefan A., Eriksson Patrick (2015), Zeeman effect in atmospheric O2 measured by ground-based microwave radiometry, in Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1863-1874.
An integrated approach toward the incorporation of clouds in the temperature retrievals from microwave measurements
Guzman Francisco Navas, Stähli Oliver, Kämpfer Niklaus (2014), An integrated approach toward the incorporation of clouds in the temperature retrievals from microwave measurements, in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 7, 1619-1628.
Middle-atmospheric zonal and meridional wind profiles from polar, tropical and midlatitudes with the ground-based microwave Doppler wind radiometer WIRA
Rüfenacht Rolf, Murk Axel, Kämpfer Niklaus, Eriksson Patrick, Buehler Stefan A. (2014), Middle-atmospheric zonal and meridional wind profiles from polar, tropical and midlatitudes with the ground-based microwave Doppler wind radiometer WIRA, in Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7(12), 4491-4505.
A 20-day period standing oscillation in the northern winter stratosphere
Hocke K., Studer S., Martius O., Scheiben D., Kaempfer N. (2013), A 20-day period standing oscillation in the northern winter stratosphere, in ANNALES GEOPHYSICAE, 31(4), 755-764.
Diurnal variations in middle-atmospheric water vapor by ground-based microwave radiometry
Scheiben D., Schanz A., Tschanz B., Kaempfer N. (2013), Diurnal variations in middle-atmospheric water vapor by ground-based microwave radiometry, in ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 13(14), 6877-6886.
Microwave radiometer to retrieve temperature profiles from the surface to the stratopause
Stähli Oliver, Murk Axel, Kämpfer Niklaus, Mätzler Christian, Eriksson Patrick E J (2013), Microwave radiometer to retrieve temperature profiles from the surface to the stratopause, in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 6(9), 2477-2494.
The quasi 16-day wave in mesospheric water vapor during boreal winter 2011/2012
Scheiben Dominik, Tschanz Brigitte, Hocke Klemens, Kämpfer Niklaus, Ka Soohyun, Oh Jung Jin (2013), The quasi 16-day wave in mesospheric water vapor during boreal winter 2011/2012, in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 29007-29034.
Validation of middle-atmospheric campaign-based water vapour measured by the ground-based microwave radiometer MIAWARA-C
Tschanz B., Straub C., Scheiben D., Walker K. A., Stiller G. P., Kaempfer N. (2013), Validation of middle-atmospheric campaign-based water vapour measured by the ground-based microwave radiometer MIAWARA-C, in ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES, 6(7), 1725-1745.
Signatures of the two day wave and sudden stratospheric warmings in Arctic water vapour observed by ground-based microwave radiometry
Tschanz B. and Kämpfer N., Signatures of the two day wave and sudden stratospheric warmings in Arctic water vapour observed by ground-based microwave radiometry, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 15, 371-392.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Sookmyung women's University, Seoul Korean Republic (South Korea) (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Observatoire de Haute Provence, CNRS France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
International Space Science Institute Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic research station, Sodankylä Finland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
MeteoSchweiz Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Astronomical Institute University of Bern Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
NDACC /Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Observatoire de Maïdo, La Réunion island France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Workhop on the Role of the Stratosphere in Climate Variability and Prediction Poster TEMPERA, a new ground-based microwave radiometer to provide continuous stratospheric temperature profiles, 12.01.2015 Granada, Spain Kämpfer Niklaus;
ARISE final meeting Talk given at a conference Dynamics of the middle atmosphere at low, mid and high latitudes observed by the microwave wind radiometer WIRA 02.12.2014 Grainau, Germany Kämpfer Niklaus; Rüfenacht Rolf;
NDACC workshop Talk given at a conference Trajectory mapping of middle atmospheric water vapor by a mini network of NDACC instruments 05.11.2014 Brüssel, Belgium Lainer Martin Lorenz; Kämpfer Niklaus;
NDACC workshop Talk given at a conference Harmonisation and trend analysis of the 20 years time series of stratospheric ozone profiles observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at Bern 05.11.2014 Brüssel, Belgium Kämpfer Niklaus;
NORS/NDACC/GAW workshop 2014 Talk given at a conference Trajectory mapping of middle atmospheric water vapor by a mini network of NDACC instruments 05.11.2014 Brüssel, Belgium Lainer Martin Lorenz; Kämpfer Niklaus;
AOGS 2014 Poster Measurement of Middle Atmospheric Water Vapor in Seoul by SWARA, 27.07.2014 Sapporo, Japan Kämpfer Niklaus;
WMO Technical Conference on Meteorological and Enviromental Instruments and Methods of Observation (TECO-2014), Talk given at a conference Intercomparison of tropospheric temperature profiles retrieved from two microwave radiometers 10.07.2014 St.Petersburg, Russia Kämpfer Niklaus;
WMO Technical Conference on Meteorological and Enviromental Instruments and Methods of Observation (TECO-2014 Poster GROMOS-C, the new ground based microwave radiometer for ozone measurement campaigns 10.07.2014 St.Petersburg, Russia Kämpfer Niklaus; Fernandez Vidal Susana;
EGU General Assembly, 2014 Poster First time series of middle-atmospheric wind profile measurements from mid, high and low latitudes, 07.04.2014 Wien, Austria Rüfenacht Rolf; Kämpfer Niklaus;
ARISE Workshop 2014, Talk given at a conference Middle-atmospheric wind profile measurements with the ground-based microwave radiometer WIRA 26.03.2014 Firenze, Italy Rüfenacht Rolf; Kämpfer Niklaus;
URSI-F Microwave Signatures 2013 Talk given at a conference First continuous middle-atmospheric wind profile measurements with a ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer, 31.10.2013 Espoo, Finland Kämpfer Niklaus; Rüfenacht Rolf;
URSI-F Microwave Signatures 2013 Talk given at a conference Study of cloud effect on the tropospheric temperature retrievals, 31.10.2013 Espoo, Finland Stähli Oliver; Kämpfer Niklaus;
URSI-F Microwave Signatures 2013, Poster GROMOS-C, a new ground based 110 GHz radiometer for microwave ozone measurement campaign 28.10.2013 Espooi, Finland Kämpfer Niklaus; Fernandez Vidal Susana;
ARISE training school 2013, Observatoire de Haute-Provence Talk given at a conference Microwave wind radiometry with WIRA 03.06.2013 Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France Kämpfer Niklaus; Rüfenacht Rolf;
EGU General Assembly, 2013 Poster Stratospheric processes as measured by collocated Lidar, airglow, radiometer and infrasound measurements 10.04.2013 Wien, Austria Kämpfer Niklaus; Rüfenacht Rolf;
EGU General Assembly, 2013 Talk given at a conference First middle-atmospheric wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer 08.04.2013 Wien, Austria Rüfenacht Rolf; Kämpfer Niklaus;
International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, 2013 Poster Design and characterization of a Peltier-cooled calibration load for a 110 GHz radiometer, 08.04.2013 Groningen, Netherlands Kämpfer Niklaus; Fernandez Vidal Susana;
EGU General Assembly, 2013 Poster Atmospheric temperature profiles from ground to stratopause with a new microwave radiometer (51-57 GHz) 05.04.2013 Wien, Austria Stähli Oliver; Kämpfer Niklaus;


Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
160048 KAP-MIRA-II: Key Atmospheric Parameters by Microwave Radiometry II 01.04.2015 Project funding (Div. I-III)
130517 Optical Design and Radiometric Tests for the Multibeam Limb Sounder STEAMR 01.04.2010 Project funding (Div. I-III)
134684 WADI+: Atmospheric Water vapour from the ground to the mesopause: Detection and Interpretation 01.04.2011 Project funding (Div. I-III)
124414 Climatology of gravity wave-induced ozone perturbations 01.08.2009 Project funding (Div. I-III)
160048 KAP-MIRA-II: Key Atmospheric Parameters by Microwave Radiometry II 01.04.2015 Project funding (Div. I-III)
165516 Sampling biases and their reduction in long-term time series of stratospheric ozone 01.11.2016 Project funding (Div. I-III)
133791 R'EQUIP Microwave Vector Network Analyzer 01.02.2011 R'EQUIP

Abstract

It is well recognized that processes in the middle atmosphere are linked and interaction between different constituents take place by chemical, radiative or dynamical processes. This interplay of processes is governed by key parameters of the atmosphere, such as water vapor, ozone, temperature and wind, i.e. dynamics. We dispose over an excellent infrastructure to measure the altitude distribution of H2O and O3 in the middle atmosphere and very recently also horizontal wind and temperature by ground based microwave radiometry. Wind measurements are a novelty as no other technique worldwide has been able to measure the wind speed on a regular basis in the middle atmosphere from 30 - 80km with a ground-based instrument. Also temperature profiling in the stratosphere by microwave radiometry is a novelty. The Institute of Applied Physics at Bern acts as one of the primary stations of NDACC, Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change, and contributes with two microwave radiometers, one for ozone and the other one for water vapor. With our mobile instruments for H2O, wind and in the near future also for ozone we have a worldwide unique trio of remotely controlled radiometers that offer an excellent possibility to participate in measurement campaigns in the arctic or the tropics.The main objective of our research for the period from 1.4.2013 until 31.3.2015: •Operation of radiometers on a regular and reliable basis within NDACC•Investigation of temporal variability of the key parameters H2O, O3, temperature and wind as measured by our well established and newly developed microwave spectro-radiometers•Participation in measurement campaigns in the tropics and the arcticTemporal variability can span a wide branch of time. A particular weight will be put on the investigation of the quasi two day wave in water vapor, ozone and wind, and on the diurnal variability of H2O in the strato- and mesosphere. Data are compared with chemistry climate models such as WACCM also operated in the research group.An important aspect is the participation in measurement campaigns in the tropics and in the arctic where ground based measurements of water vapor are almost inexistent. A key campaign will certainly be the operation of our mobile instruments at the Maïdo observatory, NDACC-site at La Réunion (21°S,55°E), in conjunction with other instruments such as lidar and FTIR. The main aim of the Maïdo-campaign will be the investigation of middle atmospheric water vapor and related dynamical processes, as the quasi two day wave. A second campaign will be in the arctic, at Sodankylä, during winter 2014/15 where the main weight is on the study of sudden stratospheric warmings in addition to investigations of dynamical phenomena in water vapor in relation to the polar vortex.
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