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The role of diffuse radiation for a long-term arable crop rotation at Oensingen, Switzerland (Acronym: DiRad Oensingen)

English title The role of diffuse radiation for a long-term arable crop rotation at Oensingen, Switzerland (Acronym: DiRad Oensingen)
Applicant Eugster Werner
Number 146373
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Agrarwissenschaften ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Other disciplines of Environmental Sciences
Start/End 01.04.2014 - 31.01.2017
Approved amount 350'433.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Other disciplines of Environmental Sciences
Environmental Research

Keywords (4)

Crop growth; Diffuse radiation; Water use efficiency; Net ecosystem productivity

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Diffuse Strahlung spielt eine wichtige Rolle in der Ökosystem-Produktivität. Sie dringt tiefer in einen Vegetationsbestand ein als die direkte Sonnenstrahlung bei gleicher Lichtmenge. Allerdings ist kaum bekannt, wie wichtig dieser Strahlungsanteil für die Kohlenstoffbilanz einer Ackerbaufläche ist. Unser Projekt untersucht den quantitativen Zusammenhang zwischen diffuser Strahlung und Kohlenstoffbilanz.
Lay summary

Inhalt und Ziel des Forschungsprojekts

Unser u¨bergeordnetes Ziel ist, zu einem verbesserten Versta¨ndnis von diffuser Sonneneinstrahlung als Lichtquelle der Photosynthese an einem Ackerbau-Standort beizutragen. Wir gehen davon aus, dass die höhere Ausbeute der Lichtmenge in Form von diffuser Sonnenstrahlung zu einer erhöhten Wassernutzungseffizienz der Ackerpflanzen führen. Um diese Aspekte quantitativ zu untersuchen, werden wir (i) die bestehenden, seit 2004 gemessenen langfristigen Eddy-Kovarianz-Flussmessungen mit den parallel durchgeführten Mikrometeorologischen Messungen verknüpfen und analysieren, und (ii) mit intensiven Untersuchungskampagnen zusätzliche Messungen durchführen, die unser Prozessverständnis verbessern werden. Dabei werden wir intensiv mit Fernerkungsansätzen arbeiten, und die spektralen Eigenschaften der Vegetation aufgelöst nach unterschiedlichen Wellenlängen untersuchen.

Wissenschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Kontext des Forschungsprojekts

Unsere Arbeit wird neue und wichtige Informationen liefern, wie die Kohlenstoffbilanz eines Ackers mit langfristig betriebener vierjähriger Fruchtfolge durch den diffusen Lichtanteil beeinflusst wird. Da der diffuse Lichtanteil auch mit atmosphärischen Trübungen und Bewölkungsgrad zusammenhängt, liefern unsere Ergebnisse wichtige Hinweise, wie sich der Klimawandel auf die Produktivität des untersuchten Ackerbausystems auswirken kann.

Keywords

Diffuse radiation, crop growth, net ecosystem productivity, water use efficiency 


Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 30.05.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Estimating cropland carbon fluxes: A process-based model evaluation at a Swiss crop-rotation site
Revill Andrew, Emmel Carmen, D’Odorico Petra, Buchmann Nina, Hörtnagl Lukas, Eugster Werner (2019), Estimating cropland carbon fluxes: A process-based model evaluation at a Swiss crop-rotation site, in Field Crops Research, 234, 95-106.
Vertical patterns of photosynthesis and related leaf traits in two contrasting agricultural crops
D'Odorico Petra, Emmel Carmen, Revill Andrew, Liebisch Frank, Eugster Werner, Buchmann Nina (2019), Vertical patterns of photosynthesis and related leaf traits in two contrasting agricultural crops, in Functional Plant Biology, 46(3), 213-213.
Integrated management of a Swiss cropland is not sufficient to preserve its soil carbon pool in the long term
Emmel Carmen, Winkler Annina, Hörtnagl Lukas, Revill Andrew, Ammann Christof, D&, apos, Odorico Petra, Buchmann Nina, Eugster Werner (2018), Integrated management of a Swiss cropland is not sufficient to preserve its soil carbon pool in the long term, in Biogeosciences, 15(17), 5377-5393.
Integrated management of a Swiss cropland is not sufficient to preserve its soil carbon pool in the long-term
Emmel Carmen, Winkler Annina, Hörtnagl Lukas, Revill Andrew, Ammann Christof, D&, apos, Odorico Petra, Buchmann Nina, Eugster Werner (2018), Integrated management of a Swiss cropland is not sufficient to preserve its soil carbon pool in the long-term, in Biogeosciences Discussions, 1-29.
Simulating the net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its components over winter wheat cultivation sites across a large climate gradient in Europe using the ORCHIDEE-STICS generic model
Vuichard Nicolas, Ciais Philippe, Viovy Nicolas, Li Longhui, Ceschia Eric, Wattenbach Martin, Bernhofer Christian, Emmel Carmen, Grünwald Thomas, Jans Wilma, Loubet Benjamin, Wu Xiuchen (2016), Simulating the net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its components over winter wheat cultivation sites across a large climate gradient in Europe using the ORCHIDEE-STICS generic model, in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 226, 1-17.
Rainfall interception and the coupled surface water and energy balance
van Dijk Albert I.J.M., Gash John H., van Gorsel Eva, Blanken Peter D., Cescatti Alessandro, Emmel Carmen, Gielen Bert, Harman Ian N., Kiely Gerard, Merbold Lutz, Montagnani Leonardo, Moors Eddy, Sottocornola Matteo, Varlagin Andrej, Williams Christopher A., Wohlfahrt Georg (2015), Rainfall interception and the coupled surface water and energy balance, in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 214-215, 402-415.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Arctic AON/LTER (USA) United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Exchange of personnel
MPI Biogeochemistry/Jena Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of Edinburgh Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Exchange of personnel
ICOS / Europe France (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
COST FP0903 / EU Belgium (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
GHG-Europe / EU FP7 Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
SEON Project UniZH/Empa/ETHZ Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
EMPA/ETHZ/UniBE Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
COST ES0804 / EU Finland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
COST ES0806 / EU Switzerland (Europe)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
173691 ICOS-CH Phase 2 01.07.2017 Research Infrastructure
158542 PSC Discovery Program for Youth 01.04.2015 Agora

Abstract

Relevance - Diffuse radiation plays an important role for ecosystem productivity. However, its effect on the cropland C budget is largely unknown. Global crop yield modeled by Mercado et al. (2009) indicate a 25% increase in the net carbon sink due to increased diffuse radiation during the years 1960-1999. However, direct field measurements are scarce. Thus, these model results clearly stress the need for validation with in-depth experimental field measurements as proposed here.Overall Aim - The overall aim is to improve our understanding of how diffuse radiation affects the CO2 budget as well as the water use efficiency of crops. We will test and develop an integrated method with long-term as well as intensive field campaign measurements at one representative arable site in Switzerland (Oensingen CH-Oen2).Working Hypotheses - We aim at answering the two major questions: (1) How large are the differences in growth response to diffuse radiation among crop types?; and (2) Why is the observed response to diffuse radiation so variable between crop types? To answer these questions, we will test three working hypotheses:1.The effect of diffuse radiation on growth and thus net ecosystem productivity depends on crop type. This will be tested at the Oensingen flux site (arable site) using the typical crops in its crop rotation (winter wheat; winter barley; rapeseed; potatoes; peas/beans).2.On days with clear sky but high loads of aerosols, net ecosystem productivity shows the largest enhancement due to the increased fraction of diffuse radiation.3.On an ecosystem scale, the relevance of diffuse light conditions is most pronounced during peak growth when concurrent improvements of water use efficiency (WUE) are expected under diffuse light conditions.Methodical Approach - The proposed PostDoc candidate has developed a novel data mining approach to disentangle the climatic effect from the ecosystem properties and to understand the biophysical mechanisms that drive photosynthesis in relation to available diffuse and direct radiation. This approach uses an artificial neural network in combination with existing long-term data that are complemented with intensive field surveys during two cropping seasons a the Oensingen arable flux site, Switzerland.Expected Value of the Proposed Project - Improved functional understanding of crop responses to diffuse radiation that can be used by mechanistic simulation models to adequately represent the C cycle of European croplands; quantitative assessment of the effect of diffuse radiation on gross primary productivity, evapotranspiration, and their ratio WUE.
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