Project

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Towards a quantitative understanding of caldera-forming events

Applicant Bachmann Olivier
Number 146268
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Geochemie und Petrologie ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Geochemistry
Start/End 01.04.2013 - 31.03.2016
Approved amount 389'100.00
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Keywords (1)

caldera, silicic magma, volcanic hazards

Lay Summary (French)

Lead
Les grandes éruptions volcaniques sont les seules catastrophes naturelles à avoir un impact global, étant capables de modifier le climat pour plusieurs années dû aux énormes quantités de cendres relâchées dans l’atmosphère. Il est fondamental de mieux comprendre quand et comment les prochaines éruptions vont se dérouler. Pour cela, nous devons nous concentrer sur les réservoirs magmatiques à faible profondeur, qui déterminent la taille et le style des éruptions futures sur un site donné.
Lay summary

Notre principal objectif est de contribuer à une meilleure compréhension de la dynamique des grandes chambres magmatiques dans la croute supérieure de l’écorce terrestre. Plus précisément, nous souhaitons mieux contraindre comment et à quelle vitesse les grandes poches de magma visqueux et chargé en gaz (donc très explosif) se forment. Pour cela, nous avons accès (1) à des nombreuses éruptions de faible magnitude qui précèdent l’évènement paroxysmal, sur lesquelles nous pouvons acquérir une multitude de données géochimiques indiquant l’état de la chambre magmatique au cours du temps et (2) à des nouvelles méthodes de simulation numérique permettant une meilleure prédiction des processus physiques se déroulant dans ces chambres. Ce projet se concentrera sur trois systèmes volcaniques actifs, ayant générés des grandes éruptions dans le passé : (1) Yellowstone (USA), (2) Mount St. Helens (USA), et (3) Campi Flegreii, Italie.

Notre travail générera des informations inédites et essentielles sur l’état passé et présent des régions volcaniques susmentionnées. Nos résultats nous permettrons d’avoir une idée plus précise sur leur évolution future.



Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 16.04.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Trace element partitioning between clinopyroxene and trachy-phonolitic melts: A case study from the Campanian Ignimbrite (Campi Flegrei, Italy)
Mollo S., Forni F., Bachmann O., Blundy J.D., De Astis G., Scarlato P. (2016), Trace element partitioning between clinopyroxene and trachy-phonolitic melts: A case study from the Campanian Ignimbrite (Campi Flegrei, Italy), in Lithos, 252-253, 160-172.
A K-feldspar–liquid hygrometer specific to alkaline differentiated magmas
Mollo Silvio, Masotta Matteo, Forni Francesca, Bachmann Olivier, De Astis Gianfilippo, Moore Gordon, Scarlato Piergiorgio (2015), A K-feldspar–liquid hygrometer specific to alkaline differentiated magmas, in Chemical Geology, 392, 1-8.
Erupted cumulate fragments in rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands)
Forni Francesca, Ellis Ben S., Bachmann Olivier, Lucchi Federico, Tranne Claudio A., Agostini Samuele, Dallai Luigi (2015), Erupted cumulate fragments in rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands), in Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 170(5-6), 18.
Eruption of Shallow Crystal Cumulates during Explosive Phonolitic Eruptions on Tenerife, Canary Islands
Sliwinski J. T., Bachmann O., Ellis B. S., Dávila-Harris P., Nelson B. K., Dufek J. (2015), Eruption of Shallow Crystal Cumulates during Explosive Phonolitic Eruptions on Tenerife, Canary Islands, in Journal of Petrology, 56(11), 2173-2194.
Ignimbrites to batholiths: Integrating perspectives from geological, geophysical, and geochronological data
Lipman P. W., Bachmann O. (2015), Ignimbrites to batholiths: Integrating perspectives from geological, geophysical, and geochronological data, in Geosphere, 11(3), 705-743.
Remelting of cumulates as a process for producing chemical zoning in silicic tuffs: A comparison of cool, wet and hot, dry rhyolitic magma systems
Wolff J.A., Ellis B.S., Ramos F.C., Starkel W.A., Boroughs S., Olin P.H., Bachmann O. (2015), Remelting of cumulates as a process for producing chemical zoning in silicic tuffs: A comparison of cool, wet and hot, dry rhyolitic magma systems, in Lithos, 236-237, 275-286.
Building zoned ignimbrites by recycling silicic cumulates: insight from the 1,000 km3 Carpenter Ridge Tuff, CO
Bachmann Olivier, Deering Chad D., Lipman Peter W., Plummer Charles (2014), Building zoned ignimbrites by recycling silicic cumulates: insight from the 1,000 km3 Carpenter Ridge Tuff, CO, in Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 167(6), 13.
Cumulate fragments in silicic ignimbrites: The case of the Snake River Plain
Ellis B. S., Bachmann O., Wolff J. A. (2014), Cumulate fragments in silicic ignimbrites: The case of the Snake River Plain, in Geology, 42(5), 431-434.
Identifying the crystal graveyards remaining after large silicic eruptions
Gelman Sarah E., Deering Chad D., Bachmann Olivier, Huber Christian, Gutiérrez Francisco J. (2014), Identifying the crystal graveyards remaining after large silicic eruptions, in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 403, 299-306.
LA-ICP-MS Pb–U dating of young zircons from the Kos–Nisyros volcanic centre, SE Aegean arc
Guillong M., von Quadt A., Sakata S., Peytcheva I., Bachmann O. (2014), LA-ICP-MS Pb–U dating of young zircons from the Kos–Nisyros volcanic centre, SE Aegean arc, in Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 29(6), 963-963.
New petrological constraints on the last eruptive phase of the Sabatini Volcanic District (central Italy): Clues from mineralogy, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd isotopes
Del Bello Elisabetta, Mollo Silvio, Scarlato Piergiorgio, von Quadt Albrecht, Forni Francesca, Bachmann Olivier (2014), New petrological constraints on the last eruptive phase of the Sabatini Volcanic District (central Italy): Clues from mineralogy, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd isotopes, in LITHOS, 205, 28-38.
Evolution of the Taupo Volcanic Center, New Zealand: petrological and thermal constraints from the Omega dacite
Gelman Sarah E., Deering Chad D., Gutierrez Francisco J., Bachmann Olivier (2013), Evolution of the Taupo Volcanic Center, New Zealand: petrological and thermal constraints from the Omega dacite, in Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166(5), 1355-1374.
On the longevity of large upper crustal silicic magma reservoirs
Gelman S. E., Gutierrez F. J., Bachmann O. (2013), On the longevity of large upper crustal silicic magma reservoirs, in Geology, 41(7), 759-762.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Dr. Silvio Mollo/INGV Roma Italy (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. Jake Lowenstern/ USGS Menlo Park United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. Torsten Vennemann, Université de Lausanne Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. Schmitz, Idaho State University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. Michael Clynne/USGS Menlo Park, CA United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. John Pallister/USGS CVO, Vancouver, WA United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. Ben Ellis/ETHZ Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Dr. Gianfilippo De Astis Italy (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. Bindeman, University of Oregon United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
EGU Conference Talk given at a conference The origin of a zoned ignimbrite: insights into the Campanian Ignimbrite magma chamber (Campi Flegrei, Italy) 17.04.2016 Wien, Austria Bachmann Olivier; Forni Francesca;
Fall AGU Talk given at a conference Ignimbrites to batholiths 14.12.2015 San Francisco, United States of America Bachmann Olivier;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting Poster Plutonic xenoliths from Mount St. Helens – a window into the magma plumbing system 20.11.2015 Basel, Switzerland Wanke Maren;
Hutton Conference Talk given at a conference Magma reservoir dynamics and the volcano-plutonic connection 21.09.2015 Florianopolis, Brazil Bachmann Olivier;
Goldschmidt Conference Talk given at a conference Erupted Cumulate Fragments in Rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands) 17.08.2015 Prague, Czech Republic Bachmann Olivier; Forni Francesca;
Goldschmidt Conference Talk given at a conference Identifying the crystal graveyards remaining after large silicic eruptions 17.08.2015 Prague, Czech Republic Forni Francesca;
Goldschmidt Conference Talk given at a conference Why Aren’t most high-SiO2 Rhyolites Trapped in the Crust? 17.08.2015 Prague, Czech Republic Bachmann Olivier;
State of the Arc conference Poster The magma plumbing system beneath Mount St. Helens 12.04.2015 Montserrat, Montserrat Wanke Maren;
State of the Arc conference Talk given at a conference Physical processes in magma reservoirs 12.04.2015 Montserrat, Montserrat Bachmann Olivier;
MeMoVolc workshop Poster An amphibole perspective on the Mount St. Helens magma plumbing system 04.02.2015 Pisa, Italy Wanke Maren;
Fall AGU Poster Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites 15.12.2014 San Francisco, United States of America Bachmann Olivier;


Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
ETH on Tour Talk 30.11.2015 Fribourg, Switzerland Bachmann Olivier;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media Der Zeiger steht auf Eruption NZZ German-speaking Switzerland 2015
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Presentation ETH ERDW GSA TV International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Bardarbunga Eruption NZZ German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: radio, television ETH-Experte schliesst noch grösseren Vulkanausbruch nicht aus SRF 1 German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Was tief unten brodelt/What’s brewing deep underground ETH Press International German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Der Spezialist für Supervulkane NZZ German-speaking Switzerland 2013
Talks/events/exhibitions Scientifica Zurich German-speaking Switzerland 2013

Awards

Title Year
Mineralogical Society of America Distinguished Lecturer 2015

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
165501 Towards a quantitative understanding of caldera-forming events 01.04.2016 Project funding (Div. I-III)
155923 Taking apart a ‘super’ eruption: the Kneeling Nun Tuff, New Mexico 01.11.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

This proposal requests funding for a new initiative to constrain the development and evolution of large magma reservoirs in the Earth’s upper crust, and their potential rapid evacuation during large explosive volcanic eruptions (particularly the caldera-forming events of more than ~10 km3 of magma). The issue raised by this proposal concerns everyone: the next large volcanic eruption (with a =VEI 6) will leave a large impact on society, with many direct casualties, ripples of starvation world-wide, and a colossal economic impact. Hence, a fundamental task for the volcanological community is to determine which volcanic systems around the world store large amounts of eruptible magma that could be mobilized rapidly during an eruption.Using a combination of geochemical/petrological tools and numerical models, it is now possible to reach a more quantitative understanding of the reservoirs that feed those supereruptions. Geochemical/petrological data is readily available for large volcanic units and their smaller precursors. Such data now routinely provides valuable constraints on the state of the magma reservoir at the time of eruption. Hence it is possible to draw an evolution path for a given system when nearly complete stratigraphic column can be sampled. It is also now possible to run sophisticated predictive models to determine how magma reservoirs behave through time assuming a set of conditions determined by field and geochemical/petrological data. The goal of this proposal is (1) to compile field, petrological, geochemical and mineralogical data from units in several young volcanic systems with the potential for large explosive event, in different tectonic settings, in order to determine petrological patterns that help predict the development of a large, eruptible magma pool in the upper crust and (2) to run inverse and forward models of magma reservoir evolution to illuminate potential outcomes for a given set of conditions. Due to the inherent multi-disciplinarity of the project, a large group of collaborators and students with different scientific background has been assembled. Such a team will allow dynamic international exchanges and fruitful transfer of knowledge.
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