mega-events; Russia; networks; knowledge; Brazil; economic geography; Olympic Games; actor-network theory
Mamadouh Virginie, Müller Martin (2017), Political geography and geopolitics, in Mishkova Diana, Trencsényi Balazs (ed.), Berghahn, New York, 258-279.
Müller Martin (2017), Mobilities and mega-events: four challenges, one warning, in Van den Broucke Sarah, Wets Johan, Gama Gato Luana, Salazar Noel B., Timmerman Christiane (ed.), Routledge, London, 179-186.
Müller Martin (2017), What makes an event a mega-event? Definitions and sizes, in Frawley Stephen (ed.), Routledge, New York, 8-23.
Müller Martin (2017), Approaching paradox: Loving and hating mega-events, in Tourism Management
, 63, 234-241.
Bailey Kyle, Oliver Robert, Gaffney Christopher, Kolivras Korine (2017), Negotiating “New” Narratives: Rio de Janeiro and the “Media Geography” of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, in Journal of Sport and Social Issues
, 41(1), 70-93.
Müller Martin (2017), What makes an event a mega-event? Definitions and sizes, in Frawley Stephen (ed.), Routledge, London, 8-23.
Müller Martin, Schurr Carolin (2016), Assemblage thinking and actor-network theory: conjunctions, disjunctions, cross-fertilisations, in Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers
, 41(3), 217-229.
Müller Martin, Stewart Allison (2016), Does temporary geographical proximity predict learning? Knowledge dynamics in the Olympic Games, in Regional Studies
, 50(3), 377-390.
Gaffney Christopher, Robertson Cerianne (2016), Smarter than Smart: Rio de Janeiro´s Failed Emergence as a Smart City, in Journal of Urban Technology
Gaffney Christopher (2016), The Brazilian experience as ‘role model’, in Corruption in Sport Initiative
Müller Martin (2016), The multiple roles of mega-events: mega-promises, mini-outcomes?, in International Transparency (ed.), Routledge, London, 133-138.
Gaffney Christopher (2016), Transforming Rio – For the Benefit of Whom?, in ICSSPE Bulletin
, 70, 35-42.
Müller Martin (2015), (Im-)Mobile policies: why sustainability went wrong in the 2014 Olympics in Sochi, in European Urban and Regional Studies
, 22(2), 191-209.
Wolfe Sven Daniel (2015), 2018 FIFA World Cup: isolating Russia could harm global health, in The Lancet
, 385(9970), 749-750.
Gaffney Christopher (2015), A construção de equipamentos esportivos voltados para a elite na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, in Alves dos Santos Junior Orando (ed.), Letra Capital Editora, Rio de Janeiro, 117-144.
Müller Martin (2015), A half-hearted romance? A diagnosis and agenda for the relationship between economic geography and actor-network theory (ANT), in Progress in Human Geography
, 39(1), 65-86.
Wolfe Sven Daniel (2015), A silver medal project: the partial success of Russia's soft power in Sochi 2014, in Annals of Leisure Research
Gaffney Christopher (2015), Arenas de Conflito: os processos conflituosos durante a preparação para a Copa do Mundo no Brasil, in Alves dos Santos Junior Orlando (ed.), Letra Capital Editora, Rio de Janeiro, 185-202.
Müller Martin (2015), Assemblages and Actor-networks: Rethinking Socio-material Power, Politics and Space, in Geography Compass
, 9(1), 27-41.
Alves dos Santos Orlando (ed.) (2015), Brasil: Os Impatos da Copa do Mundo 2014 e Das Olimpíadas 2016
, Letra Capital Editora, Rio de Janeiro.
Müller Martin, Pernet Corinne (2015), BRIC foundations: new kids on the block and the implications for transcultural communication, in Sánchez Yvette (ed.), Gower, Farnham, 131-150.
Müller Martin (2015), BRIC on BRIC: How Brazil, Russia, India, and China view BRIC, in Sánchez Yvette (ed.), Gower, Farnham, 301-308.
Wolfe Sven Daniel (2015), Cities in Relations: Trajectories of Urban Development in Hanoi and Ouagadougou [Book Review], in Geographica Helvetica
, (70), 165-166.
Müller Martin (2015), Das Mega-Event-Syndrom: Weshalb Großveranstaltungen so problematisch sind – und was sich ändern sollte, in Standort
, 39(2-3), 120-126.
Müller Martin, Pickles John (2015), Global games, local rules: mega-events in the post-socialist world, in European Urban and Regional Studies
, 22(2), 121-127.
Müller Martin (2015), How mega-events capture their hosts: event seizure and the World Cup 2018 in Russia, in Urban Geography
Müller Martin (2015), Mais alto, maior, mais caro: Sochi e as Olimpiadas de Inverno de 2014, in O. Alves dos Santos Junior C. Gaffney and L. Cesar de Queiroz Ribeiro (ed.), Observatório das Metrópoles, Rio de Janeiro, 539-545.
Müller Martin (2015), Mega-shock, mini-outcome: Russian authoritarianism and the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, in Grabher Gernot (ed.), jovis, Berlin, 118-137.
Müller Martin (2015), More-than-representational political geographies, in Agnew John (ed.), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 409-423.
Alves dos Santos Junior Orlando, Gaffney Christopher, Castro Demian, NovaesPatricia, Santos Carolina, Rodrigues Juciano (2015), O Projeto Olímpico da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro: reflexões sobre os impactos dos megaeventos esportivos na perspectiva do direito à cidade, in Alves dos Santos Junior Orlando (ed.), Letra Capital Editora, Rio de Janeiro, 11-40.
Müller Martin (2015), Organizations, Geography of, in Smelser Neil J. (ed.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 301-306.
Castro Demian (ed.) (2015), Rio de Janeiro: os impactos da Copa do Mundo e das Olimpíadas no Rio de Janeiro
, Letra Capital Editora, Rio de Janeiro.
Denisova-Schmidt Elena, Müller Martin, Schmid Ulrich (2015), Russia, in Sánchez Yvette (ed.), Gower, Farnham, 207-228.
Gaffney Christopher (2015), Segurança Pública e grandes eventos no Rio de Janeiro, in Alvez dos Santos Junior Orlando (ed.), Letra Capital Editora, Rio de Janeiro, 145-170.
Gaffney Christopher (2015), Segurança Pública e os megaeventos no Brasil, in Alves dos Santos Junior Orlando (ed.), Letra Capital Editora, Rio de Janeiro, 165-184.
Müller Martin (2015), The mega-event syndrome: why so much goes wrong in mega-event planning and what to do about it, in Journal of the American Planning Association
, 81(1), 6-17.
Müller Martin (2015), What makes an event a mega-event? Definitions and sizes, in Leisure Studies
, 34(6), 627-642.
Müller Martin (2014), After Sochi 2014: costs and impacts of Russia's Olympic Games, in Eurasian Geography and Economics
, 55(6), 628-655.
Müller Martin, Wolfe Sven Daniel (2014), Fußball-Weltmeisterschaft in Russland 2018: bereits jetzt die teuerste aller Zeiten?, in Russland-Analysen
, 279, 10-14.
Müller Martin (2014), Higher, larger, costlier: Sochi and the 2014 Winter Olympics, in Russian Analytical Digest
, 143, 2-4.
Müller Martin (2014), Introduction: Winter Olympics Sochi 2014: what is at stake?, in East European Politics
, 30(2), 153-157.
Müller Martin et al. (2014), Sochi 2014: Great games for a great power?, in East European Politics
, 30(2), 153-209.
Müller Martin (2014), The topological multiplicities of power: the limits of governing the Olympics, in Economic Geography
, 90(3), 321-339.
Müller Martin (2014), Umgekrempelt: Sotschi und die Olympischen Winterspiele 2014, in PlanerIn
, 2(14), 8-10.
Müller Martin, Wolfe Sven Daniel (2014), World Cup Russia 2018: already the most expensive ever?, in Russian Analytical Digest
, 150, 2-6.
(2013), Sochi and the 2014 Olympics: game over?, in Euxeinos
, 12, 1-47.
Müller Martin (2013), Sotschi und die Olympischen Winterspiele 2014, in Religion & Gesellschaft
, 41(7-8), 21-23.
Müller Martin, Steyaert Chris (2013), The geopolitics of organizing mega-events, in Munoz J. Mark (ed.), Elgar, Cheltenham, 139-150.
Gaffney Christopher, An Anatomy of Resistance: The Comitês Populares and the 2014 FIFA World Cup., in Wagg Stephen (ed.), Palgrave MacMillan, London.
Gaffney Christopher, An Anatomy of Resistance: the comitês populares of Brazil, in Wagg Stephen (ed.), Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Gaffney Christopher, Gentrifications in pre-Olympic Rio de Janeiro, in Urban Studies
Wolfe Sven Daniel, Mega Events in Post-Soviet Eurasia: Shifting Borderlines of Inclusion and Exclusion, in International Journal of Urban and Regional Research
Müller Martin, Gaffney Christopher, Mega-events and Globalisation, in Terhorst Pieter, Kloosterman Robert, Mamadouh Virginie (ed.), Edward Elgar, Malden, MA.
Kassens-Noor Eva, Gaffney Christopher, Messina Joseph, Phillips Eric, Olympic transport legacies: the case of Rio de Janeiro’s BRT System., in Journal of Planning Education and Research
Gaffney Christopher, Wolfe Sven Daniel, Sochi 2014 - a BRIC on the Road to Perdition, in Revista ADVIR
, 35(1), 1-18.
Gaffney Christopher, The mega-event city as neo-liberal laboratory, in Percurso Acadêmico
Gaffney Christopher, The Urban Impacts of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil, in Horne John (ed.), Routledge, London.
The concept of the network has become a linchpin in recent thinking in the social sciences. At the most basic level, a network can be understood as a collection of relations between elements. While being applied to a range of different phenomena, it has become particularly important in thinking about the flow and circulation of knowledge, as evidenced in the career of the notion of ‘knowledge network’. Almost all approaches to the concept of network share the assumption that networks represent relations between social agents, whether it is individuals or higher-level agents such as organisations. In contrast to this view, this project proposes to work towards a socio-material understanding of networks that sees them as composed of humans and non-human objects. Such a view is particularly apposite when dealing with knowledge, since it recognises that knowledge is never immaterial, but co-constituted with the help of objects, such as documents and databases. The theoretical inspiration for this endeavour originates in a body of writing that has become known as actor-network theory (ANT). ANT has been embraced in a number of disciplines as a welcome resource for rethinking concepts of space in topological terms, that is, as constituted through relations. The move towards a topological notion of space, however, did not see a shift towards engaging with the social and material constituents of networks. As a result, much research has embraced the implications of ANT for the (topological) structure of a network, while ignoring the implications for its (socio-material) substance. The present project seeks to explore the utility of conceiving networks as socio-material in substance through the two interrelated concepts of circulation and power. Circulation is what creates a network in the first place through establishing relations and enrolling initially distant elements to achieve collective action. Power is a result of circulation, since whoever or whatever organises circulation also shapes the ordering of the network and enrols others in its interest.As an empirical case for these conceptual considerations, the project proposes to study the organisation of global mega-events, drawing on the example of the Olympic Games and the Football World Cup. With a budget of several billion dollars and the extensive preparations required for hosting them, these events have grown into major social, economic and political forces transforming cities and sometimes countries. Mega-events exhibit four attributes that make them particularly suitable for examining social-material knowledge networks: (1) geographical dispersion, creating the need to forge translocal relations between elements across long distances of physical space through circulation; (2) the absence of market and intra-organisational hierarchical coordination, resulting in a network form of coordination; (3) transience, making for networks that fade and are recreated with every edition of a mega-event and (4) the high demand for knowledge transfer from previous events leading to a strong knowledge orientation. The project argues that in the organisational environment of mega-events, the material component of knowledge networks is crucial both for forging translocal relations and for creating some stability and durability that allow for coordination in otherwise transient settings. The project proposes to trace the evolution of knowledge networks in the cases of the Olympic Games in Sochi (Russia) 2014 and Rio de Janeiro 2016 and the Football World Cups of Brazil 2014 and Russia 2018. This setup allows for a dual comparison of the evolution of knowledge networks and their socio-material architecture between two different events in the same country and between two different countries in the same event. Five guiding questions will structure the research: 1)How are relations between elements in the knowledge networks forged and maintained (=> circulation)?2)What action do the resulting knowledge networks make possible?3)To what degree do knowledge networks fashion the IOC or FIFA with the power to govern at a distance the preparation for the events (=> power)? 4)Where and when do knowledge networks break down and what are the reasons for this? 5)How is knowing constituted in practice, i.e., how does knowledge become translated into a specific setting?In order to capture the social and material substance of the knowledge networks and trace the emerging processes of association, the project will draw on a combination of organisational ethnography, qualitative interviewing and quantitative survey research. Ethnographic research in the local organising committees (OCs) of the mega-events will provide a practice-based view of how knowing takes place, in the literal sense of the word, in particular settings. Supplementing the ethnographic material, qualitative interviews with key staff from the IOC, FIFA, the OCs and host city administrations as well as with itinerant consultants will be conducted to understand the architecture of knowledge networks. A quantitative survey of OC staff will aim to reconstruct knowledge relationships and exposure to immutable mobiles on the basis of a broader sample. On the conceptual side, the project thus contributes to debates in economic geography and organisation and management studies on the network view of organisations, and knowledge networks in particular, through considering the potential of socio-material networks. On the empirical side, it aims to work towards a better understanding of the circumstances under which knowing practices evolve and are shaped in the transient, translocal settings that have become more and more commonplace through the proliferation of projects in the modern organisation of work.