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Alpine Jahrringisotopen Zeitreihen im Holozän

English title Alpine Holocene tree ring isotope records
Applicant Leuenberger Markus
Number 144255
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Klima- und Umweltphysik Physikalisches Institut Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Start/End 01.05.2013 - 30.04.2017
Approved amount 258'048.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Other disciplines of Environmental Sciences

Keywords (16)

Alps; isotope; glaciers; dendrochronology; climate change; Holocene; tree ring; carbon isotopes; oxygen isotopes; hydrogen isotopes; tree ring width; tree ring isotopes; tree ring density; alpine chronology; Holocene chronology; glacier forefield

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Die natürliche Umwelt des Alpenraumes reagiert sehr sensitiv auf Änderungen von Temperatur und Niederschlag wie der aktuelle Gletscherrückgang, verursacht durch die gegenwärtige Erwärmung, beweist. Gletscher werden schon seit vielen Jahrzehnten zur Analyse der holozänen Klimaentwicklung herangezogen. Funde von Holzresten langlebiger Bäume führten jedoch in den letzten Jahren zu einer Änderung der Vorstellungen über die holozäne Gletscher- und damit auch Klimavariabilität in den Alpen.
Lay summary

Inhalt und Ziel des Forschungsprojekts

Dieses Projekt zielt auf die Verbesserung des Kenntnisstandes zur holozänen Umwelt- und natürlichen Klimavariabilität ab. Dazu sollen erstmals hochaufgelöste, mehrtausendjährige Proxy-Zeitreihen stabiler Isotope unter Heranziehung von Holzmaterial aufgebaut und diese mit anderen Proxy-Reihen ähnlicher Auflösung verglichen werden.

Folgende Ziele verfolgt diese Projekt: i) Aufbau von erstmals mehrtausendjährigen Zeitreihen für die stabilen Isotope C, O und H, basierend auf kalenderdatierten, jeweils 5 Jahrringe umfassenden Holzproben, sowie Durchführung von Spätholzdichte (blue intensity) Messungen am selben Material; ii) Erfassung der natürlichen holozänen Klimasensitivität und –variabilität durch die Analyse von Jahrringmaterial aus Klima-Optima als auch aus kühlen Perioden basierend auf einem Multi-Proxy-Ansatz (stabile Isotope, Jahrringbreite, maximale Spätholzdichte) – höchste Aufmerksamkeit bekommt dabei das gut dokumentierte 8.2 ka BP Ereignis; iii) Überprüfung der zeitlichen Stabilität der Übereinstimmung sowie der Sensitivität unserer neuen Proxy-Zeitreihen mit anderen hochaufgelösten Reihen stabiler Isotope aus dem Alpenraum sowie aus Grönland; und iv) Einsatz dieser Sensitivitäten für die Verbesserung des gegenwärtig limitierten Verständnisses für den Einbau von Wasserisotopen in Pflanzenmaterial.

Wissenschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Kontext des Forschungsprojekt

Das Wissen über Klima- und Umweltveränderungen ist zentral um Anpassungs- und Änderungsszenarien in allen Bereichen unseres Lebens zu entwickeln. Insbesondere gilt es lokale bis regionale Veränderungen zu dokumentieren und zu verstehen, um gezielte Anpassungsstrategien zu den erwartenden Veränderungen zu schärfen und zu optimieren. Mittels dieses Projekts rekonstruieren wir die Variationen der Gletscher als auch der lokalen bis regionalen Klimaparameter wie Temperatur, Niederschlag der letzten Jahrtausende anhand der Baum-Chronologie und stellen sie in Vergleich zu den heutigen Veränderungen.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 13.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Simultaneous Determination of Stable Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen Isotopes in Cellulose
Loader N. J., Street-Perrott F. A., Daley T. J., Hughes P. D. M., Kimak A., Levanic T., Mallon G., Mauquoy D., Robertson I., Roland T. P., van Bellen S., Ziehmer M. M., Leuenberger M. (2014), Simultaneous Determination of Stable Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen Isotopes in Cellulose, in Analytical Chemistry, 87(1), 376-380.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
WSL, Birmensdorf Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Bundesamt für Umwelt BAFU Switzerland (Europe)
- Research Infrastructure
Institute of Wood Science and Technology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Austria (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
PSI, Villigen Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
UFZ Leipzig-Halle Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Department of Geography, University of Swansea Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
TRACE 2016 – Tree Rings in Archeology, Climatology and Ecology Conference Talk given at a conference Alpine Holocene tree ring isotope records - The chance and challenge of establishing multi-proxy records from tree rings for the past 9000 years (Top 10 best presentations) 11.05.2017 Bialowieza, Poland Nicolussi Kurt; Ziehmer Malin Michelle; Leuenberger Markus; Schlüchter Christian;
European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2017 Talk given at a conference Alpine Holocene Tree Ring Isotope Records – A Synthesis of a Multi-Proxy Approach in Dendroclimatology 08.04.2017 Wien, Austria Schlüchter Christian; Leuenberger Markus; Ziehmer Malin Michelle; Nicolussi Kurt;
Interdisciplinary Seminar: Climate Change on Long and Short Timescales Talk given at a conference Stable Isotopes of dendro samples of the last 9000 years 13.12.2016 Geological Institute, University of Innsbruck, Austria Schlüchter Christian; Leuenberger Markus; Nicolussi Kurt; Ziehmer Malin Michelle;
CH-AT Mountain Workshop Talk given at a conference Alpine Holocene Tree Ring Isotope Records 09.06.2016 Bern, Switzerland Leuenberger Markus; Ziehmer Malin Michelle; Nicolussi Kurt; Schlüchter Christian;
TRACE 2016 – Tree Rings in Archeology, Climatology and Ecology Conference Poster Species-Specific Signature of Hydrogen Isotopes in Larix decidua Mill. and Pinus cembra L. in Multi-Millennial Tree Ring Records 11.05.2016 Bialowieza, Poland Schlüchter Christian; Ziehmer Malin Michelle; Leuenberger Markus; Nicolussi Kurt;
European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016 Talk given at a conference Early and Mid-Holocene Climate Variability – A Multi-Proxy Approach from Multi-Millennial Tree Ring Records 23.04.2016 Wien, Austria Leuenberger Markus; Schlüchter Christian; Nicolussi Kurt; Ziehmer Malin Michelle;
European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016 Poster Challenges in Establishing Multi-Millennial Tree Ring Records for the Holocene 23.04.2016 Wien, Austria Ziehmer Malin Michelle; Leuenberger Markus; Schlüchter Christian; Nicolussi Kurt;
Swiss Global Change Day Poster Cellulose Content in Tree rings 12.04.2016 Bern, Switzerland Ziehmer Malin Michelle; Leuenberger Markus; Schlüchter Christian; Nicolussi Kurt;
DACH2016 – Fach- und Fortbildungstagung für Meteorologie Talk given at a conference Die Rekonstruktion der alpinen Klimavariabilität im Frühen und Mittleren Holozän anhand stabiler Isotope von Baumjahrringen 14.03.2016 Berlin, Germany Nicolussi Kurt; Ziehmer Malin Michelle; Leuenberger Markus; Schlüchter Christian;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2015 Talk given at a conference Novel Insights from Multi-Millennial Tree Ring Isotope Records of the Early and Mid-Holocene 20.11.2015 Basel, Switzerland Nicolussi Kurt; Schlüchter Christian; Ziehmer Malin Michelle; Leuenberger Markus;
Arbeitsgruppe Stabile Isotope Jahrestagung 2015 Talk given at a conference Novel Insights from Multi-Millennial Tree Ring Isotope Records of the Early and Mid-Holocene 28.09.2015 Heidelberg, Germany Nicolussi Kurt; Ziehmer Malin Michelle; Leuenberger Markus; Schlüchter Christian;
DEUQUA 2014 - 37. Hauptversammlung der Deutschen Quartärvereinigung Talk given at a conference Stabile Isotope holozäner Baumjahrringe aus den Schweizer Alpen 25.09.2015 Innsbruck, Austria Ziehmer Malin Michelle; Schlüchter Christian; Leuenberger Markus; Nicolussi Kurt;
European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015 Poster Early to Mid-Holocene Climate Variability from Multi-Millennial Tree Ring Isotope Records (Top 15 Outstanding Student Poster in the Climate Division) 12.04.2015 Wien, Austria Leuenberger Markus; Nicolussi Kurt; Ziehmer Malin Michelle; Schlüchter Christian;


Knowledge transfer events

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
172550 Klima- und Umweltphysik: Isotope im Erdklimasystem (icoCEP) 01.04.2017 Project funding (Div. I-III)
132646 STALCLIM - Multi-proxy climatic and environmental reconstructions from stalagmites from Switzerland, Turkey, Arabia and India 01.01.2011 Sinergia
147674 STALCLIM II - Multi-proxy climatic and environmental reconstructions from stalagmites from Switzerland, Turkey, Arabia and India 01.01.2014 Sinergia
159563 Climate and Environmental Physics 01.04.2015 Project funding (Div. I-III)
136295 iTREE-Long-term variability of tree growth in a changing environment - identifying physiological mechanisms using stable C and O isotopes in tree rings. 01.04.2012 Sinergia

Abstract

The environment of the Alps reacts sensitively to changes in temperature and precipitation as visible, e.g., in the current retreat of glaciers as a result of actual warming. This environmental reaction proves the role of alpine glaciers as an important climate archive. Glaciers have been used to understand Holocene climate evolution for many decades. However, recent finds of wood remains of long-lived trees changed the concept of Holocene Alpine glacier variability and our understanding of Holocene climate dynamics. Moreover, these finds prove that the natural variability of postglacial climate is still not sufficiently known. Such knowledge, however, is essential for climate model input and, finally, to disentangle natural from anthropogenic influences on the Earth's climate.Knowledge on Holocene climate evolution was mainly based on low-frequency archives like Alpine glaciers and treeline fluctuations over long time periods. Holocene proxy records from the Alpine region with up to yearly resolution from archives like speleothems and tree-rings became available only recently. However, by comparing low- and high-frequency Alpine proxy records a difference can be recognized: Alpine glaciers and treeline proves a Holocene evolution from a generally warm early and mid to a relatively cool late Holocene, whereas the highly resolved records often don’t indicate such a general long-term trend. The causes behind are not understood yet.This project will improve our knowledge on Holocene environmental and natural climatic variability by the establishment of new highly resolved, multi-millennial long stable isotope records and by comparing those with other proxy records of similar resolution. For the construction of the new isotope records we will utilize calendar-dated wood material from Swiss glacier forelands (Tschierva, Unteraar, Morteratsch & Ried and Mont Miné) and other high-elevated Alpine sites. The already analysed wood material covers the last c. 9100 years continuously. Collected and available material will be supplemented with samples gathered during carefully planned fieldwork. The new isotope records will have a 5-year resolution with calendar dating accuracy over the last c. 9000 years.Within this project we will i) establish for the first time multi-millennial long Alpine stable isotope (C, O and H) records based on calendar-dated 5-year tree-ring blocks as well as late-wood density (blue intensity) measurement on the same material, ii) document natural Holocene climate sensitivity and variability by analysing tree-ring material from climate optima as well as minima periods based on a multi-proxy approach (stable isotopes, tree-ring width, late-wood density(blue intensity) - a priority target is the well documented 8.2 ka BP event; iii) test the temporal stability of sensitivities by comparing our new isotope records with other high resolution Alpine stable isotope as well as with Greenland ice core records; and iv) use these sensitivities for improving the currently limited understanding of water isotope incorporation into plant materials. This is required since newly established millennial years long tree ring isotope records from an Alpine area show unexpected but interesting composition differences between oxygen and hydrogen isotopes on extracted cellulose.This project is based on an established, successfully and smoothly running co-operation between the Physics Institute and the Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, and the Institute of Geography, University of Innsbruck.
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