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Evolutionary genomics of the mycorrhizal symbiosis

Titel Englisch Evolutionary genomics of the mycorrhizal symbiosis
Gesuchsteller/in Sanders Ian
Nummer 144079
Förderungsinstrument Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)
Forschungseinrichtung Département d'Ecologie et d'Evolution Faculté de Biologie et de Médecine Université de Lausanne
Hochschule Universität Lausanne - LA
Hauptdisziplin Oekologie
Beginn/Ende 01.10.2012 - 30.09.2015
Bewilligter Betrag 855'549.00
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Keywords (7)

Fungi; Epigenetics; Plant communities; Plants; Genetics; Agriculture; Symbiosis

Lay Summary (Englisch)

Lead
Lay summary

Mycorrhizal fungi form symbioses with almost all plants. They improve plant growth by acquiring the essential nutrient phosphate for the plant. Because of this, these fungi are strong drivers of plant diversity in natural communities and also important for the growth of all of the most globally important food plants. Over the years, our group have shown that these fungi have an unusual genetic system, in which many genetically different nuclei co-exist together inside an individual fungus. We have shown that changes in the frequency of the nuclei, inside the fungus, have strong effects on the growth of rice. Rice is globally the most important food plant. We therefore want to know more about the genomes in these different nuclei and which regions of these genomes are important for plant growth. To do this, we take an evolutionary and population genomics approach to elucidate the genetic diversity within the fungi and which regions of the genomes are associated with certain plant growth traits. Because we have found a way to alter the relative frequency of the different nuclei using purely natural biological processes that already exist in these fungi, we have the possibility in the future to “design” mycorrhizal fungi with a given set of genetic information.  The work on relating the frequency of different nuclei in the fungi to plant growth will hopefully allow us to “design” mycorrhizal fungi that make our most important crop plants grow better. For this, we combine our lab and greenhouse based genetic experiments with field trials in in Colombia in real agricultural situations with the globally important crop cassava. The applied work in the field with cassava is conducted in parallel on another SNF funded project entitled “Cassava for food security and sustainability in Colombia: Biotechnological application of mycorrhizal fungi” (IZ70Z0_131311).

 


Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 21.02.2013

Verantw. Gesuchsteller/in und weitere Gesuchstellende

Mitarbeitende

Publikationen

Publikation
Mycorrhizal ecology and evolution: the past, the present, and the future
van der Heijden Marcel G. A., Martin Francis M., Selosse Marc-Andre, Sanders Ian R. (2015), Mycorrhizal ecology and evolution: the past, the present, and the future, in NEW PHYTOLOGIST, 205(4), 1406-1423.
The role of community and population ecology in applying mycorrhizal fungi for improved food security
Rodriguez Alia, Sanders Ian R. (2015), The role of community and population ecology in applying mycorrhizal fungi for improved food security, in ISME JOURNAL, 9(5), 1053-1061.
Rapid genotypic change and plasticity in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is caused by a host shift and enhanced by segregation
Angelard Caroline, Tanner Colby J., Fontanillas Pierre, Niculita-Hirzel Helene, Masclaux Frederic, Sanders Ian R. (2014), Rapid genotypic change and plasticity in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is caused by a host shift and enhanced by segregation, in ISME JOURNAL, 8(2), 284-294.
Soil fungal communities of grasslands are environmentally structured at a regional scale in the Alps
Pellissier L., Niculita-Hirzel H., Dubuis A., Pagni M., Guex N., Ndiribe C., Salamin N., Xenarios I., Goudet J., Sanders I. R., Guisan A. (2014), Soil fungal communities of grasslands are environmentally structured at a regional scale in the Alps, in MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, 23(17), 4274-4290.
Density-based hierarchical clustering of pyro-sequences on a large scale-the case of fungal ITS1
Pagni Marco, Niculita-Hirzel Helene, Pellissier Loic, Dubuis Anne, Xenarios Ioannis, Guisan Antoine, Sanders Ian R., Goudet Jérôme, Guex Nicolas (2013), Density-based hierarchical clustering of pyro-sequences on a large scale-the case of fungal ITS1, in Bioinformatics, 29(10), 1268-1274.
Genome of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus provides insight into the oldest plant symbiosis
Tisserant Emilie, Malbreil Mathilde, Kuo Alan, Kohler Annegret, Symeonidi Aikaterini, Balestrini Raffaella, Charron Philippe, Duensing Nina, Frey Nicolas Frei Dit, Gianinazzi-Pearson Vivienne, Gilbert Luz B., Handa Yoshihiro, Herr Joshua R., Hijri Mohamed, Koul Raman, Kawaguchi Masayoshi, Krajinski Franziska, Lammers Peter J., Masclauxm Frederic G., Murat Claude, Morin Emmanuelle, Ndikumana Steve, Pagni Marco, Petitpierre Denis, 20 more authors incl. Sanders Ian (2013), Genome of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus provides insight into the oldest plant symbiosis, in PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 110(50), 20117-20122.
Identity and combinations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates influence plant resistance and insect preference
Roger Aurelien, Getaz Michael, Rasmann Sergio, Sanders Ian R. (2013), Identity and combinations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates influence plant resistance and insect preference, in ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, 38(4), 330-338.
Predicting community and ecosystem outcomes of mycorrhizal responses to global change
Johnson Nancy C., Angelard Caroline, Sanders Ian R., Kiers Toby E. (2013), Predicting community and ecosystem outcomes of mycorrhizal responses to global change, in ECOLOGY LETTERS, 16, 140-153.
Relatedness among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi drives plant growth and intraspecific fungal coexistence
Roger Aurelien, Colard Alexandre, Angelard Caroline, Sanders Ian R. (2013), Relatedness among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi drives plant growth and intraspecific fungal coexistence, in ISME JOURNAL, 7(11), 2137-2146.
Significant genetic and phenotypic changes arising from clonal growth of a single spore of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus over multiple generations
Ehinger Martine O., Croll Daniel, Koch Alexander M., Sanders Ian R. (2012), Significant genetic and phenotypic changes arising from clonal growth of a single spore of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus over multiple generations, in NEW PHYTOLOGIST, 196(3), 853-861.

Zusammenarbeit

Gruppe / Person Land
Formen der Zusammenarbeit
Symbiom (Small enterprise) Tschechische Republik (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Industrie/Wirtschaft/weitere anwendungs-orientierte Zusammenarbeit
Dr. Francis Martin, INRA, Nancy Frankreich (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
Prof. Alia Rodriguez, National University of Colombia, Bogota Kolumbien (Südamerika)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
- Austausch von Mitarbeitern
Ioannis Xenarios, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics & Vital-IT Schweiz (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
- Forschungsinfrastrukturen
Marco Pagni, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics & Vital-IT Schweiz (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
Mycovitro S.L, Granada Spanien (Europa)
- Industrie/Wirtschaft/weitere anwendungs-orientierte Zusammenarbeit

Wissenschaftliche Veranstaltungen

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
2nd International Molecular Mycorrhiza Meeting Poster Heterokaryosis or homokaryosis within isolates of the fungus Rhizophagus irregularis? Insights from a population study 03.09.2015 Cambridge, Grossbritannien und Nordirland Wyss Lozano Hoyos Tania; Masclaux Frédéric; Sanders Ian;
2nd International Molecular Mycorrhiza Meeting Poster Quantitative genetic differences among siblings reveal partial segregation in a multinucleate clonal mycorrhizal fungi Rhizophagus irregularis 03.09.2015 Cambridge, Grossbritannien und Nordirland Mateus Gonzalez Ivan Dario; Savary Romain; Masclaux Frédéric; Wyss Lozano Hoyos Tania;
2nd International Molecular Mycorrhiza Meeting Poster Population genomics of the symbiotic fungus: Rhizophagus irregularis 02.09.2015 Cambridge, Grossbritannien und Nordirland Sanders Ian; Savary Romain; Masclaux Frédéric;
European Society for Evolutionary Biology 2015 Poster Population genomics of the symbiotic fungus Rhizophagus irregularis suggests intercontinental dispersal 10.08.2015 Lausanne, Schweiz Masclaux Frédéric; Sanders Ian; Savary Romain;
European Society for Evolutionary Biology 2015 Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Quantitative genetic differences among siblings reveal partial segregation in a multinucleate clonal mycorrhizal fungi Rhizophagus irregularis 10.08.2015 Lausanne, Schweiz Masclaux Frédéric; Mateus Gonzalez Ivan Dario;
8th International Conference on Mycorrhiza Poster A population genomics approach reveals variable levels of heterokaryosis in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis 03.08.2015 Flagstaff, Arizona, Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika Wyss Lozano Hoyos Tania; Masclaux Frédéric;
Rhizosphere 4 Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung A microbial green revolution: Breeding microbes to feed the planet 22.06.2015 Maastricht, Niederlande Sanders Ian;
Evolution 2014 Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Allele changes during spore formation on the mycorrhizal fungi 20.06.2014 Raleigh, North Carolina, Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika Mateus Gonzalez Ivan Dario; Masclaux Frédéric;
33rd New Phytologist Symposium Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Why population and evolutionary genomics of mycorrhizal fungi is important for feeding the planet 30.05.2014 Rechenholz, Schweiz Sanders Ian; Savary Romain; Masclaux Frédéric; Wyss Lozano Hoyos Tania;
33rd New Phytologist Symposium Poster Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi intra-specific competition under herbivory stress revealed by pyromarkTM technology 15.05.2014 Rechenholz, Schweiz Sanders Ian; Villard Lucas;
33rd New Phytologist Symposium Poster Quantitative genetic differences among siblings reveal partial segregation in a multinucleate clonal mycorrhizal fungi Rhizophagus irregularis 14.05.2014 Rechenholz, Schweiz Masclaux Frédéric; Wyss Lozano Hoyos Tania;
33rd New Phytologist Symposium Poster Population genomics of an important plant symbiont 14.05.2014 Rechenholz, Schweiz Masclaux Frédéric; Savary Romain; Sanders Ian;
33rd New Phytologist Symposium Poster Genetic diversity in coding regions within a population of Rhizophagus irregularis 14.05.2014 Rechenholz, Schweiz Masclaux Frédéric; Wyss Lozano Hoyos Tania;
33rd New Phytologist Symposium Poster Heterokaryosis or homokaryosis within isolates of the fungus Rhizophagus irregularis? 14.05.2014 Rechenholz, Schweiz Wyss Lozano Hoyos Tania; Masclaux Frédéric; Sanders Ian;
INRA Nancy Seminar Series Einzelvortrag Genetic polymorphisms and genomics in mycorrhizal fungi 27.11.2013 INRA, Nancy, Frankreich Wyss Lozano Hoyos Tania; Masclaux Frédéric; Sanders Ian;
INRA Nancy Seminar Series Einzelvortrag Genetic polymorphism among and within isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis 27.11.2013 INRA, Nancy, Frankreich Masclaux Frédéric;
1St Global Food Security Conference Poster Can we breed microbes to improve the production of globally important crops 29.09.2013 Noordverjikerhout, Niederlande Sanders Ian;
ETHZ Seminar Series Einzelvortrag Adapting mycorrhizal fungi to improve the yields of globally important crops 23.05.2013 Zurich ETH, Schweiz Sanders Ian;
American Association for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Adapting mycorrhizal fungi to improve yields of globally important crops 17.02.2013 Boston, Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika Sanders Ian;
7th International Conference on Mycorrhiza Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Large spatial-scale metagenomic analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities in western Switzerland 08.01.2013 New Dehli, Indien Villard Lucas;
7th International Conference on Mycorrhiza Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Investigating intra-specific genetic diversity in a population of Rhizophagus irregularis using high throughput sequencing techniques 06.01.2013 New Dehli, Indien Masclaux Frédéric; Wyss Lozano Hoyos Tania;


Veranstaltungen zum Wissenstransfer

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
Public lecture on Using Microbes to Improve Food Security 11.02.2015 Bogota, Kolumbien


Verbundene Projekte

Nummer Titel Start Förderungsinstrument
131311 Cassava for food security and sustainability in Colombia: Biotechnological application of mycorrhizal fungi 01.08.2011 Forschungspartnerschaften mit Entwicklungsländern
159665 A microbial revolution: Improving mycorrhizal fungi to increase cassava productivity in Africa 01.04.2016 Interdisziplinäre Projekte
127371 Evolutionary genetics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its effect on the mycorrhizal symbiosis: from genomics and transcriptomics to its application 01.10.2009 Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)
162549 From population genomics to variation in symbiotic effects of mycorrhizal fungi on plants 01.12.2015 Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)

Abstract

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important symbionts of plants. My group has taken a population and evolutionary genetics approach to study the genetic diversity of these fungi and its consequence for the symbiosis. We have shown in our previous work that by manipulating the natural genetic variation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, using purely natural processes that occur in the fungi, we can considerably alter plant growth. Novel AMF lines, after crossing and segregation, can result in large growth increases in the plants or large decreases in growth. Because our manipulation of AMF involves crossing the fungi and then allowing genetic material to segregate in the offspring, it should be possible to “breed” AMF lines with greater effects on plant growth and efficiency in phosphate acquisition. However, at present we have no way of predicting which lines will be the most effective symbionts based on their genetic composition. In particular, we need to know which alleles in the fungus are associated with given quantitative plant traits. This is not a trivial exercise as the fungi do not display normal Mendelian inheritance and changes in plant growth are associated with quantitative changes in the presence of given alleles not only qualitative changes. This project will allow us to develop a very large set of genetic markers and at the same time contribute to filling unassembled gaps in the AMF genome. We will then generate crossed and segregated lines of the fungus and using the markers we will associate their genetic composition with quantitative plant growth traits. We will also use some very new DNA sequencing technology that allows the detection of sites in the DNA that have modifications such as methylation. This will allow us to develop a set of markers that potentially could result in epigenetic effects in the fungus that have consequences for the growth of plants in symbiosis. We will carry out an analysis to see if the presence of some of these “potentially epigenetic” markers in the fungus influence plant growth. If successful, this completely novel approach could be applied to many different organisms and questions in biology and medicine. AMF lines generated on this project and characterised genetically and in terms of their effects on plant growth will be used on an other Swiss NSF project to assess their beneficial effects on growth of cassava; a globally important food plant.
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