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Evolutionary adaptation to chronic malnutrition in Drosophila

Titel Englisch Evolutionary adaptation to chronic malnutrition in Drosophila
Gesuchsteller/in Kawecki Tadeusz
Nummer 143939
Förderungsinstrument Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)
Forschungseinrichtung Département d'Ecologie et d'Evolution Faculté de Biologie et de Médecine Université de Lausanne
Hochschule Universität Lausanne - LA
Hauptdisziplin Zoologie
Beginn/Ende 01.12.2012 - 31.01.2016
Bewilligter Betrag 630'000.00
Alle Daten anzeigen

Alle Disziplinen (3)

Disziplin
Zoologie
Genetik
Oekologie

Keywords (6)

evolution; population genomics; drosophila; behavior; malnutrition; immunity

Lay Summary (Englisch)

Lead
Lay summary
Many animal species, sadly still including humans in some regions, must live through periods of famine. The ability to survive, develop and even reproduce under such nutritional stress must have been favored by natural selection, leading to the evolution of specific adaptations improving malnutrition tolerance. While some of these adaptations can be inferred from flexible physiological responses of individual animals to malnutrition, a more direct way to study such adaptations is to which traits change genetically in populations regularly exposed to malnutrition over many generations. We use this experimental evolution approach: we study in real time evolutionary changes in laboratory populations of fruit flies (Drosophila) exposed to chronic juvenile malnutrition for over 150 generations. In this project, we study the behavioral aspects of adaptation to malnutrition, associated costs in terms of immunity, and use latest sequencing technology to identify candidate genetic changes responsible for better tolerance to malnutrition. Adaptations to tolerate malnutrition have been proposed to be partially responsible for human vulnerability to metabolic diseases and some age-related medical problems (the "thrifty genotype hypothesis"). As responses to nutrition involve similar signaling pathways in human and flies, our research will throw light on processes that are also relevant for human health and well-being.
Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 21.02.2013

Verantw. Gesuchsteller/in und weitere Gesuchstellende

Mitarbeitende

Publikationen

Publikation
Idiosyncratic evolution of maternal effects in response to juvenile malnutrition in Drosophila.
Vijendravarma R K, Kawecki T J (2015), Idiosyncratic evolution of maternal effects in response to juvenile malnutrition in Drosophila., in Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 28(4), 876.
Prepupal building behavior in Drosophila melanogaster and its evolution under resource and time constraints
Narasimha Sunitha, Kolly Sylvain, Sokolowski Marla B., Kawecki Tadeusz J., Vijendravarma Roshan K. (2015), Prepupal building behavior in Drosophila melanogaster and its evolution under resource and time constraints, in PLOS ONE, 10(2), e0117280.
Quantitative genetics of learning ability and resistance to stress in Drosophila melanogaster
Nepoux Virginie, Babin Aurelie, Haag Christoph, Kawecki Tadeusz J., Le Rouzic Arnaud (2015), Quantitative genetics of learning ability and resistance to stress in Drosophila melanogaster, in ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 5(3), 543-556.
Evolution under monogamy feminizes gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster.
Hollis Brian, Houle David, Yan Zheng, Kawecki Tadeusz J, Keller Laurent (2014), Evolution under monogamy feminizes gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster., in Nature communications, 5, 3482-3482.
Epistasis and maternal effects in experimental adaptation to chronic nutritional stress in Drosophila
Vijendravarma R. K., Kawecki T. J. (2013), Epistasis and maternal effects in experimental adaptation to chronic nutritional stress in Drosophila, in JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, 26(12), 2566-2580.
Predatory cannibalism in Drosophila melanogaster larvae
Vijendravarma Roshan K., Narasimha Sunitha, Kawecki Tadeusz J. (2013), Predatory cannibalism in Drosophila melanogaster larvae, in NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 4, 1789.
Gut physiology mediates a trade-off between adaptation to malnutrition and susceptibility to food-borne pathogens
Vijendravarma R. K., Narasimha S., Chakrabarti S., Babin A., Kolly S, Lemaitre B., Kawecki T. J., Gut physiology mediates a trade-off between adaptation to malnutrition and susceptibility to food-borne pathogens, in Ecology Letters.

Zusammenarbeit

Gruppe / Person Land
Formen der Zusammenarbeit
Vital-IT, University of Lausanne Schweiz (Europa)
- Publikation
- Forschungsinfrastrukturen
Brian Hollis, Imperial College London Grossbritannien und Nordirland (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
Jerome Goudet, Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne Schweiz (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
Bruno Lemaitre, EPFL Schweiz (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
- Austausch von Mitarbeitern
Arnaud le Rouzic, CNRS Frankreich (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
Aleksey Maklakov, University of Uppsala Schweden (Europa)
- Publikation
- Austausch von Mitarbeitern
Christophe Haag, CNRS Frankreich (Europa)
- Publikation
Marc Robinson-Rechavi, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Univeristy of Lausanne Schweiz (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
Marla Sokolowski, University of Toronto Kanada (Nordamerika)
- Publikation

Wissenschaftliche Veranstaltungen

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
15th Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology Poster Evolution of behaviors in response to chronic malnutrition in Drosophila melanogaster 10.08.2015 Lausanne, Schweiz Vijendravarma Roshan; Kawecki Tadeusz;
15th Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Trade-off between dual roles of the gut in nutrient acquisition and immune defense: Experimental evolution and physiological basis 09.08.2015 Lausanne, Schweiz Kawecki Tadeusz; Vijendravarma Roshan;
Swiss Drosophila Meeting Poster A genome-wide analysis of experimental lineages of fruit flies exposed to chronic larval malnutrition for over 150 generations 24.04.2015 Lausanne, Schweiz Stillwell Roger Craig;
Symposiusm "Nutrition, Behavior and Life History"; meeting of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Life History and Behavioral Adaptations to Chronic Malnutrition in Drosophila 02.08.2014 New York, Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika Vijendravarma Roshan;
Annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolutoin Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Whole genome resequencing of experimental lineages of Drosophila exposed to chronic larval malnutrition for over 150 generations 20.06.2014 Raleigh, North Carolina, Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika Stillwell Roger Craig;
Systems Genetics and Evolution of Model Organisms Poster Whole genome resequencing of experimental lineages of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to chronic malnutriton for over 150 generations 18.05.2014 Ascona, Schweiz Stillwell Roger Craig;
Meeting of the evolutionary biology group of the German Zoological Society Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Evolutionary consequences of sexual selection: from cognition to gene expression 19.03.2014 University of Bremen, Deutschland Kawecki Tadeusz;
Gordon Research Conference "Genes and Behavior" Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Evolution of Predatory cannibalism in Drosophila melanogaster larvae 09.02.2014 Galveston, Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika Vijendravarma Roshan;
14th Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Predatory cannibalism in Drosophila melanogaster larvae 19.08.2013 Lisbon, Portugal Vijendravarma Roshan;


Verbundene Projekte

Nummer Titel Start Förderungsinstrument
135116 Population genomics of evolutionary response to nutritional stress in Drosophila 01.09.2011 ProDoc (Forschungsmodul, FM)
162732 Evolutionary adaptation of gut and microbiome to chronic malnutrition in Drosophila 01.02.2016 Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)

Abstract

The general aim of the proposed research is to understand how evolution shapes animal phenotypes and genomes in response to natural selection imposed by chronic exposure to juvenile malnutrition. The project takes advantage of six replicate experimental Drosophila populations derived from nature and maintained for >120 generations on a nutritionally poor larval food. Compared to six Control populations of the same origin, these Selected populations now survive much better and develop and grow markedly faster the poor food. This indicates that they have evolved mechanisms allowing them to cope better with malnutrition. However, they also show evidence of trade-offs in life history and immunity. The Selected populations thus represent biological replicates of an evolutionary process of adaptation and can be used as a model to study how species may adapt to chronic nutritional stress over evolutionary time. We are aiming to unravel the mechanisms that mediate the malnutrition tolerance of the Selected populations and mediate the trade-offs. Within this broad framework, I propose here three projects which address three aspects of evolutionary adaptation to malnutrition.First, I propose to study how evolution under malnutrition modulates sensory and behavioral responses to food. Fine tuning sensory capacities and behavioral responses may help the animal to make best of the bad food situation; on the other hand, such changes may be costly. Using behavioral experiments, we would address a number of specific questions about evolutionary changes in the ability to detect small variation in food quality, overcome aversion to heat or pain to approach food, or remember odors previously associated with food. Second, I aim to investigate an apparent trade-off between tolerance to malnutrition and immunity to intestinal pathogens: the Selected populations are more susceptible than Controls to oral but not systemic infections with the pathogen Pseudomonas entomophila. I plan to capitalize on recent advances in understanding of the interaction between gut pathogens and the host's defenses to elucidate the mechanisms and extent of this trade-off. In addition to its role in nutrient acquisition, the gut acts as an immune organ protecting the organism from pathogens ingested with food, and these results will throw light on the degree in which these two functions may compromise each other. Third, I propose to use next generation sequencing to resequence the genomes of the Selected and Control populations. Together with an ongoing transcriptome sequencing project (RNAseq), this would help to unravel the genomic basis of evolutionary change driven by malnutrition and generate new hypotheses about the molecular and physiological bases of improved malnutrition tolerance. It would also create synergism with the above two projects, as experimental data can direct the search for signatures of selection to particular genes, while finding genes showing signs of selection can point to hypotheses and experimentsGenetically-based physiological and behavioral adaptations to malnutrition have been suggested to play an important role in the human susceptibility to disease. Our study would throw light on such putative links in a model species.
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