Project

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Linking retinal and cortical visual processing

English title Linking retinal and cortical visual processing
Applicant Roska Botond
Number 143838
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research
Institution of higher education Institute Friedrich Miescher - FMI
Main discipline Neurophysiology and Brain Research
Start/End 01.10.2012 - 30.09.2015
Approved amount 768'858.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Neurophysiology and Brain Research
Molecular Biology

Keywords (6)

virus; retina; cortex; microcircuits; vision; calcium imaging

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary

The goal of the proposed project is to understand how different visual channels that originate in the ~20 ganglion cell mosaics of the retina interact at the level of cortical circuits in the primary visual cortex. 

Visual information processing in the cortex is commonly investigated by varying the visual stimulus and recording from single or multiple cortical cells. Similarly, information processing in the retina is studied by determining the stimulus-response relationships of retinal neurons. Recent studies have revealed that the retinal output is composed of ~20 different neural representations of the visual scene, most of which are relayed to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus.

However, how these different channels interact and are processed within the visual cortex is not understood. Here we ask two questions about cortical processing of retina features: How do retinal motion sensors contribute to cortical motion processing? What is the spatial distribution and cell-type composition of the retinal cells that drive a single cortical cell?

We make use of advanced genetic, optogenetic and viral tools to attack these questions.  We bring together in vivo genetic manipulations of retinal cell types with high throughput recording of cortical activity at cellular resolution, using genetically encoded indicators to reveal how silencing or activating different retinal ganglion cell types affects cortical motion processing. We then map the functional responses of the cells belonging to the local circuit of a single cortical motion sensitive cell. Finally, we initiate di-synaptic retrograde transsynaptic viruses from single functionally identified cortical cells to map the retinal ganglion cells that belong to the circuit of the single cortical cell.

The importance of this project is that it will provide, for the first time, causal relationships between the visual features extracted by genetically identified retinal circuits and the visual features represented in cortical circuits.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
A network comprising short and long noncoding RNAs and RNA helicase controls mouse retina architecture.
Krol Jacek, Krol Ilona, Alvarez Claudia Patricia Patino, Fiscella Michele, Hierlemann Andreas, Roska Botond, Filipowicz Witold (2015), A network comprising short and long noncoding RNAs and RNA helicase controls mouse retina architecture., in Nature communications, 6, 7305-7305.
PRESYNAPTIC NETWORKS. Single-cell-initiated monosynaptic tracing reveals layer-specific cortical network modules.
Wertz Adrian, Trenholm Stuart, Yonehara Keisuke, Hillier Daniel, Raics Zoltan, Leinweber Marcus, Szalay Gergely, Ghanem Alexander, Keller Georg, Rózsa Balázs, Conzelmann Karl-Klaus, Roska Botond (2015), PRESYNAPTIC NETWORKS. Single-cell-initiated monosynaptic tracing reveals layer-specific cortical network modules., in Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6243), 70-4.
Visual Coding with a Population of Direction-Selective Neurons.
Fiscella Michele, Franke Felix, Farrow Karl, Müller Jan, Roska Botond, Azeredo da Silveira Rava, Hierlemann Andreas (2015), Visual Coding with a Population of Direction-Selective Neurons., in Journal of neurophysiology, 00919-2014.
miRNAs 182 and 183 are necessary to maintain adult cone photoreceptor outer segments and visual function.
Busskamp Volker, Krol Jacek, Nelidova Dasha, Daum Janine, Szikra Tamas, Tsuda Ben, Jüttner Josephine, Farrow Karl, Scherf Brigitte Gross, Alvarez Claudia Patricia Patino, Genoud Christel, Sothilingam Vithiyanjali, Tanimoto Naoyuki, Stadler Michael, Seeliger Mathias, Stoffel Markus, Filipowicz Witold, Roska Botond (2014), miRNAs 182 and 183 are necessary to maintain adult cone photoreceptor outer segments and visual function., in Neuron, 83(3), 586-600.
Noninvasive optical inhibition with a red-shifted microbial rhodopsin.
Chuong Amy S, Miri Mitra L, Busskamp Volker, Matthews Gillian A C, Acker Leah C, Sørensen Andreas T, Young Andrew, Klapoetke Nathan C, Henninger Mike A, Kodandaramaiah Suhasa B, Ogawa Masaaki, Ramanlal Shreshtha B, Bandler Rachel C, Allen Brian D, Forest Craig R, Chow Brian Y, Han Xue, Lin Yingxi, Tye Kay M, Roska Botond, Cardin Jessica A, Boyden Edward S (2014), Noninvasive optical inhibition with a red-shifted microbial rhodopsin., in Nature neuroscience, 17(8), 1123-9.
Rods in daylight act as relay cells for cone-driven horizontal cell-mediated surround inhibition.
Szikra Tamas, Trenholm Stuart, Drinnenberg Antonia, Jüttner Josephine, Raics Zoltan, Farrow Karl, Biel Martin, Awatramani Gautam, Clark Damon A, Sahel José-Alain, da Silveira Rava Azeredo, Roska Botond (2014), Rods in daylight act as relay cells for cone-driven horizontal cell-mediated surround inhibition., in Nature neuroscience, 17(12), 1728-35.
A nanobody-based system using fluorescent proteins as scaffolds for cell-specific gene manipulation.
Tang Jonathan C Y, Szikra Tamas, Kozorovitskiy Yevgenia, Teixiera Miguel, Sabatini Bernardo L, Roska Botond, Cepko Constance L (2013), A nanobody-based system using fluorescent proteins as scaffolds for cell-specific gene manipulation., in Cell, 154(4), 928-39.
Ambient illumination toggles a neuronal circuit switch in the retina and visual perception at cone threshold.
Farrow Karl, Teixeira Miguel, Szikra Tamas, Viney Tim J, Balint Kamill, Yonehara Keisuke, Roska Botond (2013), Ambient illumination toggles a neuronal circuit switch in the retina and visual perception at cone threshold., in Neuron, 78(2), 325-38.
Gene therapy for blindness.
Sahel José-Alain, Roska Botond (2013), Gene therapy for blindness., in Annual review of neuroscience, 36, 467-88.
Targeting neurons and photons for optogenetics.
Packer Adam M, Roska Botond, Häusser Michael (2013), Targeting neurons and photons for optogenetics., in Nature neuroscience, 16(7), 805-15.
The first stage of cardinal direction selectivity is localized to the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells
Yonehara Keisuke, Farrow Karl, Ghanem Alexander, Hillier Daniel, Balint Kamill, Teixeira Miguel, Jüttner Josephine, Noda Masaharu, Neve RachaelL, Conzelmann Karl Klaus, Roska Botond (2013), The first stage of cardinal direction selectivity is localized to the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells, in Neuron, 79(6), 1078-1085.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Rozsa group/KOKI Hungary (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
da Silveira group/Ecole Normale Superiore France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Cepko group/Harvard University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Muller group/ETH Zurich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Hierlemann group/ETH Zurich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Conzelmann group/LMY Munich Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Filipowicz group/FMI Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Sahel group/Vision institute Paris France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events



Self-organised

Title Date Place
FENS forum 2014 05.07.2014 Milano, Italy
Controlling Neurons, Circuits and Behaviour 20.04.2014 Copenhagen, Denmark
Ascona Meetings on Neuronal Circuits 22.09.2013 Ascona, Switzerland

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media Smart viruses enlighten vision in the brain International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Inducing visual function International 2014
Media relations: print media, online media New function for rods in daylight International 2014
Media relations: print media, online media First to measure the concerted activity of a neuronal circuit International 2013
Media relations: print media, online media Switching night vision on or off International 2013

Awards

Title Year
Cogan Award 2015
ERC Senior grant 2015
Alfred Vogt Award 2013

Use-inspired outputs


Start-ups

Name Year

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
163457 Linking retinal and cortical visual processing 01.10.2015 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

The goal of the proposed project is to understand how different visual channels that originate in the ~20 ganglion cell mosaics of the retina interact at the level of cortical circuits in the primary visual cortex. Visual information processing in the cortex is commonly investigated by varying the visual stimulus and recording from single or multiple cortical cells. Similarly, information processing in the retina is studied by determining the stimulus-response relationships of retinal neurons. Recent studies have revealed that the retinal output is composed of ~20 different neural representations of the visual scene, most of which are relayed to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus. However, how these different channels interact and are processed within the visual cortex is not understood. Here we ask two questions about cortical processing of retina features: How do retinal motion sensors contribute to cortical motion processing? What is the spatial distribution and cell-type composition of the retinal cells that drive a single cortical cell? We make use of advanced genetic, optogenetic and viral tools to attack these questions. We bring together in vivo genetic manipulations of retinal cell types with high throughput recording of cortical activity at cellular resolution, using genetically encoded indicators to reveal how silencing or activating different retinal ganglion cell types affects cortical motion processing. We then map the functional responses of the cells belonging to the local circuit of a single cortical motion sensitive cell. Finally, we initiate di-synaptic retrograde transsynaptic viruses from single functionally identified cortical cells to map the retinal ganglion cells that belong to the circuit of the single cortical cell. The importance of this project is that it will provide, for the first time, causal relationships between the visual features extracted by genetically identified retinal circuits and the visual features represented in cortical circuits.
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