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Determinants of Local Growth Management Regulation and Its Relation to Urban Sprawl. A Spatial Econometric Analysis at the Municipal Level

Applicant Schulz Tobias
Number 143440
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Swiss Federal Research Inst. WSL Direktion
Institution of higher education Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research - WSL
Main discipline Political science
Start/End 01.03.2013 - 31.12.2016
Approved amount 249'717.00
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All Disciplines (3)

Discipline
Political science
Economics
Social geography and ecology

Keywords (6)

spatial planning; urban sprawl; local growth management regulation; policy diffusion; institutional fragmentation; spatial regression

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Welche Faktoren behindern die Einführung wirkungsvollerer raumplanerischer Massnahmen auf der lokalen Ebene? Worin liegt der Erfolg bei der Eindämmung der Zersiedelung begründet? Diese Fragen will das Projekt beantworten, indem lokale raumplanerische Massnahmen bei den Gemeinden erhebt und systematisch deren Zusammenhang mit lokalen politisch administrativen und sozio-ökonomischen Bedingungen und der Entwicklung der Zersiedelung untersucht.
Lay summary

Der Vollzug der Raumplanungspolitik stösst an Grenzen, die insbesondere auch in der stark föderalistischen Struktur der Schweiz und der hohen Gemeindeautonomie begründet liegen. Der Ausgang verschiedener Volksabstimmungen auf nationaler und kantonaler Ebene haben den Handlungsbedarf deutlich gemacht. Obwohl die Raumplanungsgesetzgebung der Schweiz im Grunde weit entwickelt ist, fehlt leider das Wissen darüber, welche politischen und institutionellen Strukturen in den Gemeinden eine wirkungsvolle Umsetzung erschweren.

Inhalt und Ziel des Forschungsprojekts

Das Forschungsprojekt erarbeitet systematisches Wissen darüber, welche raumplanerischen Instrumente sich in welchen Gemeinden eher durchgesetzt haben und wie effektiv diese Instrumente betreffend die Eindämmung der Zersiedelung sind.

Grundlage der Untersuchung ist eine gross angelegte, standardisierte Befragung der Schweizer Gemeinden dazu, welche raumplanerischen Massnahmen wann eingeführt wurden und welche weiteren institutionellen Regelungen diesbezüglich gelten (z.B. partizipative Verfahren). Diese Informationen werden sodann mit weiteren Kennzahlen und Indikatoren, z.B. zu Kapazitäten der Verwaltung, der öffentlichen Meinung betreffend die Dringlichkeit raumplanerischer Massnahmen oder zu den politischen Kräfteverhältnissen in einer Gemeinde, in Verbindung gebracht. Mittels geeigneter ökonometrischer Analysemethoden wird untersucht, unter welchen Umständen sich restriktivere Massnahmen eher durchsetzen und wie diese auf die Zersiedelung wirken.

Wissenschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Kontext

Neben einer Einordnung der Gemeinden gemäss ihres Instrumentemix und der Vollzugskapazitäten leistet das Projekt insbesondere auch einen Beitrag zum besseren Verständnis darüber, welche Faktoren die Anwendung restriktiverer Raumplanungsmassnahmen in den Gemeinden erschweren und wodurch die Effektivität bereits ergriffener Massnahmen gemindert wird.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 25.01.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Name Institute

Publications

Publication
Competition in local land use planning?
Berli Jan, Competition in local land use planning?, in Journal of Public Policy.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Prof. Fabrizio Gilardi, Policy Analyse, Institut für Politikwissenschaft, Universität Zürich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Lukas Bühlmann, Schweizerische Vereinigung für Landesplanung, VLP Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Dr. Anna Hersperger, Forschungseinheit Landschaftsdynamik, WSL Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Dr. Christian Schwick, Die Geographen Schwick & Spichtig, Zürich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Felix Kienast, Forschungseinheit Landschaftsdynamik, WSL Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Annual Conference of the European Group for Public Administration Talk given at a conference Throttling the 'Growth Machine'. Institutional and Administrative Determinants of Restrictive Local Land Use Regulation in Switzerland 22.08.2016 Utrecht, Netherlands Schulz Tobias;
10th Annual Conference of the International Academic Association for Planning Law and Property Rights Talk given at a conference Boosting Environmental Interests or Throttling the 'Growth Machine'? How Participatory Decision-Making and Administrative Capacity Mediate Interest-Group Influence on Local Land Use Regulation in Switzerland 17.02.2016 Bern, Switzerland Berli Jan;
International Conference of Public Policy Talk given at a conference Local policy capacity for land use regulation: an empirical examination for Switzerland 01.07.2015 Milano, Italy Berli Jan; Schulz Tobias;
Joint Sessions of Workshops of the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) Talk given at a conference Competition in Local Land Use Planning? 01.04.2015 Warschau, Poland Berli Jan;
Annual Conference of the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) Talk given at a conference Throttling the 'Growth Machine': Institutional and Administrative Determinants of Restrictive Local Land Use Regulation in Switzerland 03.09.2014 Glawgow, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Schulz Tobias; Berli Jan;
General Conference of the European Consortium for Political Research Talk given at a conference Competing for New Residents? Assessing Diffusion of Zoning Policy Decisions Based On Commuting Networks 03.09.2014 Glasgow, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Berli Jan;
Jahreskongress der Schweizerischen Vereinigung für Politikwissenschaft Talk given at a conference Throttling the “Growth Machine”? The Role of Municipal Administrative Capacity for Building Site Preparation in the Canton of Zurich 30.01.2014 Bern, Switzerland Schulz Tobias; Berli Jan;
Junge Landschaftsforschung 2013 Talk given at a conference The Determinants of Local Land Use Planning, its Diffusion, and Effects on Urban Sprawl 03.11.2013 Birmensdorf, Switzerland Berli Jan;


Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
Forum Raumwissenschaft Talk 10.11.2016 Zürich, Switzerland Schulz Tobias;
First Swiss Real Estate Research Congress Talk 20.10.2015 Zürich, Switzerland Berli Jan;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
New media (web, blogs, podcasts, news feeds etc.) Einflussreiche Interessengruppen als Stolperstein der kommunalen Raumplanung – Sind partizipative Pl De Facto German-speaking Switzerland 2017
Print (books, brochures, leaflets) Raumplanung in den Schweizer Gemeinden. Ergebnisse einer Umfrage Western Switzerland Italian-speaking Switzerland Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland German-speaking Switzerland 2016
Media relations: print media, online media Besichtigung einer Baustelle mit vielen Bauherren Schweizer Gemeinde Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland German-speaking Switzerland Italian-speaking Switzerland Western Switzerland 2015

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
157789 From plans to land change: Linking paradigms to establish and test a theoretical model of how planning contributes to the development of urban regions 01.01.2016 Temporary Backup Schemes
162589 Urban Sprawl: The Role of Land-Use Regulation and Fiscal Competition 01.01.2016 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

It is well established that the implementation of spatial planning principles is insufficient in Switzerland and that this is also due to the strong federalist stucture of the political system that gives municipalities much autonomy with respect to regional development and the implementation of planning policies. Hence, more systematic knowledge is needed about which policies are adopted at that level how effective these policies are.We will adress these questions by collecting data and conducting statistical ananlyses at the municipal level in order to understand the determinants of (innovative) planning instruments and to assess their relation to urban sprawl. These two aspects are suspected to be affected by local political structures or institutions and spatial spillovers. Identifying such patterns can help in re-designing the respective policies.While a number of studies have already tried to evaluate the effectiveness of spatial planning regulation in Switzerland, also at the municipality level, this research largely applied qualitative research methodologies (Gennaio et al. 2009, Müller-Jentsch & Rühli 2010). In contrast, the planned research project relies entirely on a quantitative approach by conducting statistical analyses for a large number of Swiss municipalities.The proposed project will employ a comprehensive multi-dimensional measure for urban sprawl, which has been released recently. The Swiss Weighted Sprawl Index (Schwick et al. 2012), which is composed of three dimensions of urban settlement development (permeation, density and dispersion), is measured with a high resolution for the entire surface of Switzerland at several occasions over a large time period (currently 1935, 1960, 1980, 2002). In order to measuring local growth regulation, the proposed project will issue a large-scale survey among municipalities to determine, what kinds of instruments had been adopted at which point in time during the sample period (approx. 1970-2010). A further valuable source of data is the Swiss Municipality Survey (http://www.andreasladner.ch/gemeindeforschung/uebersicht.htm).Due to the multi-dimensionality of the Swiss Weighted Sprawl Index and given that one additional data point for the year 1990 can be added with this project, the resulting panel structure of the data shall allow us to investigate in a systematic manner the political and institutional causes of local growth management regulation and urban sprawl at the local level in Switzerland. We plan to analyze statistical “hazard” models, which are common in research on “policy diffusion”. With respect to the relationship between local growth management regulation (including inter-municipal cooperation) and urban sprawl, one possibility is to apply recursive simultaneous-equation regression models that will allow us to establish whether and how the different dimensions of urban sprawl are spatially and temporally related to each others as well as to economic and institutional factors. The Swiss case provides an excellent opportunity for testing socio-economic versus political and institutional explanations, due to the high degree of institutional fragmentation, political heterogeneity, and extensive participatory decision-making processes in this country.
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