Project

Back to overview

UPseis: Upscaling of seismic properties in fractured fluid reservoirs

English title UPseis: Upscaling of seismic properties in fractured fluid reservoirs
Applicant Frehner Marcel
Number 143319
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Departement Erdwissenschaften ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Geophysics
Start/End 01.05.2013 - 30.04.2017
Approved amount 247'562.00
Show all

All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Geophysics
Geology

Keywords (6)

Krauklis waves; Rock physics; Fractured rocks; Fluid reservoir; Low-frequency tremor; Micro-seismicity

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Das SNF-Projekt “UPseis” beschäftigt sich mit zerklüfteten Reservoirgesteinen. Im Speziellen wird das seismische Phänomen der sogenannten Krauklis Wellen im Detail untersucht. Dieser Wellentyp ist für vulkanisches Grollen oder für mikroseismische Anwendungen in Fluidreservoirs von Bedeutung.
Lay summary

Die detailierte Beschreibung und das Verständnis von Fluidreservoirgesteinen ist von grosser ökonomischer, umweltbezogener und wissenschaftlicher Bedeutung. Beispiele dafür sind die geologische Kohlenstoffbindung, die Erdöl- und Gasindustrie, die geologische Tiefenlagerung von radionuklearen Abfällen oder die Reinigung von verschmutzten Grundwasserleitern. All diese Fluidreservoire werden üblicherweise mit seismischen Methoden aufgespürt und untersucht. Da ein Grossteil der Porosität und Permeabilität solcher Fluidreservoirs aufgrund von Klüften im Gestein auftreten kann, ist es unumgänglich die Effekte von Klüften auf seismischen Wellen zu kennen um das Gestein realitätsnah zu charakterisieren.

Das Projekt “UPseis” beschäftigt sich mit einem ganz speziellen seismischen Phänomen in zerklüfteten Gesteinen, der sogenannten Krauklis Welle. Dieser Wellentyp ist an Fluid-gesättigte Klüfte gebunden. Dadurch kann die Krauklis Welle entlang einer Kluft hin und her laufen und ein seismisches Signal mit einer charakteristischen Frequenz aussenden. Wenn dieses Signal an der Erdoberfläche empfangen wird, können mögliche Aussagen über die Kluftdichte, Kluftorientierung oder über die Art des Fluids im Reservoirgestein getroffen werden.

Zu Beginn des Projekts wird die Krauklis Welle mittels numerischen Wellenausbreitungs-Simulationen auf der Skala einer einzelnen Kluft im Detail studiert. Die dabei gewonnen Erkenntnisse werden dann auf eine grössere Skala hochskaliert, welche ein geanzes zerklüftetes Fluidreservoir umfasst. So kann das effektive seismische Verhalten eines zerklüfteten Fluidreservoirgesteins besser verstanden werden.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 11.03.2013

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
The project “UPseis” focuses on fractured fluid reservoir rocks. In particular, the seismic phenomenon of the so-called Krauklis wave is investigated in detail. This wave phenomenon is relevant for volcanic tremor generation or micro-seismicity applications in fluid reservoir settings.
Lay summary

A detailed description and understanding of fluid reservoir rocks is of great economic, environmental, and scientific interest, for example for CO2-sequestration, hydrocarbon exploration, nuclear waste disposal, or groundwater aquifer remediation. Such fluid reservoirs are commonly probed using seismic investigation methods. Because a large part of the reservoir porosity and permeability can be due to fractures, understanding their effects on the seismic response of a rock is therefore essential for a reliable rock characterization.

The project “UPseis” investigates a particular seismic phenomenon in fractured rocks, the so-called Krauklis wave. This special wave mode is bound to fluid-filled fractures. When propagating back and forth along a fracture, a Krauklis wave can emit a seismic signal to the surrounding rock with a characteristic frequency. When picked up at the Earth’s surface, such seismic signals may contain information on the fracture density, fracture orientation, or fluid type in the subsurface reservoir.

In a first phase, the Krauklis wave phenomenon will be studied in detail by applying numerical wave-propagation simulations on the scale of individual fractures. In a second phase, these results will be upscaled to the reservoir-scale to understand the bulk seismic response of fractured fluid reservoirs.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 11.03.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Experimental identification of the transition from elasticity to inelasticity from ultrasonic attenuation analyses
Barnhoorn Auke, Verheij Jeroen, Frehner Marcel, Zhubayev Alimzhan, Houben Maartje (2018), Experimental identification of the transition from elasticity to inelasticity from ultrasonic attenuation analyses, in GEOPHYSICS, 83(4), MR221-MR229.
Laboratory evidence for Krauklis-wave resonance in fractures and implications for seismic coda wave analysis
Shih Pei-Ju Rita, Frehner Marcel (2016), Laboratory evidence for Krauklis-wave resonance in fractures and implications for seismic coda wave analysis, in Geophysics, 81(6), 285-293.
How temperature-dependent elasticity alters host rock/magmatic reservoir models: A case study on the effects of ice-cap unloading on shallow volcanic systems
Bakker Richard R., Frehner Marcel, Lupi Matteo (2016), How temperature-dependent elasticity alters host rock/magmatic reservoir models: A case study on the effects of ice-cap unloading on shallow volcanic systems, in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 456, 16-25.
A numerical and experimental investigation on seismic anisotropy of Finero peridotite, Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Northern Italy
Zhong Xin, Frehner Marcel, Kunze Karsten, Zappone Alba S. (2015), A numerical and experimental investigation on seismic anisotropy of Finero peridotite, Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Northern Italy, in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Dresden, GermanyIOP Publishing, Dresden, Germany.
A novel EBSD-based finite-element wave propagation model for investigating seismic anisotropy: Application to Finero Peridotite, Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Northern Italy
Zhong Xin, Frehner Marcel, Kunze Karsten, Zappone Alba (2014), A novel EBSD-based finite-element wave propagation model for investigating seismic anisotropy: Application to Finero Peridotite, Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Northern Italy, in Geophysical Research Letters, 41(20), 7105-7114.
Krauklis wave initiation in fluid-filled fractures by seismic body waves
Frehner Marcel (2014), Krauklis wave initiation in fluid-filled fractures by seismic body waves, in Geophysics, 79(1), T27-T35.
Seismic attenuation in partially saturated rocks: recent advances and future directions
Tisato Nicola, Quintal Beatriz, Chapman Samuel, Madonna Claudio, Subramaniyan Shankar, Frehner Marcel, Saenger Erik H., Grasselli Giovanni (2014), Seismic attenuation in partially saturated rocks: recent advances and future directions, in The Leading Edge, 33, 642-646.
Krauklis wave initiation in fluid-filled fractures by a passing body wave
Frehner Marcel (2013), Krauklis wave initiation in fluid-filled fractures by a passing body wave, in Poromechanics V: Proceedings of the fifth Biot Conference on Poromechanics, ViennaAmerican Society of Civil Engineers, Reston.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Steeb, University of Stuttgart Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Dr. Auke Barnhoorn, TU Delft Netherlands (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Dr. Claudio Madonna, ETH Zurich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Dr. Patrick Kurzeja, University of Duisburg-Essen Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. Ludmila Adam, University of Auckland New Zealand (Oceania)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. Gabor C. Tari, OMV Exploration and Production Austria (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Dr. Beatriz Quintal, University of Lausanne Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Dr. Dave A. May, University of Oxford Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Dr. Bjarne S.G. Almqvist, Uppsala University Sweden (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Prof. Dr. Jean-Pierre Burg, ETH Zurich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. Alba Zappone, ETH Zurich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Dr. Xin Zhong, University of Oslo Norway (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. Dr. Matteo Lupi, University of Geneva Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. Dr. ir. David M. J. Smeulders, Eindhoven University of Technology Netherlands (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Dr. Nicola Tisato, University of Texas at Austin United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. Richard Bakker, TU Delft Netherlands (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. Dr. Erik H. Saenger, International Geothermal Center, Bochum Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Swiss Geoscience Meeting Talk given at a conference Transition from elastic to inelastic deformation identified by seismic attenuation, not seismic velocity 18.11.2016 Geneva, Switzerland Frehner Marcel;
EGU General Assembly Poster Transition from elastic to inelastic deformation identified by a change in trend of seismic attenuation, not seismic velocity - A laboratory study 17.04.2016 Vienna, Austria Frehner Marcel;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting Poster Laboratory evidence for Krauklis wave resonance in fractures 20.11.2015 Basel, Switzerland Shih Pei-Ju; Frehner Marcel;
SEG Annual Meeting Talk given at a conference Laboratory evidence for Krauklis wave resonance in a fracture and implications for seismic coda wave analysis 18.10.2015 New Orleans, United States of America Shih Pei-Ju; Frehner Marcel;
International Workshop on Rock Physics Talk given at a conference Laboratory evidence for Krauklis wave resonance in fractures 13.04.2015 Perth, Australia Shih Pei-Ju; Frehner Marcel;
EGU General Assembly Poster Effects of ice-cap unloading on shallow magmatic reservoirs 12.04.2015 Vienna, Austria Frehner Marcel;
Poroelasticity Minisymposium Talk given at a conference Laboratory evidence for Krauklis wave resonance in a fracture and implications for seismic coda wave analysis 24.02.2015 Zurich, Switzerland Shih Pei-Ju; Frehner Marcel;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting Poster Effects of rapid icecap melting on a shallow magma chamber: A multi-discplinary case study of Snæfellsjökull volcano, Western Iceland 21.11.2014 Fribourg, Switzerland Frehner Marcel;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting Poster Laboratory evidence for Krauklis wave resonance in fractures 21.11.2014 Fribourg, Switzerland Frehner Marcel; Shih Pei-Ju;
SEG Annual Meeting Talk given at a conference Initiation of Krauklis waves by incident seismic body waves: Numerical modeling, laboratory perspectives, and application for fracture-size estimation 26.10.2014 Denver, United States of America Frehner Marcel; Shih Pei-Ju;
International Conference on Textures of Materials Poster Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Seismic Anisotropy of Finero Peridotite, Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Northern Italy 24.08.2014 Dresden, Germany Frehner Marcel;
Euroconference on Rock Physics and Rock Mechanics Talk given at a conference Krauklis wave initiation in fluid-filled fractures by a passing body wave: Finite-element modeling and application to earthquake-induced mudvolcanic tremor 12.05.2014 Aussois, France Frehner Marcel;
Euroconference on Rock Physics and Rock Mechanics Poster Numerical modeling and laboratory measurements of seismic properties in fractured fluid reservoirs 12.05.2014 Aussois, France Shih Pei-Ju; Frehner Marcel;
EGU General Assembly Poster Earthquake-induced seismic tremor explained by Krauklis wave resonance in fractured reservoir rocks: A case study of Salse di Nirano mud volcanic field (Italy) 27.04.2014 Vienna, Austria Frehner Marcel;
EGU General Assembly Poster A numerical and experimental investigation on seismic anisotropy of Finero Peridotite, Ivrea-Verbano Zone, northern Italy 27.04.2014 Vienna, Austria Frehner Marcel;
EGU General Assembly Talk given at a conference Volcanic unrest primed by ice cap melting: A case study of Snæfellsjökull volcano, Western Iceland 27.04.2014 Vienna, Austria Frehner Marcel;
EGU General Assembly Poster Fracture-related seismic propagation effects studied by combining numerical modeling and laboratory measurements 27.04.2014 Vienna, Austria Frehner Marcel; Shih Pei-Ju;
Poroelasticity Minisymposium Poster Laboratory measurements and numerical modeling of Krauklis wave initiation in fractured media 18.02.2014 Lausanne, Switzerland Frehner Marcel; Shih Pei-Ju;
Poroelasticity Minisymposium Poster Integrated study of seismic anisotropy of Finero Peridotite (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, northern Italy) by combining laboratory measurements, EBSD-based estimations, and fully anisotropic numerical wave-propagation simulation 18.02.2014 Lausanne, Switzerland Frehner Marcel;
AGU Fall Meeting Poster A numerical and experimental investigation on seismic anisotropy of Finero Peridotite, Ivrea-Verbano Zone, northern Italy 09.12.2013 San Francisco, United States of America Frehner Marcel;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting Poster Numerical modeling and laboratory measurements of seismic properties in fractured fluid reservoirs 15.11.2013 Lausanne, Switzerland Shih Pei-Ju; Frehner Marcel;
Biot Conference on Poromechanics Talk given at a conference Krauklis wave initiation in fluid-filled fractures by a passing body wave 10.07.2013 Vienna, Austria Frehner Marcel;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
Poroelasticity Minisymposium 14.02.2017 Lausanne, Switzerland
Poroelasticity Minisymposium 23.02.2016 Bochum, Germany
Poroelasticity Minisymposium 24.02.2015 Zurich, Switzerland
Tectonomechanics Colloquium 05.05.2014 Zurich, Switzerland
Poroelasticity Minisymposium 18.02.2014 Lausanne, Switzerland

Knowledge transfer events



Self-organised

Title Date Place
Visit of ExxonMobil delegation at ETH Zurich 08.01.2014 Zurich, Switzerland

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: radio, television Geothermie: Schwierige Suche nach unerschöpflicher Energie SRF1, Einstein German-speaking Switzerland 2013

Awards

Title Year
Paul Niggli Medal of the Swiss Society of Mineralogy and Petrology 2015

Abstract

The presence of fluids in reservoir rocks has a major effect on the propagation of seismic waves, e.g., dispersion and frequency-dependent attenuation (Biot, 1962; White, 1975; Bourbie et al., 1987; Carcione, 2001; Quintal et al., 2011c). Research on fluid-related seismic effects faces some scientific challenges and is significant for various industrial applications. One particular challenge is the interaction of simultaneous physical processes on different length-scales. Because it is not possible to model a whole reservoir and resolve all the microscale details at the same time, microscale processes have to be upscaled and their macroscale effects are described in effective medium models (e.g., Frehner et al., 2009; Frehner et al., 2010). For the case of porous rocks, such as sandstone, this is done successfully, e.g., in the Biot-theory (Biot, 1962), the squirt-flow theory (Mavko and Jizba, 1991; Dvorkin et al., 1995), or the patchy-saturation model (White, 1975; White et al., 1975).Despite including many effects in porous rocks, existing effective medium models do not describe very well fracture-related phenomena, one of which is the propagation of Krauklis waves (Ferrazzini and Aki, 1987; Chouet, 1988; Korneev, 2008; Frehner and Schmalholz, 2010). This wave mode is bound to and propagates along fluid-filled fractures and may also influence seismic body waves (e.g., from earthquakes or seismic surveys). Krauklis waves can propagate back and forth along a fracture and emit a periodic signal (Aki et al., 1977; Chouet, 1988; Chouet, 1996). Seismic data may contain this characteristic frequency and eventually reveal fracture-related petrophysical parameters of the reservoir. Krauklis waves are a truly multi-scale phenomenon (Frehner and Schmalholz, 2010). Their wavelength may be similar to body waves propagating through a fractured reservoir, but they propagate along fractures that are orders of magnitude thinner than this wavelength.Although Krauklis waves are well described mathematically for the theoretical case of infinitely long and straight fractures (Ferrazzini and Aki, 1987; Ashour, 2000; Korneev, 2008; Korneev, 2010), many of the key processes in real reservoir rocks are only speculated in the existing literature. An in-depth investigation is necessary to understand these processes and their significance in nature. Fundamental questions raised in this proposal are:- Can Krauklis waves be initiated by a passing body wave?This determines if Krauklis waves are an important microscale process for seismic surveys or earthquake measurements. It is known that Krauklis waves can be initiated by a seismic source within the fracture (e.g., hydrofracturing; Chouet, 1986; Frehner and Schmalholz, 2010). Preliminary studies by the applicant (Frehner and Quintal, 2011) suggest that initiation by body waves is possible at the fracture tips.- Can Krauklis waves propagate several times back and forth a fracture and emit a periodic seismic signal?This determines if fracture-related petrophysical properties could be extracted from the frequency-content of seismic data. Preliminary studies by the applicant indicate that a characteristic frequency can indeed be emitted, at least for low-viscosity fluids.- How do Krauklis waves propagate in interconnected and unconnected fracture networks and how does this influence a passing or incident body wave?Understanding this difference may allow extracting information about the percolation threshold and the fracture-controlled permeability from seismic signals.- How can all of these effects be upscaled and integrated into an effective medium model?Upscaling the microscale processes to their macroscopic effects is essential for integrating these effects into a macroscale model, which is the ultimate goal of this research.The stated scientific questions are faced mainly from a theoretical and numerical modeling point of view, and will be addressed during one three-year PhD-project, whose main focus and tasks are:- Study the initiation of Krauklis waves by a passing or incident body wave with the existing 2D numerical model (Frehner and Schmalholz, 2010).- Conduct simulations of Krauklis waves propagating back and forth a fracture and emitting a periodic seismic signal.- Investigate Krauklis wave-effects in interconnected and unconnected fracture-networks.- Expand the model to 3D and include the Biot-equations for poro-elasticity to simulate Krauklis waves in more realistic fractured porous rocks.- Include micro-computed-tomography data of real fractured reservoir rocks into the model.- Upscale the observed effects and include them into an effective medium model.Besides the individual fundamental research results related to Krauklis waves in fractures, which will be generated during this project, the ultimate goal of the project is two-fold:- Establishing the significance of Krauklis waves in real fractured reservoir rocks for seismic body waves propagating through such rocks.- Upscaling the microscale Krauklis wave-process and including its macroscopic effects into an effective medium model to access the full seismic signature of waves propagating through fractured reservoir rocks.The proposed project focuses on the theoretical aspects of Krauklis waves, but the ETH Zurich offers the unique opportunity to combine this project with laboratory studies being conducted in related on-going projects. Experimental data allow calibrating the numerical models by comparing theoretical and numerical results with laboratory data.
-