laboratory methods; rock deformation; shales; carbonates; sandstones; wave propagation
Pini R. Madonna C. (2016), Moving across scales: a quantitative assessment of X-ray CT to measure the porosity of rocks, in Journal of Porous Materials
, 23(2), 325-338.
Subramaniyan S. Quintal B. Madonna C. Saenger E.H. (2015), Laboratory based seismic attenuation in Fontainebleau sandstone: Evidence of squirt flow, in Journal of Geophysical Research, Solid Earth
, 120(11), 7526-7535.
Subramaniyan Shankar, Quintal B., Tisato N., Saenger Erik H., Madonna Claudio (2014), An overview of laboratory apparatuses to measure seismic attenuation in reservoir rocks, in Geophysical Prospecting
, 62(6), 1211-1223.
Delle Piane Claudio, Sarout J., Madonna Claudio, Saenger Erik H., Dewhurst D. N., Raven M. (2014), Frequency-dependent seismic attenuation in shales: Experimental results and theoretical analysis, in Geophysical Journal International
, 198(1), 504-515.
Saenger Erik H., Madonna Claudio, Frehner Marcel, Almquvist B. S. G. (2014), Numerical support of laboratory experiments: Attenuation and velocity estimations, in Acta Geophysica
, 62(1), 1-11.
Tisato N., Quintal B., Chapman S., Madonna Claudio, Subramaniyan Shankar, Frehner M., Saenger Erik H. (2014), Seismic attenuation in partially saturated rocks: recent advances and future directions, in The Leading Edge
, 33(6), 640-646.
This project aims to quantify and to understand in the laboratory low-frequency seismic attenuation to characterize reservoir rocks. This is one key parameter used in seismic exploration for fluid discrimination (e.g. Quintal 2012). To achieve this goal we request funding for three years for one Postdoc and one Ph.D. student, together with laboratory equipment, consumables and limited expenses for travelling. This proposal continues and extends research that was initiated by the main applicant in 2007, seeking to determine and to understand seismic attenuation in the laboratory with supporting numerical studies (KTI 9577.1 PFIW_IW; DFG SA 996/1-2). The Seismic Wave Attenuation Module (SWAM) we employ is a unique module that has been developed in our laboratory, at the ETH Zurich, to experimentally measure the seismic attenuation in fluid-bearing rocks. It uses natural rock samples in an efficient way at in situ conditions and employs linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs). The apparatus precisely measures the viscoelastic behavior of rocks at different saturation conditions at low seismic frequencies (10-2 -102 Hz). The SWAM is designed to operate at a strain below 10-6, where rocks behave linearly, and it allows measuring any kind of rock type independent of their heterogeneity (Madonna and Tisato, 2012; DellePiane et al. 2012). However, the SWAM is a prototype that needs further adjustments and modifications to characterize reservoir rocks at reservoir conditions. Consequently, the proposed project consists in three parts complementing each other. The first part is dealing with further technical development of the SWAM module. The goal is to measure seismic attenuation where, in addition to the current setup, temperature and pore pressure can be controlled. In the second part we will apply the improved SWAM module to characterize the most common reservoir rocks: Shales, sandstones and carbonates, which typically can contain fluids, in particular water, oil and gas in appreciable quantity. Third, an interpretation and integration of our experimental findings will be used to calibrate theoretical models of poroelasticity.To summarize: We will provide, for the first time, low-frequency measurements of different rock types under reservoir conditions. This knowledge will be integrated with theoretical investigations to further understand the physical mechanism of seismic attenuation. Our findings can be applied in hydrocarbon exploration and other related fields (e.g. geothermal reservoirs). We expect longer-term applications to deeper geological conditions, for example seismic signals of dehydrating rocks under metamorphic conditions in both oceanic and continental environments or overpressured lithologies in accretionary wedges. This project will further strengthen the world leading Rock Deformation Lab at the ETH Zurich.