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Patchy landscapes and the spatial advance of populations

Titel Englisch Patchy landscapes and the spatial advance of populations
Gesuchsteller/in Levine Jonathan M.
Nummer 141205
Förderungsinstrument Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)
Forschungseinrichtung Institut für Integrative Biologie Departement Umweltwissenschaften ETHZ
Hochschule ETH Zürich - ETHZ
Hauptdisziplin Oekologie
Beginn/Ende 01.05.2012 - 30.09.2016
Bewilligter Betrag 599'940.00
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Keywords (6)

Patchy Landscapes; Demography; Invasion; Spread; Arabidopsis thaliana; Dispersal

Lay Summary (Englisch)

Lead
Lay summary

Two of the most pressing ecological concerns are the spread of biological invasions and the ability of native species to shift their range with climate change. At the heart of each dynamic is the spatial spread of a population across the landscape. A better understanding of the spread process is critical for predicting which introduced species will successfully invade, and which native species will shift their range. Our basic knowledge of this process is limited by two simplifications in most theory. The first is the assumption that the environment is uniform and always favorable for population growth. The second is the absence of evolution in the spread models.  This proposal outlines experiments and models to explore (1) how landscape patchiness influences the spread of advancing populations, and (2) how landscape patchiness changes evolution in advancing populations. To address these questions, we will conduct experimental “invasions” with the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana in patchy and continuous landscapes in the greenhouse, and compare results to theoretical models of expanding populations. To test the role of evolution in enhancing the invasion velocity, we will invade our landscapes with genetically variable Arabidopsis populations.  The results of this work will be important for a society concerned about biological invasions and the persistence of native species with climate change.

Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 21.02.2013

Verantw. Gesuchsteller/in und weitere Gesuchstellende

Mitarbeitende

Publikationen

Publikation
Rapid evolution accelerates plant population spread in fragmented experimental landscapes
Williams Jennifer L., Kendall Bruce E., Levine Jonathan M. (2016), Rapid evolution accelerates plant population spread in fragmented experimental landscapes, in SCIENCE, 353(6298), 482-485.
The Influence of Evolution on Population Spread through Patchy Landscapes
Williams Jennifer L., Snyder Robin E., Levine Jonathan M. (2016), The Influence of Evolution on Population Spread through Patchy Landscapes, in AMERICAN NATURALIST, 188(1), 15-26.

Zusammenarbeit

Gruppe / Person Land
Formen der Zusammenarbeit
Robin Snyder, Case Western Reserve University Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika (Nordamerika)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
Lindsay Turnbull, University of Zurich Schweiz (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
Alexander Widmer, ETH Zurich Schweiz (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten

Wissenschaftliche Veranstaltungen

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
Monte Vertita conference on the genomic basis of eco-evolutionary change Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Rapid evolution accelerates the spread of experimental plant populations in patchy landscapes 08.06.2016 Ascona, Schweiz Williams Jennifer Lynn; Levine Jonathan M.;
Odom Lecture at the University Georgia Einzelvortrag Understanding species' responses to climate change: the need for population and community ecology 29.03.2016 Athens, Georgia, Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika Levine Jonathan M.; Williams Jennifer Lynn;
Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Life history trade-offs affect the invasion velocity of spreading plant populations 13.06.2014 Sacramento, CA, Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika Lustenhouwer Monique; Levine Jonathan M.;


Kommunikation mit der Öffentlichkeit

Kommunikation Titel Medien Ort Jahr
Medienarbeit: Radio, Fernsehen Roundhouse Radio Radio 98.3 Vancouver, BC International 2016
Referate/Veranstaltungen/Ausstellungen Visit by Swiss International School to see the experiment Deutschschweiz 2014

Auszeichnungen

Titel Jahr
Annual Odum Lecturer awarded by the University of Georgia 2016

Verbundene Projekte

Nummer Titel Start Förderungsinstrument
163497 Effects of individual heterogeneity, stochastic variability, and evolution on the spread of invading species 01.06.2015 Internationale Kurzaufenthalte
173210 Timescales of changing species interactions under warming climate 01.05.2017 Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)

Abstract

Two of the most pressing ecological concerns are the spread of biological invasions and species range shifts with climate change. At the heart of each dynamic is the advance of a population across the landscape. Predicting which introduced species will successfully invade, and which native species will shift their ranges requires a better understanding of spread. Theory predicts that in many cases, rare individuals at the invasion front make the propagules that advance the invasion, and that spread velocities tend to be constant. Nonetheless, our basic knowledge of spread is limited by two simplifications in most models. The first is a uniformly favorable environment; real landscapes are characterized by natural and anthropogenic barriers to spread. The second is the absence of evolution; selection on dispersal and growth can accelerate invasions. Importantly, recent work suggests that gaps between suitable habitat can cause high density individuals to drive population spread, altering selection on advancing individuals, and fundamentally changing how invasions advance. This proposal outlines experiments and models to explore (1) how landscape patchiness and density dependence interact to influence the spread of advancing populations, and (2) how landscape heterogeneity changes selection in advancing populations and the role of evolution in accelerating invasion velocities. To address these questions, we will integrate experimental invasions of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana with theoretical models of expanding populations. To test how landscape patchiness and density dependence regulate invasion velocities, we will compare the spread of replicate Arabidopsis populations over six generations on experimental “runways” in the greenhouse. We will vary landscape patchiness by changing the distance between the planting trays in the runways, and vary the strength of density dependence by changing the depth of the soil in the trays. To test the role of evolution in enhancing the invasion velocity, we will invade our landscapes with genetically variable Arabidopsis populations (multiple accessions and genotypes). We will prevent evolution in half of the replicates by replacing the individuals in each generation with the same seeds that began the invasion, thereby preventing changes to genotype frequency. Finally, we will explore how landscape patchiness affects the evolution of spreading populations by repeating our evolution manipulation, but with Arabidopsis populations invading runways with varying sized gaps between trays. All experimental work will be integrated into integro-difference equation models of population spread. We will use simulation and Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS) analysis of these models to evaluate (1) the contribution of different types of density dependence to spread and (2) differing selection pressures in continuous versus patchy landscapes.Given the central place of population spread in our understanding of invasions, succession, disease, and range limits, understanding how landscape structure and evolution influence spread is important for advancing knowledge in ecology. Importantly, our work does so by bridging gaps between theoretical and empirical approaches. Finally, the work is important for a society concerned about biological invasions and the persistence of native species with climate change.
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