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Cohort study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF)

English title Cohort study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF)
Applicant Gmel Gerhard
Number 139467
Funding scheme Cohort Studies Large
Research institution Service de médecine des addictions Département de psychiatrie CHUV
Institution of higher education University of Lausanne - LA
Main discipline Addictive Diseases
Start/End 01.03.2013 - 31.03.2014
Approved amount 772'805.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Addictive Diseases
Psychology

Keywords (7)

alcohol; tobacco; medication; cannabis; hard drugs; protective and detrimental,individual and environm; cohort study

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Lay summary

Projektitel

33CSCO-122679, Cohort study on substance use risk factors (C-SURF)

Hauptgesuchsteller

Prof., PhD., Gerhard Gmel, Service d’alcoologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne

Lead

Der Gebrauch legaler und illegaler Substanzen wie Alkohol, Tabak, Cannabis und harter Drogen, aber auch von Medikamenten ist weit verbreitet, insbesondere in jungen Jahren. Wenig ist jedoch bekannt darüber, warum einige Jugendliche im Verlauf ihres Lebens weiter abgleiten, während andere zu einem relativ problemlosen Gebrauch oder zur Abstinenz zurückfinden. Das Projekt untersucht die Entwicklung des Substanzgebrauchs über eine längere Zeitspanne.

 

Hintergrund

Die Schweiz gehört mit zu den führenden Nationen Europas im Substanzgebrauch Jugendlicher und junger Erwachsener. In einigen Bereichen wie dem Cannabisgebrauch oder der Medikamenteneinnahme nimmt die Schweiz gar Spitzenpositionen ein. Der Gebrauch legaler und illegaler Substanzen ist bei Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen, insbesondere bei Männern, die Hauptursache für Krankheiten und Sterblichkeit im jungen Alter und mit enormen Kosten für die Gesellschaft verbunden. Obwohl der Substanzgebrauch in jungen Jahren weit verbreitet ist, finden im weiteren Lebensverlauf viele junge Menschen zu einem gemässigten Konsum zurück, andere jedoch gleiten weiter in die Abhängigkeit ab, verbunden mit vielen sozialen und gesundheitlichen Folgen für sich, ihre Familien und die Gesellschaft. Ausserhalb des Nordamerikanischen Raumes gibt es jedoch kaum Studien, die diese Jugendlichen im Verlaufe des weiteren Lebens begleiten. Die soziokulturellen Gegebenheiten in der Schweiz weichen aber von jenen in Canada oder den USA in vielen Punkten ab. Die vorliegende Studie begleitet 19- bis 20-jährige, französisch- und deutschsprachige Männer über einen geplanten Zeitraum von mindestens 10 Jahren.

Ziel

Ziel der Studie sind a) die Gebrauchsmuster verschiedener Substanzen bei jungen Männern zu identifizieren, b) deren Entwicklung über die Zeit zu verfolgen und c) diejenigen individuellen, familiären und soziokulturellen Faktoren herauszufinden, die zu a) einem risikoarmen Gebrauch führen, b) die Rückkehr von einem risikoreichen zu einem risikoarmen Gebrauch begünstigen oder aber c) das Abgleiten in einen risikoreichen Gebrauch beschleunigen bzw. verstärkend auf dessen Aufrechterhaltung einwirken.

Bedeutung

Jedes Mal, wenn in der Schweiz über die hohen Anteile an substanzmissbrauchenden Jugendlichen berichtet wird, bleiben Fragen nach dem „warum“ und dem „was zu tun sei“ unbeantwortet. Die vorliegende Studie sucht genau diese Fragen zu beantworten und Risiko- und Schutzfaktoren zu identifizieren. Damit soll die Grundlage geschaffen werden, spezifische Massnahmen zur Vorbeugung  zu entwickeln, oder Massnahmen zu initiieren, die den eventuell bereits entstandenen Schaden für das Individuum und die Gesellschaft reduzieren und betroffene Jugendliche und junge Erwachsene wieder in die Gesellschaft einzugliedern hilft.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Name Institute

Publications

Publication
Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its association with substance use and substance use disorders in young men
Estévez N., Dey M., Eich-Höchli D., Foster S., Gmel G., Mohler-Kuo M. (2015), Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its association with substance use and substance use disorders in young men, in Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 25(3), 255-266.
Bidirectional relationship between the Body Mass Index and Substance Use in Young Men
N'Goran A., Studer J., Deline S., Henchoz Y., Baggio S., Mohler-Kuo M., Daeppen J. B., Gmel G. (2015), Bidirectional relationship between the Body Mass Index and Substance Use in Young Men, in Substance Abuse, 37(1), 190-196.
Cannabis use and other illicit drug use: Do subjective experiences during first cannabis use increase the probability of illicit drug use?
Baggio S., Henchoz Y., Studer J., Deline S., N'Goran A., Mohler-Kuo M., Daeppen J.-B., Gmel G. (2015), Cannabis use and other illicit drug use: Do subjective experiences during first cannabis use increase the probability of illicit drug use?, in Journal of Substance Use, 20(4), 234-238.
Cannabis use and other predictors of the onset of daily cigarette use in young men: what matters most? Results from a longitudinal study
Becker J., Schaub M., Gmel G., Haug S. (2015), Cannabis use and other predictors of the onset of daily cigarette use in young men: what matters most? Results from a longitudinal study, in BMC Public Health, 15(1), 843.
Drinking locations and alcohol-related harm: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in a sample of young Swiss men
Studer J., Baggio S, Deline S., N'Goran A., Henchoz Y., Mohler-Kuo M., Daeppen J. B., Gmel G. (2015), Drinking locations and alcohol-related harm: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in a sample of young Swiss men, in International Journal of Drug Policy, 26(7), 653-661.
DSM-IV and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder among young Swiss men
Mohler-Kuo M., Foster S., Gmel G., Dey M., Dermota P. (2015), DSM-IV and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder among young Swiss men, in Addiction, 110(3), 429-40.
Gaming and Religion: The Impact of Spirituality and Denomination
Braun B., Kornhuber J., Lenz B., C-SURF group (2015), Gaming and Religion: The Impact of Spirituality and Denomination, in Journal of Religion and Health, (4), 1464-1471.
Independent and combined associations of risky single-occasion drinking and drinking volume on alcohol use disorder: Evidence from a sample of young Swiss men
Baggio S, Dupuis M., Iglesias K., Daeppen J. B., Baggio S, Dupuis M., Iglesias K., Daeppen J. B. (2015), Independent and combined associations of risky single-occasion drinking and drinking volume on alcohol use disorder: Evidence from a sample of young Swiss men, in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 154, 260-3.
Internet-based brief intervention for young men with unhealthy alcohol use: a randomized controlled trial in a general population sample
Bertholet Nicolas, Cunningham John A., Faouzi Mohamed, Gaume Jacques, Gmel Gerhard, Burnand Bernard, Daeppen Jean-Bernard (2015), Internet-based brief intervention for young men with unhealthy alcohol use: a randomized controlled trial in a general population sample, in Addiction, 110(11), 1735-1743.
Internet-Based Brief Intervention to Prevent Unhealthy Alcohol Use among Young Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Bertholet Nicolas, Cunningham John A., Faouzi Mohamed, Gaume Jacques, Gmel Gerhard, Burnand Bernard, Daeppen Jean-Bernard (2015), Internet-Based Brief Intervention to Prevent Unhealthy Alcohol Use among Young Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial, in PLOS ONE, (12), 0144146-0144146.
Latent class analysis of gambling activities in a sample of young Swiss men: association with gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies
Studer Joseph, Baggio Stéphanie, Mohler-Kuo Meichun, Simon Olivier, Daeppen Jean-Bernard, Gmel Gerhard (2015), Latent class analysis of gambling activities in a sample of young Swiss men: association with gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies, in Journal of Gambling Studies, (2), 421-40.
Liberal alcohol legislation: Does it amplify the effects among Swiss men of person-related risk factors on heavy alcohol use?
Foster S., Held L., Estévez N., Gmel G., Mohler-Kuo M. (2015), Liberal alcohol legislation: Does it amplify the effects among Swiss men of person-related risk factors on heavy alcohol use?, in Addiction, 110(11), 1746-56.
Not in education, employment, or training status among young Swiss men. Longitudinal associations with mental health and substance use
Baggio S., Iglesias K., Studer J., Henchoz Y., Mohler-Kuo M., Gmel G. (2015), Not in education, employment, or training status among young Swiss men. Longitudinal associations with mental health and substance use, in Journal of Adolescent Health, 56(2), 283-243.
Pathological video game use among Swiss men: The use of monothetic and polythetic formats to distinguish between pathological, excessive, and normal gaming
Baggio S., Studer J., Dupuis M., Mohler-Kuo M., Daeppen J.-B., Gmel G. (2015), Pathological video game use among Swiss men: The use of monothetic and polythetic formats to distinguish between pathological, excessive, and normal gaming, in Journal of Addictive Behaviors Therapy & Rehabilitation, 4(1), 1-9.
Physical activity and snus: Is there a link?
Henninger S., Fischer R., Cornuz J., Studer J., Gmel G. (2015), Physical activity and snus: Is there a link?, in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(7), 7185-7198.
Prospective pathways between heroin use and nonmedical use of prescription opioids: Trajectories among young Swiss men
Gmel G., Baggio S., Iglesias K., Fournier N., Studer J., N'Goran A., Deline S., Mohler-Kuo M., Gmel G. (2015), Prospective pathways between heroin use and nonmedical use of prescription opioids: Trajectories among young Swiss men, in Heroin Addiction and related clinical problems, 17(1), 65-72.
Reframing video gaming and internet use addiction: empirical cross-national comparison of heavy use over time and addiction scales among young users.
Baggio S., Dupuis M., Studer J., Spilka S., Daeppen J. B., Simon O., Berchthold A., Gmel G. (2015), Reframing video gaming and internet use addiction: empirical cross-national comparison of heavy use over time and addiction scales among young users., in Addiction, 111(3), 513-522.
Temporal patterns of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related road accidents in young Swiss men: seasonal, weekday and public holiday effects
Foster Simon, Gmel Gerhard, Estévez Natalia, Bähler Caroline, Mohler-Kuo Meichun (2015), Temporal patterns of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related road accidents in young Swiss men: seasonal, weekday and public holiday effects, in Alcohol and Alcoholism, 50(5), 565-72.
The alcohol purchase task in young men from the general population
Bertholet N., Murphy J. G., Daeppen J. B., Gmel G., Gaume J. (2015), The alcohol purchase task in young men from the general population, in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 146, 39-44.
The Swiss cohort study on substance use risk factors – findings of two waves
Gmel G., Akré C., Astudillo M., Baehler C., Baggio S, Bertholet N., Clair C., Cornuz J., Daeppen J. B., Deline S., Dermota P., Dey M., Dupuis M., Estévez N., Foster S., Gaume J., Haug S., Henchoz Y., Kuendig H., Mohler-Kuo M., N'Goran A., Schaub M., Studer J., Suris Granell J.-C., Wang J. (2015), The Swiss cohort study on substance use risk factors – findings of two waves, in Sucht, 61(4), 251-262.
Validation of a brief form of the Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion questionnaire
Dupuis M., Baggio S, Gmel G., Dupuis M., Baggio S, Gmel G. (2015), Validation of a brief form of the Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion questionnaire, in Journal of Health Psychology, 21(2), 171-182.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Prof. Molly Magill , Prof. Richard Longabaugh, Brown University United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Jean-François Etter, UNIGE Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Emmanuel Kuntsche, Sucht Schweiz Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. Michael Schaub, ISGF Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Plenary Session at the Café scientifique de l'Association Suisse de Psychothérapie Cognitive Talk given at a conference Mécanismes d'une intervention motivationnelle: dans quelles conditions une intervention marche (et ne marche pas) 24.11.2015 Genf, Switzerland Gaume Jacques;
The 37th Annual RSA Scientific Meeting and 17th Congress of ISBRA Talk given at a conference Change Talk during brief motivational intervention with young men with hazardous alcohol use strength matters 21.04.2014 Bellevue, United States of America Gaume Jacques;
European Parliament's Symposium "Lifestyle and Drinking Patterns in Young Adults" Talk given at a conference Drinking patterns in young adults - Where is the problem? 05.03.2014 Brussel, Belgium Gmel Gerhard;
Doctoriales de l'Université de Lausanne Poster Alcohol abstinence during early adulthood can lead to alcohol problems: a longitudinal study 07.10.2013 Lausanne, Switzerland Deline Stéphane; N'Goran Alexandra; Mohler-Kuo Meichun; Studer Joseph; Gmel Gerhard; Henchoz Yves; Dupuis Marc; Baggio Stéphanie;
10th Annual Conference of INEBRIA "Brief interventions on alcohol and other drugs: improving health and the quality of health services provision" Talk given at a conference Under what conditions? Therapist and client characteristics moderate the role of change talk in brief motivational intervention 19.09.2013 Rome, Italy Daeppen Jean-Bernard; Gmel Gerhard; Gaume Jacques;
10th Annual Conference of INEBRIA "Brief interventions on alcohol and other drugs: improving health and the quality of health services provision" Talk given at a conference Self-selection in a randomized trial of web-based primary and secodary prevention brief intervention 19.09.2013 Rome, Italy Gmel Gerhard; Daeppen Jean-Bernard; Studer Joseph;
10th Annual Conference of INEBRIA "Brief interventions on alcohol and other drugs: improving health and the quality of health services provision" Talk given at a conference Within-session changes in therapist and client behaviors during an alcohol brief motivational intervention for young men 19.09.2013 Rome, Italy Daeppen Jean-Bernard; Gaume Jacques; Gmel Gerhard;
Swiss Public Health Conference 2013 - C4 Substance use among swiss young men results from cohort study of substance use risk factors (c-surf) Talk given at a conference Preference for a particular alcoholic beverage type : associated drinking pattern, alcohol-related consequences and other substance use behaviors 15.08.2013 Zürich, Switzerland Gmel Gerhard; Studer Joseph; Dermota Petra; Mohler-Kuo Meichun; Dey Michelle;
Swiss Public Health Conference 2013 - C4 Substance use among swiss young men results from cohort study of substance use risk factors (c-surf) Talk given at a conference Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use 15.08.2013 Zürich, Switzerland Gmel Gerhard; Mohler-Kuo Meichun; Dey Michelle; Estévez Natalia;
Swiss Public Health Conference 2013 - C4 Substance use among swiss young men results from cohort study of substance use risk factors (c-surf) Talk given at a conference Binge drinking in different locations among young swiss men in Switzerland: implications for public health prevention measures 15.08.2013 Zürich, Switzerland Foster Simon; Mohler-Kuo Meichun; Gmel Gerhard;
Swiss Public Health Conference 2013 - C4 Substance use among swiss young men results from cohort study of substance use risk factors (c-surf) Talk given at a conference Introduction of cohort study of substance use risk factors : purpose, method, study participants 15.08.2013 Zürich, Switzerland Daeppen Jean-Bernard; Gmel Gerhard; Mohler-Kuo Meichun; Baggio Stéphanie; Studer Joseph;
IX Convegno Nazionale "La prevenzione nella scuola e nella comunità: Smart Community” Talk given at a conference Alcohol consumption in late adolescence and early adulthood – Where is the problem? 04.07.2013 Padova, Italy Gmel Gerhard;
36th Annual RSA Scientific Meeting Talk given at a conference Under what conditions? Therapist and client characteristics moderate the role of change talk in brief motivational intervention 22.06.2013 Orlando, Florida, United States of America Daeppen Jean-Bernard; Gmel Gerhard; Gaume Jacques;
36th Annual RSA Scientific Meeting Talk given at a conference Within-session changes in therapist and client behaviors during an alcohol brief motivational intervention for young men 22.06.2013 Orlando, Florida, United States of America Gmel Gerhard; Gaume Jacques; Daeppen Jean-Bernard;
39th Annual Alcohol Epidemiology Symposium of the Kettil Bruun Society Talk given at a conference More is not always better – comparison of three instruments measuring volume of drinking in a sample of young men 03.06.2013 Kampala, Uganda Baggio Stéphanie; Deline Stéphane; Mohler-Kuo Meichun; Studer Joseph; Daeppen Jean-Bernard; Gmel Gerhard; N'Goran Alexandra;
81st Annual Meeting of the Swiss Society of General Internal Medicine Poster Is the restriction of tobacco products sales to minors associated with different modes of tobacco consumption among young Swiss men? 29.03.2013 Basel, Switzerland Cornuz Jacques; Gmel Gerhard;
19th Annual Meeting of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Poster Physical activity and snus: is there a link? 13.03.2013 Boston, MA, United States of America Gmel Gerhard; Cornuz Jacques;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media Alcohol laws have a preventive effect on young men Medical News Today International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Alcohol laws have a preventive effect on young men idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Alcohol Laws Have a Preventive Effect on Young Men ScienceNewsline International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Alcohol prevention efforts curb male drinking habits: report Finland Times International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Alkoholgesetze wirken bei jungen Männern präventiv züriost German-speaking Switzerland 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Alkoholgesetze wirken bei jungen Männern präventiv / Alcohol laws have a preventive effect on young Medizin Aspekte International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Alkoholgesetze wirken bei schweren Problemen wenig NZZ German-speaking Switzerland 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Divorced parents, increased drug use Mercatornet International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Drinking drops through prevention measures Bullfax.com International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Legal regulations on alcohol consumption have preventive effect on young consumers The Medical News International 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Strict Alcohol Laws Keep Men From Drinking Too Much - Unless They’re Prone To Sensation-Seeking Medical Daily International 2015
Media relations: radio, television 97% der jungen Männer in der Schweiz konsumieren maximal einmal im Jahr entweder Aufputschmittel ode Radio Central German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Auch junge Männer leiden häufig an ADHS Tagesanzeiger German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Aufputschmittel vor den Prüfungen oder für die Party Basler Zeitung German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: radio, television Der Nationalfonds liess für eine Studie fast 6'000 Rekruten befragen Radio SRF 1 German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Fêtards accros aux stimulants L'Express Western Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Hirndoping für junge Männer St. Galler Tagblatt German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Hirndoping in für das Nachtleben Neue Luzerner Zeitung German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Hirnstimulierende Medikamente populär Die Südostschweiz German-speaking Switzerland Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Junge Männer greifen immer wieder zu Hirnstimulanzien Tages-Anzeiger German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Junge Nichtakademiker konsumieren öfters Hirnstimulanzien als Studenten HR Today German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Les fêtards accros aux stimulants / Drei Prozent der jungen Männer nehmen Hirnstimulanzien ein ats / sda Italian-speaking Switzerland Western Switzerland German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Les fêtards restent accros aux stimulants Le Nouvelliste Western Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Les jeunes non universitaires consomment plus souvent des stimulants que les étudiants https://news.unil.ch Western Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Les plus accros aux stimulants ne sont pas étudiants etudiants.ch / Etudiants Western Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Nichtakademiker nehmen massiv mehr smarte Pillen 20minuten Online German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Nicht-Akademiker nutzen öfter Hirnstimulanzien NZZ German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Non-academic young people take brain stimulants more frequently than students Healthcanal International 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Ritalin gegen Prüfungsstress Berner Zeitung German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Stimulants consommés en masse Le Temps Western Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Usa farmaci stimolanti circa il 3% dei giovani Corriere del Ticino Italian-speaking Switzerland 2014

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
122679 Cohort study on substance use risk factors (C-SURF) 01.03.2010 Cohort Studies Large
148493 Cohort study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF) 01.04.2014 Cohort Studies Large
173418 Alcohol dependence: comparison of alcohol use disorder with heavy use over time in a general population sample of young Swiss men 01.09.2017 Project funding (Div. I-III)
177519 Cohort study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF) 01.04.2018 Cohort Studies Large

Abstract

Adolescent and young adult substance use remains one of Europe's most entrenched and costly health problems, despite considerable expenditures on alcohol and drug education and prevention programs. It is the leading cause of adolescent and young adult mortality worldwide. Alcohol and illicit drug use at young ages is associated with various high-risk behaviors such as violence, injuries, suicide, depressive disorders, school dropouts and risky sexual behavior; it is a strong predictor of later adult substance abuse and dependence, and is more prevalent among males in almost all societies.Adolescent substance use in Switzerland is among the highest of the European countries. Few longitudinal studies have addressed the critical phase between late teen years and earlyadulthood, as does the current proposal, and most studies come from North America with a completely different socio-cultural background than Switzerland. Behaviors like substance use result from the interaction and interdependence of behavioral, personal, and environmental factors. Environmental and familial factors motivate and reinforce behaviors while personal factors alter the way individuals perceive and respond to the environment.The present study will analyze protective and detrimental factors of substance use, which will lead to specific design preventive actions adequate in the Swiss context. The study therefore has the following main aims:1. To estimate the prevalence and trend of substance use and related consequences among young adults in Switzerland using a sample (quasi-census) of Swiss francophone 19 year-oldmen and a census of the same age group of Germanophone men from the cantons Basel-Stadt, Basel-Landschaft, Solothurn, Aargau, Luzern, Nidwalden, Obwalden und Uri, St. Gallen, Appenzell A.-Rh., Appenzell I.-Rh., Glarus, Graubünden und Schwyz.In addition, the prevalence among subpopulations (e.g., socioeconomic status or neighborhood characteristics, etc.) will be compared.2. To characterize patterns of substance use and changes over time among young adults. In particular, individual trajectories will be modeled and factors associated with onset,intake and abstinence will be examined.3. To identify risk and protective factors associated with young adult substance use in the multi-level context of individual, family and societal/environmental levels guided by a developmental social context model.4. Interventions such as brief interventions or internet based interventions will be tested. The present cohort study is designed to assess the substance use patterns and related consequences in 19 year-old men following mandatory army recruitment procedures and tofollow them up into middle-age adulthood over a period of possibly at least 20 years. The present application seeks for prolongation of funding for the last two years of the initially planned 5-year study. Baseline data and first follow-up after 18 months has been obtained, the prolongation request includes a 2nd follow-up after 36 months. Cohort participants have been enlisted during the year 2010 in three centers responsible for processing all francophone Swiss men and all germanphone Swiss men in the cantons of Basel-Stadt, Basel-Landschaft, Solothurn, Aargau, Luzern, Nidwalden, Obwalden und Uri, St. Gallen, Appenzell A.-Rh., Appenzell I.-Rh., Glarus, Graubünden und Schwyz.Since recruitment procedures are mandatory, the present study is representative of 19 year-old men in Switzerland.In summary, the main research purpose is to examine the development of substance use and related consequences, from the late teens to young adulthood within a multi-level context of individual-environment interaction.
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