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Processes underlying the transition from sexual reproduction to asexuality

Titel Englisch Processes underlying the transition from sexual reproduction to asexuality
Gesuchsteller/in Schwander Tanja
Nummer 139013
Förderungsinstrument SNF-Förderungsprofessuren
Forschungseinrichtung Département d'Ecologie et d'Evolution Faculté de Biologie et de Médecine Université de Lausanne
Hochschule Universität Lausanne - LA
Hauptdisziplin Zoologie
Beginn/Ende 01.02.2013 - 31.01.2017
Bewilligter Betrag 1'282'583.00
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Alle Disziplinen (3)

Disziplin
Zoologie
Oekologie
Genetik

Keywords (4)

Insect; Parthenogenesis; Genetic systems; Reproduction

Lay Summary (Englisch)

Lead
The aim of this project is to develop insights into transitions from sexual to asexual reproduction.
Lay summary

The vast majority of plant and animal species reproduce sexually, yet asexual reproduction, whereby females produce exclusively daughters without the need of fertilization, would provide many advantages. The widespread occurrence of sexual reproduction has motivated decades of research into identifying conditions that provide benefits to sexual reproduction. An important aspect that has however attracted little attention is that asexual species derive from sexual ancestors, and that in most cases, transitions from sexual to asexual reproduction require several novel adaptations. How these adaptations come about and what genetic and developmental changes underlie a successful transition to asexuality in natural populations, remain as open questions. The proposed project works towards filling these gaps by focusing on different aspects of transitional stages from sexual reproduction to asexuality, using crickets and stick insects as model systems. We will investigate cellular and developmental processes underlying the production of asexual offspring in different species and use experimental evolution to understand how the capacity for asexual reproduction can improve in a sexual population. By combining breeding experiments with genetic mapping we will develop insights into the genetic architecture of asexuality and work towards a comprehension of the genetic changes causing asexual reproduction.  Understanding the genetic and developmental changes underlying asexuality can shed light on constraints in transitions between reproductive modes and will therefore allow us to gain novel insights into the maintenance of different reproductive modes.

Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 12.03.2014

Verantw. Gesuchsteller/in und weitere Gesuchstellende

Mitarbeitende

Publikationen

Publikation
Androgenesis: where males hijack eggs to clone themselves
Schwander Tanja, Oldroyd Benjamin P. (2016), Androgenesis: where males hijack eggs to clone themselves, in Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 20150534.
Evolution: The End of an Ancient Asexual Scandal
Tanja Schwander (2016), Evolution: The End of an Ancient Asexual Scandal, in Current Biology, 26(6), R233 -R235.
Extreme genetic diversity in asexual grass thrips populations.
A. Fontcuberta García-Cuenca, Z. Dumas, T. Schwander (2016), Extreme genetic diversity in asexual grass thrips populations., in Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 887.
Habitat heterogeneity favors asexual reproduction in natural populations of grassthrips
Lavanchy Guillaume, Strehler Marie, Llanos-Roman Maria N., Lessard-Therrien Malie, Humbert Jean-Yves, Dumas Zoé, Jalvingh Kirsten, Ghali Karim, Fontcuberta García-Cuenca Amaranta, Zijlstra Bart, Arlettaz Raphael, Schwander Tanja (2016), Habitat heterogeneity favors asexual reproduction in natural populations of grassthrips, in Evolution, 1780.
Nematode endoparasites do not codiversify with their stick insect hosts
Larose Chloé, Schwander Tanja (2016), Nematode endoparasites do not codiversify with their stick insect hosts, in Ecology and Evolution, 5446.
No accumulation of transposable elements in asexual arthropods
Kraaijeveld Jens Bast Ina Schaefer Tanja Schwander Mark Maraun Stefan Scheu Ken (2016), No accumulation of transposable elements in asexual arthropods, in Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33(3), 697-706.
The Evolution and Maintenance of Sex
Kirsten Jalvingh, Jens Bast, Tanja Schwander (2016), The Evolution and Maintenance of Sex, in Wedell Nina (ed.), Editor-in-Chief: R. Kliman, Section Editor: N. Wedell, Elsevier, 89.
Diploid males support a two-step mechanism of endosymbiont-induced thelytoky in a parasitoid wasp.
W.J. Ma, B.A. Pannebakker, van de Zande L., T. Schwander, B. Wertheim, L.W. Beukeboom (2015), Diploid males support a two-step mechanism of endosymbiont-induced thelytoky in a parasitoid wasp., in BMC Evolutionary Biology, 15(1), 84-84.
Female stick insects mate multiply to find compatible mates
D. Arbuthnott, B.J. Crespi, T. Schwander (2015), Female stick insects mate multiply to find compatible mates, in American Naturalist, 186(4), 519-530.
Parthenogenesis: Birth of a New Lineage or Reproductive Accident?
van der Kooi C.J., T. Schwander (2015), Parthenogenesis: Birth of a New Lineage or Reproductive Accident?, in Current Biology, 25(15), 659-661.
Selection on a genetic polymorphism counteracts ecological speciation in a stick insect.
A.A. Comeault, S.M. Flaxman, R. Riesch, E. Curran, V. Soria-Carrasco, Z. Gompert, T.E. Farkas, M. Muschick, T.L. Parchman, T. Schwander, J. Slate, P. Nosil (2015), Selection on a genetic polymorphism counteracts ecological speciation in a stick insect., in Current Biology, 25(15), 1975-1981.
Evolution of a Cellular Immune Response in Drosophila: A Phenotypic and Genomic Comparative Analysis
Salazar-Jaramillo Laura, Paspati Angeliki, van de Zande Louis, Vermeulen Cornelis Joseph, Schwander Tanja, Wertheim Bregje (2014), Evolution of a Cellular Immune Response in Drosophila: A Phenotypic and Genomic Comparative Analysis, in GENOME BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 6(2), 273-289.
EVOLUTION OF ASEXUALITY VIA DIFFERENT MECHANISMS IN GRASS THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA: Aptinothrips)
van der Kooi Casper J., Schwander Tanja (2014), EVOLUTION OF ASEXUALITY VIA DIFFERENT MECHANISMS IN GRASS THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA: Aptinothrips), in EVOLUTION, 68(7), 1883-1893.
Genetic causes of transitions from sexual reproduction to asexuality in plants and animals
Neiman M., Sharbel TF., Schwander T (2014), Genetic causes of transitions from sexual reproduction to asexuality in plants and animals, in Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 27(7), 1346.
Genetics of decayed sexual traits in a parasitoid wasp with endosymbiont-induced asexuality
Ma W-J, Pannebakker B.A., Beukeboom L.W., Schwander T.*, van de Zande L.* (2014), Genetics of decayed sexual traits in a parasitoid wasp with endosymbiont-induced asexuality, in Heredity, 113(5), 424.
On the fate of sexual traits under asexuality
van der Kooi Casper J., Schwander Tanja (2014), On the fate of sexual traits under asexuality, in BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, 89(4), 805-819.
Parthenogenesis
Schwander Tanja (2014), Parthenogenesis, Oxford Bibliographies, Oxford.
Sex uncovered: the evolutionary biology of reproductive systems
Schwander T., Marais G., Roze D. (2014), Sex uncovered: the evolutionary biology of reproductive systems, in Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 27(7), 1287.
Stick Insect Genomes Reveal Natural Selection's Role in Parallel Speciation
Soria-Carrasco Victor, Gompert Zachariah, Comeault Aaron A., Farkas Timothy E., Parchman Thomas L., Johnston J. Spencer, Buerkle C. Alex, Feder Jeffrey L., Bast Jens, Schwander Tanja, Egan Scott P., Crespi Bernard J., Nosil Patrik (2014), Stick Insect Genomes Reveal Natural Selection's Role in Parallel Speciation, in SCIENCE, 344(6185), 738-742.
Supergenes and Complex Phenotypes
Schwander Tanja, Libbrecht Romain, Keller Laurent (2014), Supergenes and Complex Phenotypes, in CURRENT BIOLOGY, 24(7), 288-294.
Hydrocarbon divergence and reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects
Schwander Tanja, Arbuthnott Devin, Gries Regine, Gries Gerhard, Nosil Patrik, Crespi Bernard J. (2013), Hydrocarbon divergence and reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects, in BMC EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, 13, 151.
Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects
Schwander Tanja, Crespi Bernard J., Gries Regine, Gries Gerhard (2013), Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects, in PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 280(1764), 20130823.
Patterns and mechanisms in endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis
Ma Wen-Juan, Schwander Tanja, Patterns and mechanisms in endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis, in Journal of Evolutionary Biology.

Zusammenarbeit

Gruppe / Person Land
Formen der Zusammenarbeit
Prof. Christoph Vorburger, EAWAG/ ETH Zuerich Schweiz (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Forschungsinfrastrukturen
- Austausch von Mitarbeitern
Prof. Bernard Crespi, Simon Fraser University Kanada (Nordamerika)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
Dr. Etienne Danchin, Institut Sophia Agrobiotech Frankreich (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
Dr. Timothy Sharbel, IPK Gatersleben Deutschland (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
Passamonti group, U Bologna Italien (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
Prof. Karine Van Doninck, University of Namur Belgien (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
Prof. Maurine Neiman, University of Iowa Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika (Nordamerika)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation

Wissenschaftliche Veranstaltungen

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
Université libre de Bruxelles/ Institut des Hautes Etudes de Belgique Einzelvortrag Causes et conséquences de l'asexualité chez les animaux 04.10.2016 Bruxelles, Belgien Schwander Tanja;
Departmental seminar at the University of Riverside Einzelvortrag Evolution of asexuality 11.04.2016 Riverside, CA, Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika Schwander Tanja;
Biology 16, keynote lecture Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Transitions between reproductive systems in animals 11.02.2016 Lausanne, Schweiz Schwander Tanja;
Departmental seminar at Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg Einzelvortrag Transitions between reproductive systems in animals 11.01.2016 Halle/Salle, Deutschland Ghali Karim; Schwander Tanja;
IBED lecture (inter-departmental talk), University of Amsterdam Einzelvortrag Transitions between reproductive systems in animals 26.11.2015 Amsterdam, Niederlande Schwander Tanja;
XV Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology, Symposium keynote Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung On the maintenance of sex in natural populations 10.08.2015 Lausanne, Schweiz Ghali Karim; Llanos-Roman Maria Noemi; Jalvingh Kirsten; Schwander Tanja;
TIPP retreat Max Planck institute Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Transitions between reproductive systems in animals (How to reproduce without sex) 16.07.2015 Heiligkreuztal, Deutschland Schwander Tanja;
Departmental seminar at NLU, University of Basel Einzelvortrag On the distribution of reproductive modes in animals 16.03.2015 Basel, Schweiz Ghali Karim; Schwander Tanja; Larose Chloé;
Biology15 Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung No evidence for parasites maintaining sex in natural stick insect populations 12.02.2015 EAWAG Duebendorf, Schweiz Dumas Zoé; Larose Chloé; Schwander Tanja;
Departmental seminar at Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology (Ploen) Einzelvortrag Transitions between reproductive systems in animals 20.11.2014 Ploen, Deutschland Schwander Tanja;
Internal seminar Einzelvortrag Parasitism and maintenance of sex: A study in stick insects 04.11.2014 Lausanne, Schweiz Schwander Tanja; Larose Chloé;
Departmental seminar at University of Zuerich Einzelvortrag Causes and consequences of reproductive system transitions in animals 01.04.2014 Zuerich, Schweiz Schwander Tanja;
Departmental seminar at Free University of Amsterdam Einzelvortrag Transitions between reproductive systems in animals 11.03.2014 Amsterdam, Niederlande Schwander Tanja;
Departmental seminar at Free University of Amsterdam Einzelvortrag Transitions between reproductive systems in animals 11.03.2014 Amsterdam, Niederlande Schwander Tanja;
Departmental seminar at University of Basel Einzelvortrag Transitions between reproductive systems in animals 02.12.2013 Basel, Schweiz Schwander Tanja;
Departmental seminar at University of Sheffield Einzelvortrag Transitions between reproductive systems in animals 18.11.2013 Sheffield, Schweiz Schwander Tanja;
Tagung der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Mechanisms underlying transitions from sexual reproduction to parthenogenesis in insects 15.09.2013 Munich, Deutschland Schwander Tanja;
XIV Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology Poster On the fate of sexual traits under asexual reproduction 19.08.2013 Lisbon, Portugal Schwander Tanja;
Recent advances on the evolution of sex and genetic systems Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Mechanisms underlying transitions from sexual reproduction to parthenogenesis in animals 22.05.2013 Roscoff, Frankreich Schwander Tanja;
Recent advances on the evolution of sex and genetic systems Poster Understanding the transition from sexual reproduction to parthenogenesis 22.05.2013 Roscoff, Frankreich Larose Chloé; Schwander Tanja;


Selber organisiert

Titel Datum Ort
Recent advances on the evolution of sex and genetic systems 22.05.2013 Roscoff, Frankreich

Veranstaltungen zum Wissenstransfer

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
Women in Science Workshop Vortrag 10.02.2016 Lausanne, Schweiz
Waldameisen in der Schweiz Performances, Ausstellungen (z.B. für Bildungsinstitute) 03.05.2014 Près d'Orvin, Schweiz
LS2 - Assistant Professor round table discussion Performances, Ausstellungen (z.B. für Bildungsinstitute) 05.02.2014 Lausanne, Schweiz


Kommunikation mit der Öffentlichkeit

Kommunikation Titel Medien Ort Jahr
Referate/Veranstaltungen/Ausstellungen De A à Sexes Westschweiz 2015
Referate/Veranstaltungen/Ausstellungen Entre clonalité et sexualité: les modes de reproduction chez les insectes Westschweiz 2014
Referate/Veranstaltungen/Ausstellungen Evolution des capacités d'apprentissage chez les insectes Westschweiz 2014
Referate/Veranstaltungen/Ausstellungen Evolution ungeschlechtlicher Fortpflanzung Deutschschweiz 2013

Auszeichnungen

Titel Jahr
Stearns Prize (best student paper in JEB 2016) 2016
Best poster prize at the 2015 ESEB conference 2015
Field-work grant from the Dobberke Stichting 2015
Selection to the 'Forum des 100' (Hebdo Suisse Romande) 2015
Students travel award from the Swiss Zoological Society 2015
Heredity The Genetics Society Fieldwork Award 2014

Verbundene Projekte

Nummer Titel Start Förderungsinstrument
160723 Genome evolution under sexual and asexual reproduction 01.04.2016 Sinergia
155311 Asexual genomics 01.06.2014 International Exploratory Workshops
170627 Processes underlying the transition from sexual reproduction to asexuality 01.02.2017 SNF-Förderungsprofessuren

Abstract

Explaining the widespread occurrence of sexual reproduction throughout the animal and plant kingdoms, despite the potential advantages of parthenogenesis, is one of the greatest challenges for evolutionary biology. The two-fold advantage a parthenogenetic female should enjoy because she does not produce sons that cannot themselves produce offspring, would have to be fully compensated by benefits conferred by sex and recombination. This paradox has generated a large body of theory seeking to explain the rarity of parthenogens among multicellular taxa, given their theoretical reproductive advantage. One aspect that is typically overlooked however, is that current parthenogens derive from sexual ancestors and that several genetic and developmental constraints should present a severe barrier to the transition to asexual reproduction. How the several thousand described asexual lineages have overcome these numerous expected constraints and what genetic and ecological changes underlie a successful transition to parthenogenesis in natural populations, remain completely elusive. My research proposal focuses on different aspects of transitional stages from sexual reproduction to parthenogenesis, using Orthopteroid insects as model systems. Orthopteroid insects comprise many independently derived asexual lineages, which allows conducting replicate comparisons between asexual lineages and their sexual counterparts. Parthenogenesis in this group does not involve reproductive parasites and can be achieved by different cellular processes, including clonal reproduction (mitotic parthenogenesis) as well as parthenogenesis modes involving meiosis and secondary restoration of somatic ploidy levels. Finally, the typical sex determination system in this group is XX:XO (females have two, males only one sex chromosome), which is the most widespread system in animals. As a consequence, insights on constraints for the evolution of parthenogenesis stemming from Orthopteroids are more representative than conclusions from groups with derived sex determination systems. The present proposal consists of three parts. The aim of the first part is to test whether the independent acquisition of parthenogenesis in related taxa results in similar cellular and developmental processes underlying the production of offspring. This will be addressed by conducting cytological assays and by analyzing sets of genes required for the proper completion of meiosis in seven independently derived asexual lineages of the stick insect genus Timema. The aim of the second part is to identify the genetic changes underlying transitions to asexuality in Timema parthenogens that recently derived from their sexual ancestors. These young asexual lineages occasionally produce males, which can be crossed to the females of the sexual sister species. Backcrosses then permit to introgress the genetic factors associated with parthenogenetic egg production into the sexual species, and for subsequent mapping via a quantitative trait locus approach. In the third part, artificial selection experiments are used to generate new asexual cricket and grasshopper lineages in the laboratory, by taking advantage of genetic variation for ‘spontaneous parthenogenesis’ observed in many sexually reproducing species. These experiments are designed to test whether obligate parthenogens can evolve gradually from sexual ancestors or whether transitions more likely occur via saltational steps. They will also reveal genetic correlations between the capacity for parthenogenesis and other life-history traits thereby developing further insights into causes and consequences of parthenogenesis.Understanding whether analogous genetic and developmental changes underlie asexuality in different lineages that evolved in parallel can shed light on the degree of evolutionary constraints in the transition from sexual reproduction to parthenogenesis and is therefore of prime importance to investigate the evolution of new asexual taxa and the outcome of competition between sexual and asexual lineages. Understanding the mechanisms favoring and constraining the transition from sexual reproduction to asexuality will allow us to gain novel insights into one of the major questions in evolutionary biology: why have sex?
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