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Episodic Mesozoic to Tertiary ore-forming events along the Lesser Caucasus and adjoining tectonic provinces

English title Episodic Mesozoic to Tertiary ore-forming events along the Lesser Caucasus and adjoining tectonic province
Applicant Moritz Robert
Number 138130
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Département des sciences de la Terre Université de Genève
Institution of higher education University of Geneva - GE
Main discipline Other disciplines of Earth Sciences
Start/End 01.11.2011 - 31.10.2014
Approved amount 207'680.00
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All Disciplines (5)

Discipline
Other disciplines of Earth Sciences
Geochemistry
Geochronology
Geology
Mineralogy

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary

The Lesser Caucasus is a favourable environment for investigating the formation of diverse ore deposits in successive geodynamic settings. It combines an evolution ranging from Jurassic-Cretaceous compressive tectono-magmatic events in subduction, Andean-style environments to Neogene, post-collisional, extensional tectono-magmatic events. The geodynamic evolution was accompanied by episodic ore formation in response to particular tectonic and/or magmatic events. Recent studies in the Caucasian area have improved our understanding about its geodynamic evolution and provide the regional geological framework for our metallogenic investigation. One ultimate goal of this project is to provide an overview of the metallogeny of the Lesser Caucasus within its geodynamic setting, including its extension to northern Iran.

The research project described in this grant application is a continuation of the Swiss National Science Foundation projects 21-59041.99, 200020-101853, 200020-113510 and 200020-121510 studying the diversity and the geodynamic environment of a variety of ore deposits along the Tethyan orogenic belt, mostly in southeastern Europe up to now. The previous studies have provided a much clearer picture of the relationship among geodynamic evolution, ore-forming processes and tectono-magmatic settings in southeastern Europe. This project is a direct follow-up towards its eastern extensions in the Caucasus.

Ore deposit formation occurred episodically and in various locations along the Lesser Caucasus (Georgia, Armeina, Azerbaidjan). This project will be focused on the Jurassic-Cretaceous Somkheto-Karabakh, Andean-type magmatic arc along the Eurasian margin, which hosts Cu-porphyry, skarns and epithermal gold deposits, enigmatic gold- and telluride-bearing, copper-rich pyrite ore bodies, and transitional volcanogenic massive sulphide to epithermal systems. Younger Tertiary magmatic belts include Mo-Cu-porphyries and subsidiary precious and base metal prospects in a composite pluton emplaced during Eocene-Oligocene post-collisional events, and diverse types of epithermal gold deposits of uncertain Eocene to Miocene ages, and unconstrained magmatic and tectonic setting.

A multidisciplinary approach will be applied, including field investigation, extensive surface, underground and drill core sampling, traditional transparent and reflected light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, microprobe studies, whole rock major and trace element geochemistry (XRF and LA-ICP-MS), radiogenic and stable isotope investigations of whole-rocks and mineral separates, fluid inclusion microthermometry, and radiometric dating (40Ar/39Ar, Re-Os, U-Pb).

This study will be the first one integrating on a regional basis the genesis of ore deposits in the geodynamic evolution of the Lesser Caucasus and into its southern Iranian extension. Our project will allow us to understand the emplacement of several major ore deposit types within the continuous growth of an accretionary orogen, characterised by various tectono-magmatic events in successive geodynamic settings. This project will improve our understanding about the formation of different, major types of ore deposits, and constrain questions about: (1) the transition from deep porphyry environments to shallow epithermal settings in magmatic arcs, (2) transitional submarine (gold-enriched) volcanogenic massive sulphide to subaerial epithermal environments, (3) the progressive enrichment of Mo, Re, Cu and Au in post-collisional settings, and identify the favourable mantle/crustal environments, (4) the formation of various types of epithermal gold deposits in post-collisional settings, and (5) enigmatic Caucasian deposits of uncertain affinity, classified both as volcanogenic massive sulphide and as porphyry-type deposits.

This project is also significant from an economic and societal point of view, and should ultimately be of benefit to human society. Our results and interpretations could be useful for exploration and mining companies, and governmental agencies to improve exploration programs for finding new mineral resources. 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Architecture of Upper Cretaceous rhyodacitic hyaloclastite at the polymetallic Madneuli deposit, Lesser Caucasus, Georgia
Popkhadze Nino, Moritz Robert, Gugushvili Vladimer (2014), Architecture of Upper Cretaceous rhyodacitic hyaloclastite at the polymetallic Madneuli deposit, Lesser Caucasus, Georgia, in Central European Journal of Geoscien, 6(3), 308-329.
Base and precious metal mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus - A review of geology and metallogeny and new data from the Kapan, Alaverdi and Drmbon districts.
Mederer J. Moritz R. Zohrabyan S. Vardanyan A. Melkonyan R. & Ulianov A. (2014), Base and precious metal mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus - A review of geology and metallogeny and new data from the Kapan, Alaverdi and Drmbon districts., in Ore Geology Reviews, 58, 185-207.
Subaqueous environment and volcanic evolution of the Late Cretaceous Chelopech Au–Cu epithermal deposit, Bulgaria
Chambefort Isabelle, Moritz Robert (2014), Subaqueous environment and volcanic evolution of the Late Cretaceous Chelopech Au–Cu epithermal deposit, Bulgaria, in Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 289, 1-13.
40Ar/39Ar age constraints on timing of the Cenozoic crustal extension, and its temporal relation to ore-forming and magmatic processes in the Eastern Rhodope Massif, Bulgaria.
Bonev N. Spikings R. Moritz R. Marchev P. & Collings D. (2013), 40Ar/39Ar age constraints on timing of the Cenozoic crustal extension, and its temporal relation to ore-forming and magmatic processes in the Eastern Rhodope Massif, Bulgaria., in Lithos, 180-181, 264-278.
Extremely Re-rich molybdenite from porphyry Cu-Au and Mo-Au deposits in northeastern Greece: mode of occurrence, causes of enrichment, and implications for gold exploration.
Voudouris P. Melfos V. Spry P.G. Bindi L. Moritz R. Ortelli M. & Kartal T. (2013), Extremely Re-rich molybdenite from porphyry Cu-Au and Mo-Au deposits in northeastern Greece: mode of occurrence, causes of enrichment, and implications for gold exploration., in Minerals, 3, 1.
Jurassic to Tertiary metallogenic and geodynamic evolution of the southernmost Lesser Caucasus : new constraints from the Kapan and the Zangezur-Ordubad zones.
Moritz R. Mederer J. Ovtcharova M. Spikings R. Selby D. Melkonyan R. Hovakimyan S. Tay (2013), Jurassic to Tertiary metallogenic and geodynamic evolution of the southernmost Lesser Caucasus : new constraints from the Kapan and the Zangezur-Ordubad zones., in Eastern Black Sea and Caucasus Workshop – Darius Programme, Tbilisi, GeorgiaDarius Programme, Tbilisi, Georgia.
Jurassic to Tertiary metallogenic evolution of the southernmost Lesser Caucasus, Tethys belt.
Moritz R. Mederer J. Ovtcharova M. Spikings R. Selby D. Melkonyan R. Hovakimyan S. Taya (2013), Jurassic to Tertiary metallogenic evolution of the southernmost Lesser Caucasus, Tethys belt., in Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world, 12th SGA Biennial Meeting, , Uppsala, Sweden.
Major volcano-sedimentary facies types of the Madneuli polymetallic deposit, Bolnisi district, Georgia; Implications for the host rock depositional environment.
Popkhadze N. Moritz R. Gialli S. Beridze T. Gugushvili V. & Khutsishvili S. (2013), Major volcano-sedimentary facies types of the Madneuli polymetallic deposit, Bolnisi district, Georgia; Implications for the host rock depositional environment., in Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world, 12th SGA Biennial Meeting, , Uppsala, Sweden.
Middle Jurassic to Cenozoic evolution of arc magmatism during Neotethys subduction and arc-continent collision in the Kapan Zone, southern Armenia.
Mederer J. Moritz R. Ulianov A. & Chiaradia M. (2013), Middle Jurassic to Cenozoic evolution of arc magmatism during Neotethys subduction and arc-continent collision in the Kapan Zone, southern Armenia., in Lithos, 177, 61-78.
Ore-forming conditions of the Tretiary Kadjaran Mo-Cu-porphyry deposit, Lesser Caucasus, Armenia: Evidence from fluid inclusions.
Hovakimyan S. Moritz R. Tayan R. Melkonyan R. & Harutyunyan M. (2013), Ore-forming conditions of the Tretiary Kadjaran Mo-Cu-porphyry deposit, Lesser Caucasus, Armenia: Evidence from fluid inclusions., in Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world, 12th SGA Biennial Meeting, Uppsala, Sweden.
Peri-Gondwana crustal fragments in the high-grade basement of the Eastern Rhodope Massif, Bulgaria: evidence from U-Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon geochronology and geochemistry.
Bonev N. Ovtcharova M. Moritz R. Marchev P. & Ulianov A. (2013), Peri-Gondwana crustal fragments in the high-grade basement of the Eastern Rhodope Massif, Bulgaria: evidence from U-Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon geochronology and geochemistry., in Geodinamica Acta, 26(3-4), 207-229.
Recent research activities and new results about the regional geology, the geopdynamics and the metallogeny of the Lesser Caucasus.
Moritz R. Popkhadze N. Melkonyan R. & Ramazanov V. editors (2013), Recent research activities and new results about the regional geology, the geopdynamics and the metallogeny of the Lesser Caucasus., in Recent research activities and new results about the regional geology, the geodynamics and the metal, Tbilisi, Georgia.
The eastern Vardar suture zone ophiolites: new U-Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon magmatic crystallization age and the relationship with the adjacent Circum-Rhodope Belt, N. Greece.
Bonev N. Marchev P. & Moritz R. (2013), The eastern Vardar suture zone ophiolites: new U-Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon magmatic crystallization age and the relationship with the adjacent Circum-Rhodope Belt, N. Greece., in EGU meeting, Vienna April 2013, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vienna, Austria.
The Pagoni Rachi/Kirki Mo-Re-Cu-Au-Ag-Te deposit, northern Greece: Mineralogical and fluid inclusion constraints on the evolution of a telescoped porphyry-epithermal system.
Voudouris P. Melfos V. Spry P.G. Kartal T. Schleicher H. Moritz R. Ortelli M. (2013), The Pagoni Rachi/Kirki Mo-Re-Cu-Au-Ag-Te deposit, northern Greece: Mineralogical and fluid inclusion constraints on the evolution of a telescoped porphyry-epithermal system., in The Canadian Mineralogist, 51, 253-284.
Base- and precious metal mineralization in the Kapan district of Southern Armenia: multiple ore-forming events during northeastwards subduction of the Tethys below the Eurasian margin.
Mederer J. Moritz R. Ulianov A. Spikings R. Selby D. & Zohrabyan S. (2012), Base- and precious metal mineralization in the Kapan district of Southern Armenia: multiple ore-forming events during northeastwards subduction of the Tethys below the Eurasian margin., in International Workshop - Gold and base metal deposits of the Mediterranean and the South Caucasus – , 26-28.
Complexité de l’évolution métallogénique et géodynamique de la ceinture téthysienne: témoignages du Petit-Caucase (Géorgie, Arménie, Azerbaïdjan).
Moritz R. (2012), Complexité de l’évolution métallogénique et géodynamique de la ceinture téthysienne: témoignages du Petit-Caucase (Géorgie, Arménie, Azerbaïdjan)., in 4th De Launay meeting, O. Rabeau, M. Jébrak & R. Marquis (eds), Montreal, Canada , xx.
Diversity of geodynamic settings during Cu, Au and Mo ore formation in the Lesser Caucasus: New age constraints.
Moritz R. Selby D. Ovtcharova M. Mederer J. Melkonyan R. Hovamkimyan S. Tayan R. Popk (2012), Diversity of geodynamic settings during Cu, Au and Mo ore formation in the Lesser Caucasus: New age constraints., in 1st European Mineralogical Conference, 2-6 September 2012, Frankfurt, Germany, xx.
Diversity of ore-forming systems and geodynamic settings along the Tethyan metallogenic belt: lessons from the Lesser Caucasus – Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.
Moritz R. (2012), Diversity of ore-forming systems and geodynamic settings along the Tethyan metallogenic belt: lessons from the Lesser Caucasus – Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan., in 34th International Geological Congress, Brisbane, Australia, xx.
Geology and mineralogy of polymetallic and copper-pyrite deposits of the Mesozoic island arc in the Lesser Caucasus.
Mederer J. Moritz R. Zohrabyan S. Vardanyan A. Melkonyan R. & Spangenberg J. (2012), Geology and mineralogy of polymetallic and copper-pyrite deposits of the Mesozoic island arc in the Lesser Caucasus., in SEG 2012 Conference, Lima, Peru, xx.
Mesozoic and Tertiary Cu-Au-Mo metallogeny of the Lesser Caucasus: New age constraints.
Moritz R. Mederer J. Selby D. Ovtcharova M. Melkonyan R. Hovamkimyan S. Tayan R. Popk (2012), Mesozoic and Tertiary Cu-Au-Mo metallogeny of the Lesser Caucasus: New age constraints., in International Workshop - Gold and base metal deposits of the Mediterranean and the South Caucasus – , xx.
Precious and base métal deposits of Azerbaijan.
Ramazanov V. Moritz R. Mansurov M. Hemon P. & Mursalov S. (2012), Precious and base métal deposits of Azerbaijan., in International Workshop - Gold and base metal deposits of the Mediterranean and the South Caucasus – , xx.
Principal volcano-sdimentary facie types of the Madneuli copper-gol-polymetallic deposit, Bolnisi district, Georgia.
Popkhadze N. Moritz R. Beridze T. Gugushvili V. & Khutsishvili S. (2012), Principal volcano-sdimentary facie types of the Madneuli copper-gol-polymetallic deposit, Bolnisi district, Georgia., in International Workshop - Gold and base metal deposits of the Mediterranean and the South Caucasus – , 37-39.
The Gedabek epithermal Cu-Au deposit, Lesser Caucasus, Western Azerbaijan : geology, alteration, petrography and evolution of the fluid sulfidation states.
Hemon P. Moritz R. & Ramazanov V. (2012), The Gedabek epithermal Cu-Au deposit, Lesser Caucasus, Western Azerbaijan : geology, alteration, petrography and evolution of the fluid sulfidation states., in 10th SGM 2012, Bern, Switzerland, November 2012, xx.
The Gedabek ore deposit : a Lower Cretaceous epithermal system within the Lesser Caucasus of Western Azerbaijan.
Hemon P. Moritz R. & Ramazanov V. (2012), The Gedabek ore deposit : a Lower Cretaceous epithermal system within the Lesser Caucasus of Western Azerbaijan., in SEG 2012 Conference, Lima, Peru, September 2012, xx.
The Gedabek ore deposit : Mineralization, altération and fluid évolution of a Lower Cretaceous epithermal system within the Lesser Caucasus of Western Azerbaijan.
Hemon P. Moritz R. & Ramazanov V. (2012), The Gedabek ore deposit : Mineralization, altération and fluid évolution of a Lower Cretaceous epithermal system within the Lesser Caucasus of Western Azerbaijan., in International Workshop - Gold and base metal deposits of the Mediterranean and the South Caucasus – , 15.
The Kapan mining district in the Lesser Caucasus: multiple ore-forming events during northeastwards subduction of the Tethys below the Eurasian margin.
Mederer J. Moritz R. Ulianov A. Spikings R. & Selby D. (2012), The Kapan mining district in the Lesser Caucasus: multiple ore-forming events during northeastwards subduction of the Tethys below the Eurasian margin., in 1st European Mineralogical Conference, 2-6 September 2012, Frankfurt, Germany, xx.
The Madneuli polymetallic deposit, Bolnisi district, Georgia : Evidence for a magmatic input in a submarine, transitional hydrothermal system.
Gialli S. Moritz R. Popkhadze N. Gugushvili V. Migineishvili R. & Spangenberg J. (2012), The Madneuli polymetallic deposit, Bolnisi district, Georgia : Evidence for a magmatic input in a submarine, transitional hydrothermal system., in 10th SGM 2012, Bern, Switzerland, November 2012, xx.
The Madneuli polymetallic deposit, Georgia : evidence for magmatic input in a submarine hydrothermal system and a new chlorite proximity indicator for gold ore.
Gialli S. Moritz R. Popkhadze N. Gugushvili V. Migineishvili R. & Spangenberg J. (2012), The Madneuli polymetallic deposit, Georgia : evidence for magmatic input in a submarine hydrothermal system and a new chlorite proximity indicator for gold ore., in International Workshop - Gold and base metal deposits of the Mediterranean and the South Caucasus – , 11-13.
The Madneuli polymetallic deposit, Lesser Caucasus, Georgia : Evidence for transitional to epithermal conditions.
Gialli S. Moritz R. Popkhadze N. Gugushvili V. Migineishvili R. & Spangenberg J. (2012), The Madneuli polymetallic deposit, Lesser Caucasus, Georgia : Evidence for transitional to epithermal conditions., in SEG 2012 Conference, Lima, Peru, September 2012, xx.
Jurassic subduction zone tectonics of the Rhodope Massif in the Thrace region (NE Greece) as revealed by new U–Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Evros ophiolite and high-grade basement rocks
Bonev Nikolay, Marchev Peter, Moritz Robert, Collings David, Jurassic subduction zone tectonics of the Rhodope Massif in the Thrace region (NE Greece) as revealed by new U–Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Evros ophiolite and high-grade basement rocks, in Gondwana Research, sous presse, 1.
Sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposits of the Tertiary Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria : new constraints from the Stremtsi gold prospect.
Moritz R. Noverraz C. Márton I. Marchev P. Spikings R. Fontignie D. Spangenberg J. Ven, Sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposits of the Tertiary Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria : new constraints from the Stremtsi gold prospect., in Special Publication of the Geological Society of London, 402, 207-230.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Baku State University, Azerbaijan Aserbaijan (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Tabriz University Iran (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Iv. Javakhishvili State University Tbilisi and Al. Djalenidze Insitute of Geology, Tbilisi Georgia (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
St Kliment Ohridski Sofia University Bulgaria (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
MTA Turkey (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Durham University, Great Britain Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Yerevan Armenia (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of Lausanne Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events



Self-organised

Title Date Place
Recent research activities and new results about the regional geology, the geodynamics and the metallogeny of the Lesser Caucasus. Tbilisi, Georgia, 16 - 19 April 2013 16.04.2013 Tbilisi, Georgia

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
134872 Fluids and ore forming processes in the continental crust (cont) 01.04.2011 Project funding (Div. I-III)
168996 Metallogeny of the Lesser Caucasus: From arc construction to post-collision evolution 01.11.2016 Project funding (Div. I-III)
111046 Tectonic and magmatic controls on Cretaceous and Tertiary gold and copper deposits in the Rhodope Massif, the Srednogorie belt and the Caucasus, Bulgaria and Georgia 01.10.2005 SCOPES
60923 R'Equip: Acquisition of a micro-Raman spectrometer for fluid inclusion analysis and combined surface-enhanced Raman scattering(SERS)/ photoemission experiments 01.07.2000 R'EQUIP
128324 Metallogeny of the Lesser Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) 01.12.2009 SCOPES
62276 Magmatic and geodynamic controls on the Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene ore deposits in the Srednegorie belt and the Rhodope Massif, Bulgaria 01.08.2000 SCOPES
133781 Near-infrared equipment for high-precision microthermometry measurements using the infrared microscopy technique 01.12.2010 R'EQUIP
155928 Episodic Mesozoic to Tertiary ore-forming events in successive geodynamic settings in an accretionary orogenic belt: the case of the Tethys orogenic belt 01.11.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)
188714 The Tethys metallogenic belt: A natural laboratory for understanding ore-forming processes from arc construction to post-collision evolution in orogenic belts 01.11.2019 Project funding (Div. I-III)
121510 Contrasting Cretaceous-Tertiary gold and copper ore formation along the Tethyan arc (Serbia-Bulgaria-Greece-Georgia-Armenia) 01.11.2008 Project funding (Div. I-III)
101261 Spatial and temporal relationships between deep magmatic, porphyry and epithermal environments, and significance for ore formation processes 01.03.2004 International Exploratory Workshops

Abstract

The Lesser Caucasus is a favourable environment for investigating the formation of diverse ore deposits in successive geodynamic settings. It combines an evolution ranging from Jurassic-Cretaceous compressive tectono-magmatic events in subduction, Andean-style environments to Neogene, post-collisional, extensional tectono-magmatic events. The geodynamic evolution was accompanied by episodic ore formation in response to particular tectonic and/or magmatic events. Recent studies in the Caucasian area have improved our understanding about its geodynamic evolution and provide the regional geological framework for our metallogenic investigation. One ultimate goal of this project is to provide an overview of the metallogeny of the Lesser Caucasus within its geodynamic setting, including its extension to northern Iran.The research project described in this grant application is a continuation of the Swiss National Science Foundation projects 21-59041.99, 200020-101853, 200020-113510 and 200020-121510 studying the diversity and the geodynamic environment of a variety of ore deposits along the Tethyan orogenic belt, mostly in southeastern Europe up to now. The previous studies have provided a much clearer picture of the relationship among geodynamic evolution, ore-forming processes and tectono-magmatic settings in southeastern Europe. This project is a direct follow-up towards its eastern extensions in the Caucasus.Ore deposit formation occurred episodically and in various locations along the Lesser Caucasus (Georgia, Armeina, Azerbaidjan). This project will be focused on the Jurassic-Cretaceous Somkheto-Karabakh, Andean-type magmatic arc along the Eurasian margin, which hosts Cu-porphyry, skarns and epithermal gold deposits, enigmatic gold- and telluride-bearing, copper-rich pyrite ore bodies, and transitional volcanogenic massive sulphide to epithermal systems. Younger Tertiary magmatic belts include Mo-Cu-porphyries and subsidiary precious and base metal prospects in a composite pluton emplaced during Eocene-Oligocene post-collisional events, and diverse types of epithermal gold deposits of uncertain Eocene to Miocene ages, and unconstrained magmatic and tectonic setting.A multidisciplinary approach will be applied, including field investigation, extensive surface, underground and drill core sampling, traditional transparent and reflected light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, microprobe studies, whole rock major and trace element geochemistry (XRF and LA-ICP-MS), radiogenic and stable isotope investigations of whole-rocks and mineral separates, fluid inclusion microthermometry, and radiometric dating (40Ar/39Ar, Re-Os, U-Pb).This study will be the first one integrating on a regional basis the genesis of ore deposits in the geodynamic evolution of the Lesser Caucasus and into its southern Iranian extension. Our project will allow us to understand the emplacement of several major ore deposit types within the continuous growth of an accretionary orogen, characterised by various tectono-magmatic events in successive geodynamic settings. This project will improve our understanding about the formation of different, major types of ore deposits, and constrain questions about: (1) the transition from deep porphyry environments to shallow epithermal settings in magmatic arcs, (2) transitional submarine (gold-enriched) volcanogenic massive sulphide to subaerial epithermal environments, (3) the progressive enrichment of Mo, Re, Cu and Au in post-collisional settings, and identify the favourable mantle/crustal environments, (4) the formation of various types of epithermal gold deposits in post-collisional settings, and (5) enigmatic Caucasian deposits of uncertain affinity, classified both as volcanogenic massive sulphide and as porphyry-type deposits. This project is also significant from an economic and societal point of view, and should ultimately be of benefit to human society. Our results and interpretations could be useful for exploration and mining companies, and governmental agencies to improve exploration programs for finding new mineral resources.
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