Projekt

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Reaction-diffusion processes for the growth of patterned structures and architectures: A bottom-up approach for photoelectrochemical electrodes

Titel Englisch Reaction-diffusion processes for the growth of patterned structures and architectures: A bottom-up approach for photoelectrochemical electrodes
Gesuchsteller/in Braun Artur
Nummer 137868
Förderungsinstrument Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)
Forschungseinrichtung Labor für Hochleistungskeramik EMPA
Hochschule Eidg. Material und Prüfungsanstalt - EMPA
Disziplinen Physikalische Chemie
Beginn/Ende 01.03.2012 - 28.02.2015
Bewilligter Betrag 317'933.00
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Keywords (6)

self assembly, pattern formation, photo-electrodes, Liesegang pattern, Reaction-Diffusion, Reaction-Diffusion-Precipitation

Lay Summary (Deutsch)

Lead
Strukturbildung findet in der Natur zunächst "von innen heraus" statt. Es sind intrinsische physikalische und chenmische, auch biologische Prozesse, die den Gegenständen und Lebewesen in der Natur ihre Form geben. In der Technik wird den Materialien von aussen durch Werkzeuge ihre Form aufgeprägt. In der Mikro- und Nanotechnologie ist das zusehends schwieriger und aufwendiger. In diesem Projekt wird versucht, in der Natur bekannte Formgebungsprozesse auf mikroskopishcer und molekularer Skala zu verstehen und diese kontrolliert für die Formbildung in der Nanotechnologie nutzen zu können. Die dabei massgebenden elementaren Prozesse sind chemische Reaktionen, Diffusion von Ionen und Niederschlagsbildung.
Lay summary
Strukturbildung findet in der Natur zunächst "von innen heraus" statt. Es sind intrinsische physikalische und chenmische, auch biologische Prozesse, die den Gegenständen und Lebewesen in der Natur ihre Form geben. In der Technik wird den Materialien von aussen durch Werkzeuge ihre Form aufgeprägt. In der Mikro- und Nanotechnologie ist das zusehends schwieriger und aufwendiger. In diesem Projekt wird versucht, in der Natur bekannte Formgebungsprozesse auf mikroskopishcer und molekularer Skala zu verstehen und diese kontrolliert für die Formbildung in der Nanotechnologie nutzen zu können. Die dabei massgebenden elementaren Prozesse sind chemische Reaktionen, Diffusion von Ionen und Niederschlagsbildung.
Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 07.04.2014

Lay Summary (Englisch)

Lead
The objective of this project is to investigate the influence of reaction – diffusion processes for the design of structured and patterned electrode architectures. This will aid the development of strategies for the synthesis of mesostructured and heterogeneous architectures with relevance to energy materials, for example for electrodes in photoelectrochemical cells (PEC) for solar water splitting. This is a joint PhD project for two PhD students at University of Basel and Empa.
Lay summary
The objective of this project is to investigate the influence of reaction – diffusion processes for the design of structured and patterned electrode architectures. This will aid the development of strategies for the synthesis of mesostructured and heterogeneous architectures with relevance to energy materials, for example for electrodes in photoelectrochemical cells (PEC) for solar water splitting. This is a joint PhD project for two PhD students at University of Basel and Empa.
Solar energy driven splitting of H2O by heterogeneous photocatalysts is a promising green technology for hydrogen fuel production and can be obtained in a single step process in PEC, for which two basic materials criteria must be met: the light harvesting system must have the proper thermodynamics and energetics to effect the decomposition of water, and the system must be corrosion stable in the electrolyte environment. Conventional semiconductor metal oxide catalysts partially possess suitable redox potentials for efficient water splitting. Tuning of the band gap energy is important for the performance of an electrode, but device architecture too plays a crucial role and is increasingly taking centre stage. p-n heterojunctions with pillar architecture can perform better than planar electrodes under certain conditions. Therefore, adding structure to the material is of great interest. Downsizing the structures is also important because nanostructures can offer a very high catalytically active surface area and thus enhanced efficiency. In the extreme case, downsizing may lead to quantum confinement phenomena.
The conventional methods to nanostructure materials are the so called 'top-down' techniques, where structures are produced by fabricating the material by removing parts of it, i.e. lithography methods. Recently considerable attention has been devoted to the so called ‘bottom-up’ techniques where the structure is built from building blocks using self-assembling techniques. Reaction-diffusion-precipitation processes are very promising candidates for building complex structures because the location of the self-organised chemical pattern is locked once it is formed. In the well-known periodic Liesegang pattern (LP), colloidal precipitates form periodically behind a moving reaction front, obeying systematic scaling rules [Liesegang 1896].
We propose the combination of reaction-diffusion processes such as Liesegang phenomena with nanostructuring techniques, for example wet stamping method (PhD student at Basel) or using EHD instability as a driving force (PhD student at Empa) to structure the selected material containing mixed metal ions or nanoparticles.  
The PhD student at University of Basel will synthesise, analyse and understand mixed metal reaction-diffusion planar meso- and/or microstructures and transfer them to ceramic systems. Structural and morphological characterization of the patterns with XRD and Microscopy as well as electrochemical characterisation will be carried out. The photoelectrochemical response of the produced electrodes will be compared with conventional non-structured systems. With the experimental data obtained, we will formulate a model which explains the observed changes in performance as a function of geometrical /topological /morphological peculiarities.
The PhD student at Empa will synthesise an array of radial p-n junction nanopillar cell by using EHD lithography with bilayer of polymer/nanoparticle nanocomposite or bilayer sol-gel chemistry. Structural and morphological characterization will be carried out. The photoelectrochemical activity of planar and pillar array electrodes will be compared, explained and implemented in a demonstrator-type device cell.
The quantum mechanical and thermodynamic properties, which are insignificant in larger, everyday materials, cause nanomaterials to display new and interesting properties. We intend to comprehend properties and exploit them for energy applications. 
Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 07.04.2014

Verantw. Gesuchsteller/in und weitere Gesuchstellende

Mitarbeitende

Publikationen

Publikation
Understanding the formation of aligned, linear arrays of Ag nanoparticles
R. M. Walliser R. Tóth I. Lagzi D. Mathys L. Marot A. Braun C. E. Housecroft E. C. Constable (2016), Understanding the formation of aligned, linear arrays of Ag nanoparticles, in RSC Advances, 6, 28388-28392.
Probing the mystery of Liesegang band formation: revealing the origin of self-organized dual - frequency micro and nanoparticle arrays
R. Toth R.M. Walliser I. Lagzi F. Boudoire M. Düggelin A. Braun C. E. Housecroft E.C. Const (2016), Probing the mystery of Liesegang band formation: revealing the origin of self-organized dual - frequency micro and nanoparticle arrays, in Soft Matter, 12, 8367-8374.
Marangoni Flow Driven Maze Solving
Kohta Suzuno Daishin Ueyama Michal Branicki Rita Tóth Artur Braun István Lagzi (2016), Marangoni Flow Driven Maze Solving, in Andrew Adamatzky (ed.), Advances in Unconventional Computing, Springer, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 237-243.
Maze Solving Using Fatty Acid Chemistry
Suzuno Kohta , Ueyama Daishin, Branicki Michal, Tóth Rita, Braun Artur, Lagzi István (2014), Maze Solving Using Fatty Acid Chemistry, in Langmuir, 30(31), 9251-9255.
Hematite nanostructuring using electrohydrodynamic lithography
Boudoire Florent (accepted), Hematite nanostructuring using electrohydrodynamic lithography, in Applied Surface Science.
Photonic light trapping in self-organized all-oxide microspheroids impacts photoelectrochemical water splitting
Florent Boudoire Rita Toth Jakob Heier Artur Braun Edwin C. Constable (accepted), Photonic light trapping in self-organized all-oxide microspheroids impacts photoelectrochemical water splitting, in Energy & Environmental Science.
Molecular Origin and Electrochemical Influence of Capacitive Surface States on Iron Oxide Photoanodes
Hu Yelin (accepted), Molecular Origin and Electrochemical Influence of Capacitive Surface States on Iron Oxide Photoanodes, in Journal of Physical Chemistry C.
A self-assembled, multicomponent water oxidation device
Toth Rita, Walliser Roche M., (accepted), A self-assembled, multicomponent water oxidation device, in Chemical Communications.

Zusammenarbeit

Gruppe / Person Land
Felder der Zusammenarbeit
Univ. of Pretoria Südafrika (Republik) (Afrika)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin BESSY-II Deutschland (Europa)
- Forschungsinfrastrukturen
Prof. Moser Group, EPFL Schweiz (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Forschungsinfrastrukturen
- Austausch von Mitarbeitern
Fachhochschule Vorarlberg Institut fuer Mikrotechnologie Oesterreich (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Forschungsinfrastrukturen
- Industrie/Wirtschaft/weitere anwendungs-orientierte Zusammenarbeit
Swiss Light Source Schweiz (Europa)
- Publikation
- Forschungsinfrastrukturen
Graetzel Group Schweiz (Europa)
- Publikation
- Forschungsinfrastrukturen
- Austausch von Mitarbeitern
Istvan Lagzy Ungarn (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
- Forschungsinfrastrukturen
- Austausch von Mitarbeitern

Wissenschaftliche Veranstaltungen

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Datum Ort
20th International Conference on Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy (IPS20) Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung 29.07.2014 Berlin, Deutschland
E-MRS, Symposium I: Solution Processing and Properties of Functional Oxide Thin Films and Nanostructures Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung 30.05.2014 Lille, Frankreich
Swiss Nanoconvention 2014 Poster 21.05.2014 Brugg Windisch, Schweiz
MRS, Symposium F: Controlling the interaction between Light and Semiconductor Nanostructures for Energy Applications Poster 24.04.2014 San Francisco, Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika
US DoE PEC Working Group and Annex 26 IEA HIA Annual Meeting Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung 21.04.2014 Stanford University, Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika
2nd Clariant Chemistry Day, University of Basel Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung 09.04.2014 Basel, Schweiz
Chemistry Department Seminar at University of Pretoria Einzelvortrag 14.03.2014 Pretoria, Südafrika (Republik)
iTHEMBA Labs Seminar Einzelvortrag 10.03.2014 Somerset, Südafrika (Republik)
30th Annual Meeting of the Swiss Working Group on Surface and Interface Science Poster 24.01.2014 Fribourg, Schweiz
Empa PhD Students' Symposium 2013 Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung 23.10.2013 Empa, Dübendorf, Schweiz
Green Energy am SCS Fallmeeting 2013 EPF Lausanne Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung 13.09.2013 Lausanne, Schweiz
20th EuCheMS Conference on organometallic chemistry Poster 21.07.2013 St. Andrews, Grossbritannien und Nordirland
Swiss Nanoconvention 2013 Poster 23.05.2013 Basel, Schweiz
Workshop on Patterns and Hydrodynamic Instabilities in Reactive Systems Poster 14.05.2013 Brussels, Belgien
1st Clariant Chemistry Day, University of Basel Poster 15.11.2012 Basel, Schweiz
Empa PhD Students' Symposium 2012 Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung 13.11.2012 Dübendorf, Schweiz
Empa Evaluierungsbesuch durch Internationale Forschungskommission C Poster 07.11.2012 Dübendorf, Schweiz
Summer School on Bio-medical Imaging Poster 03.09.2012 Zürich Center for Imaging Science and Technology CIMST, Schweiz


Veranstaltungen zum Wissenstransfer

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Datum Ort
Designers' open 2012 Performances, Ausstellungen (z.B. für Bildungsinstitute) 26.10.2012 Leipzig, Deutschland


Kommunikation mit der Öffentlichkeit

Kommunikation Titel Medien Ort Jahr
Neue Medien (Web, Blogs, Podcasts, NewsFeed, usw.) Collecting light with artificial moth eyes AlphaGalileo International Italienische Schweiz Deutschschweiz Westschweiz Romanische Schweiz International International International 2014
Medienarbeit: Radio, Fernsehen Des petites bêtes alliées de la science RSR, La Première, CQFD Westschweiz International 2014
Weitere Aktivitäten Webpage: Photonic light trapping for photoelectrochemical water splitting Italienische Schweiz Westschweiz International Deutschschweiz Romanische Schweiz 2014
Medienarbeit: Printmedien, Online-Medien De l'hydrogène produit avec un oeil de mite artificiel Le Monde, 23 June 2014 International 2014
Medienarbeit: Printmedien, Online-Medien Tiny balls of fire: How to gather more light for solar power The Economist International 2014
Medienarbeit: Printmedien, Online-Medien L’oeil de mite, un piège à lumière La Liberté Westschweiz 2014
Neue Medien (Web, Blogs, Podcasts, NewsFeed, usw.) Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Can Be Achieved with Self-Organized, All-Oxide Electrodes materials360 online International 2014
Neue Medien (Web, Blogs, Podcasts, NewsFeed, usw.) Moth Eyes Inspire Different Solar Cell Scientific American International 2014
Medienarbeit: Printmedien, Online-Medien Künstliches Mottenauge als Lichtfänger Empa News Jahrgang 13, Nummer 45, Juli 2014, 10-11. Deutschschweiz 2014
Medienarbeit: Printmedien, Online-Medien Chemie-Navi: Mit Säure zur PizzeriaDiese Entdeckung könnte das Navigationssystem revolutionieren FOCUS 46/14, 10 November 2014, Seite 112 International 2014
Medienarbeit: Printmedien, Online-Medien Ein Navi aus dem Chemielabor Zürcher Oberländer Deutschschweiz 2014
Medienarbeit: Printmedien, Online-Medien A GPS from the chemistry set Science Daily International 2014
Medienarbeit: Printmedien, Online-Medien Ein Navi aus dem Chemielabor MyScience.ch Westschweiz Deutschschweiz Romanische Schweiz Italienische Schweiz 2014
Medienarbeit: Printmedien, Online-Medien Moleküle finden den kürzesten Weg Technology Review - Das Magazin für Innovation, 12/2014, Seite 16 International 2014
Medienarbeit: Radio, Fernsehen Radiointerview mit Istvan Lagzi (Uni Budapest) Deutschlandradio International 2014
Medienarbeit: Printmedien, Online-Medien Geschäftsbericht des ETH-Rats über den ETH-Bereich ETH-Rat International Deutschschweiz Italienische Schweiz Westschweiz Romanische Schweiz 2015
Medienarbeit: Printmedien, Online-Medien Zufall und Übermut (Editorial) megalink Deutschschweiz 2015

Auszeichnungen

Titel Jahr
1st Place Oral Presentation Award at Empa PhD Students' Symposium 2012 2012
3rd Place Oral Presentation Award at Empa PhD Students' Symposium 2013 2013
European Materials Research Society Young Scientist Award presented to Florent Boudoire in recognition of an outstanding paper contributed to the 2014 E-MRS Spring Meeting Symposium I: Solution Processing and Properties of Functional Oxide Thin Films and Nanostructures. 2014
Florent Boudoire, Artur Braun, Edwin C. Constable, Jakob Heier and Rita Toth (MHV Fellow) have been listed as "Foreign Policy’s 100 Leading Global Thinkers of 2014". The editors of Foreign Policy chose them based on "their standout contributions over the past year and their ability to translate important ideas into action that change and shape the world". 2014

Verbundene Projekte

Nummer Titel Start Förderungsinstrument
149031 Production of Liquid Solar Fuels from CO2 and Water: Using Renewable Energy Resources 01.03.2014 Südafrika
133944 Oxide heterointerfaces in assemblies for photoelectrochemical applications 01.11.2010 Internationale Kurzaufenthalte
162232 SNF Korean Swiss project: Molecular and physical aspects of dye sensitization of photoelec-trodes with copper-based sensitizer molecules 01.02.2016 Südkorea
160116 Morphology control by ionic interactions of cyanine / PCBM bulk heterojunctions for photovoltaic applications 01.08.2015 Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)
132126 Defects in the bulk and on surfaces and interfaces of metal oxides with photoelectrochemical properties: In-situ photoelectrochemical and resonant x-ray and electron spectroscopy studies 01.06.2011 Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)
121306 Fundamental Aspects of Photocatalysis and Photoelectrochemistry / Basic Research Instrumentation for Functional Characterization 01.07.2008 R'EQUIP
139698 Self-organization processes to pattern thin films: A bottom-up approach for photoelectrodes 01.02.2012 Marie Heim-Voegtlin Beiträge

Abstract

The objective of this project is to investigate the influence of reaction – diffusion processes for the design of structured and patterned electrode architectures. This will aid the development of strategies for the synthesis of mesostructured and heterogeneous architectures with relevance to energy materials, for example for electrodes in photoelectrochemical cells (PEC) for solar water splitting. This is a joint PhD project for two PhD students at University of Basel and Empa. Solar energy driven splitting of H2O by heterogeneous photocatalysts is a promising green technology for hydrogen fuel production and can be obtained in a single step process in PEC, for which two basic materials criteria must be met: the light harvesting system must have the proper thermodynamics and energetics to effect the decomposition of water, and the system must be corrosion stable in the electrolyte environment. Conventional semiconductor metal oxide catalysts partially possess suitable redox potentials for efficient water splitting. Tuning of the band gap energy is important for the performance of an electrode, but device architecture too plays a crucial role and is increasingly taking centre stage. p-n heterojunctions with pillar architecture can perform better than planar electrodes under certain conditions. Therefore, adding structure to the material is of great interest. Downsizing the structures is also important because nanostructures can offer a very high catalytically active surface area and thus enhanced efficiency. In the extreme case, downsizing may lead to quantum confinement phenomena. The conventional methods to nanostructure materials are the so called 'top-down' techniques, where structures are produced by fabricating the material by removing parts of it, i.e. lithography methods. Recently considerable attention has been devoted to the so called ‘bottom-up’ techniques where the structure is built from building blocks using self-assembling techniques. Reaction-diffusion-precipitation processes are very promising candidates for building complex structures because the location of the self-organised chemical pattern is locked once it is formed. In the well-known periodic Liesegang pattern (LP), colloidal precipitates form periodically behind a moving reaction front, obeying systematic scaling rules [Liesegang 1896]. We propose the combination of reaction-diffusion processes such as Liesegang phenomena with nanostructuring techniques, for example wet stamping method (PhD student at Basel) or using EHD instability as a driving force (PhD student at Empa) to structure the selected material containing mixed metal ions or nanoparticles. The PhD student at University of Basel will synthesise, analyse and understand mixed metal reaction-diffusion planar meso- and/or microstructures and transfer them to ceramic systems. Structural and morphological characterization of the patterns with XRD and Microscopy as well as electrochemical characterisation will be carried out. The photoelectrochemical response of the produced electrodes will be compared with conventional non-structured systems. With the experimental data obtained, we will formulate a model which explains the observed changes in performance as a function of geometrical /topological /morphological peculiarities. The PhD student at Empa will synthesise an array of radial p-n junction nanopillar cell by using EHD lithography with bilayer of polymer/nanoparticle nanocomposite or bilayer sol-gel chemistry. Structural and morphological characterization will be carried out. The photoelectrochemical activity of planar and pillar array electrodes will be compared, explained and implemented in a demonstrator-type device cell. The quantum mechanical and thermodynamic properties, which are insignificant in larger, everyday materials, cause nanomaterials to display new and interesting properties. We intend to comprehend properties and exploit them for energy applications.