Project

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What is attentional refreshing?

English title What is attentional refreshing?
Applicant Camos Valérie
Number 137860
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Département de Psychologie Université de Fribourg
Institution of higher education University of Fribourg - FR
Main discipline Psychology
Start/End 01.09.2012 - 30.11.2014
Approved amount 175'469.00
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Keywords (3)

Working Memory; Attention; Maintenance of information

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary

Working memory is a system dedicated to the maintenance of information in the context of concurrent processing. Within this system, two mechanisms were described as responsible for the maintenance of verbal information. Some models proposed a mechanism specialized for the verbal domain, articulatory rehearsal (Baddeley, 1986), whereas others introduced a general attention-based mechanism, attentional refreshing (Barrouillet, & Camos, 2007; Cowan, 1999, 2005; Johnson, 1992). Recently, these two mechanisms were shown to be independent in verbal working memory (Camos, Lagner, & Barrouillet, 2009; Camos, Mora, & Oberauer, 2011; Camos, Portrat, & Oberauer, submitted). Whereas articulatory rehearsal was largely studied both in short-term and working memory, attentional refreshing was less explored. Thus, refreshing is mainly defined by opposition to rehearsal, but it still unknown how this mechanism proceeds and on which types of representation. The aim of this project is then to understand and better described this major mechanism of the human cognition.

In the first part of the project, we will develop a new paradigm to assess the type of cues used by refreshing to reactivate the memory traces, and to evaluate the temporal course of these refreshment activities. In the second part, we will question the fact that attentional refreshing may rely on the depth of processing of the memoranda, as we suggested in the extended TBRS model (Camos et al., 2009).

Understanding the mechanism that counteracts forgetting in short-term and working memory had important theoretical and practical implications. It should increase our understanding of working memory functioning, and allow developing more precise models of working memory. In a long-term perspective, it should help building appropriate scaffolding devices for children and adults with short-term memory deficits.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Assessing working memory capacity through time-constrained elementary activities.
Lucidi Annalisa, Loaiza Vanessa, Camos Valerie, Barrouillet Pierre (2014), Assessing working memory capacity through time-constrained elementary activities., in Journal of General Psychology, 141(2), 98-112.
Attentional and non-attentional systems in the maintenance of verbal information in working memory: the executive and phonological loops
Camos Valerie, Barrouillet Pierre (2014), Attentional and non-attentional systems in the maintenance of verbal information in working memory: the executive and phonological loops, in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 900.
On the proper reading of the TBRS model: A reply to Oberauer and Lewandowsky (2014).
Barrouillet Pierre, Camos Valerie (2014), On the proper reading of the TBRS model: A reply to Oberauer and Lewandowsky (2014)., in Frontiers, 5, 1331.
Does Controlling for Temporal Parameters Change the Levels-of-Processing Effect in Working Memory?
Loaiza Vanessa, Camos Valerie, Does Controlling for Temporal Parameters Change the Levels-of-Processing Effect in Working Memory?, in Advances in Cognitive Psychology.
Using the Process Dissociation Procedure to Estimate Recollection and Familiarity in Working Memory: An Experimental and Individual Differences Investigation
Loaiza Vanessa, Rhodes Matthew, Camos Valerie, McCabe David, Using the Process Dissociation Procedure to Estimate Recollection and Familiarity in Working Memory: An Experimental and Individual Differences Investigation, in Journal of Cognitive Psychology.
Working memory still needs verbal rehearsal
Lucidi Annalisa, Langerock Naomi, Hoareau Violette, Lemaire Benoit, Camos Valerie, Barrouillet Pierre, Working memory still needs verbal rehearsal, in Memory and Cognition.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Equipe DECO (P. Barrouillet), Université de Genève Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Psychonomic Society conference Poster Varying Attentional Refreshing via Strategies and Cognitive Load Moderates the Benefit of Semantic Retrieval Cues for Working Memory Recall 20.11.2014 Long Beach, United States of America Camos Valérie; Loaiza Vanessa;
European Working Memory Symposium Poster Using the Process Dissociation Procedure to Estimate Recollection and Familiarity in Working Memory 02.09.2014 Edinburgh, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Loaiza Vanessa; Camos Valérie;
International Conference on Working Memory Poster The nature of stored representations in working memory 09.07.2014 Cambridge, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Camos Valérie; Loaiza Vanessa;
1st Jean Piaget Conferences Poster The Impact of Cognitive Load on the Levels-of-Processing Effect in Working Memory 26.06.2014 Geneva, Switzerland Loaiza Vanessa; Camos Valérie;
Psychonomic Society Conference Talk given at a conference The nature of stored representations in working memory depends on maintenance strategy 14.11.2013 Toronto, Canada Camos Valérie; Loaiza Vanessa;
European Society for Cognitive Psychology (ESCoP) Conference Talk given at a conference The nature of stored representations in working memory depends on maintenance strategy 29.08.2013 Budapest, Hungary Camos Valérie; Loaiza Vanessa;
Association for Psychological Science (APS) conference Poster Does Controlling for Strategy Use or Cognitive Load Change the Levels-of-Processing Effect on Working Memory? 22.05.2013 Washington, DC, United States of America Camos Valérie; Loaiza Vanessa;


Awards

Title Year
Women in Cognitive Science Award 2014
Associate Member Select Speaker Award at the Psychonomic Society Conference in November 2013 at Toronto 2013

Abstract

Working memory is a system dedicated to the maintenance of information in the context of concurrent processing. Within this system, two mechanisms were described as responsible for the maintenance of verbal information. Some models proposed a mechanism specialized for the verbal domain, articulatory rehearsal (Baddeley, 1986), whereas others introduced a general attention-based mechanism, attentional refreshing (Barrouillet, & Camos, 2007; Cowan, 1999, 2005; Johnson, 1992). Recently, these two mechanisms were shown to be independent in verbal working memory (Camos, Lagner, & Barrouillet, 2009; Camos, Mora, & Oberauer, 2011; Camos, Portrat, & Oberauer, submitted; Hudjetz & Oberauer, 2007). Whereas articulatory rehearsal was largely studied both in short-term and working memory, attentional refreshing was less explored. Thus, refreshing is mainly defined by opposition to rehearsal, but it still unknown how this mechanism proceeds and on which types of representation. The aim of this project is then to understand and better described this major mechanism of the human cognition.In the first part of the project, we will develop a new paradigm to assess the type of cues used by refreshing to reactivate the memory traces, and to evaluate the temporal course of these refreshment activities. To make overt the refreshing mechanism, participants will have a help key that generates memory cues on screen during complex span tasks, instead of an internal generation of retrieval cues to reactivate memory items. In two series of 3 experiments, we will vary orthogonally the amount of information participants will receive as memory cues, and the nature of these memory cues. In the second part, we will question the fact that attentional refreshing may rely on the depth of processing of the memoranda, as we suggested in the extended TBRS model (Camos et al., 2009). Recently, Rose, Myerson, Roediger, and Hale (2010) suggested that depth of processing of the memoranda affects only the long retention and not the maintenance in working memory. We identified a potential confound in Rose et al.’s (20010) work in which the depth of processing co-varied with the attentional capture of the concurrent task. Thus, in two experiments, we will vary the depth of processing, either through the concurrent task as Rose et al. did, but with temporal control (Exp. 7), or through instructions on the type of maintenance mechanisms participants should use (Exp. 8). Understanding the mechanism that counteracts forgetting in short-term and working memory had important theoretical and practical implications. It should increase our understanding of working memory functioning, and allow developing more precise models of working memory. In a long-term perspective, it should help building appropriate scaffolding devices for children and adults with short-term memory deficits.
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