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New Developments in Ion Beam Physics

English title New Developments in Ion Beam Physics
Applicant Synal Hans-Arno
Number 137532
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Labor für Ionenstrahlphysik ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Nuclear Physics
Start/End 01.11.2011 - 31.10.2014
Approved amount 435'596.00
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Keywords (4)

Ion Beam Physics; Radiocarbon Dating; Low level detection of Actinides; Nuclear microprobe

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary

There is a growing demand of analytic ion beam technologies in both major research fields of the ETH Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics (LIP), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Materials Sciences (MS). By exploiting related synergies we advance measurement capabilities to extend existing application fields and open novel opportunities for future research activities.

The primary objective of this project will be the development of a radiocarbon detection system without using an accelerator as it is implemented in all existing AMS systems. Basic studies of the fundamental processes and proof-of–principle experiments will be conducted. Specific design studies of a mass spectrometer for radiocarbon dating and experiments to evaluate the best-suited configuration are planned. This will influence the radiocarbon user community since better and more simple instrumentation will be available in the near future.

As a second target we will progress low energy (1.2 MeV of beam energy) detection of actinides. New opportunities to optimize measurement procedures, to enhance overall detection and transmission efficiencies, and to reduce background levels can be achieved. In connection with the use of He as stripper gas more sensitive measurement procedures will be investigated. With the perspective to efficiently determine 236U/238U ratios down to the 10-12 level, the full range of applications for anthropogenic and natural occurring 236U in environmental samples will become available. This will be of particular importance in the light of the distribution of man-made nuclear materials into the environment.

With the third objective, we will simplify the use of ion beam technologies with a spatial resolution of micrometers or less. In contrast to conventional complex and costly systems, we are investigating the use of tapered glass capillaries to collimate and focus ion beams to sub-micron spot size. A simple prototype of such a device has demonstrated as its proof-of-concept. Further improvements require more thorough investigation of the physical processes leading to phase space compression of the ion beam. We conduct several approaches to significantly enhance the device performance and to explore the application potential of this novel type of microprobe.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
10Be and 26Al low-energy AMS using He-stripping and background suppression via an absorber
Lachner Johannes, Christl Marcus, Müller Arnold Milenko, Suter Martin, Synal Hans Arno (2014), 10Be and 26Al low-energy AMS using He-stripping and background suppression via an absorber, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and, 331, 209-214.
10Be and 26Al low-energy AMS using He-stripping and background suppression via an absorber
Lachner Johannes, Christl Marcus, Müller Arnold Milenko, Suter Martin, Synal Hans-Arno (2014), 10Be and 26Al low-energy AMS using He-stripping and background suppression via an absorber, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 331, 209-214.
41Ca, 14C and 10Be concentrations in coral sand from the Bikini atoll
Lachner Johannes, Christl Marcus, Alfimov Vasily, Hajdas Irka, Kubík Peter W., Schulze-König Tim, Wacker Lukas, Synal Hans Arno (2014), 41Ca, 14C and 10Be concentrations in coral sand from the Bikini atoll, in Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 129, 68-72.
A first transect of 236U in the North Atlantic Ocean
Casacuberta Núria, Christl Marcus, Lachner Johannes, Van Der Loeff Michiel Rutgers, Masqué Pere, Synal Hans Arno (2014), A first transect of 236U in the North Atlantic Ocean, in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 133, 34-46.
Low energy AMS of americium and curium
Christl Marcus, Dai Xiongxin, Lachner Johannes, Kramer-Tremblay Sheila, Synal Hans Arno (2014), Low energy AMS of americium and curium, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and, 331, 225-232.
Measurements and 3D Monte Carlo simulation of MeV ion transmission through conical glass capillaries
Simon Marius Johannes, Zhou Chunlin, Döbeli Max, Cassimi Amine, Monnet Isabelle, Méry Alain, Grygiel Clara, Guillous S., Madi T., Benyagoub Abdenacer H., Lebius Henning, Müller Arnold Milenko, Shiromaru Haruo, Synal Hans Arno (2014), Measurements and 3D Monte Carlo simulation of MeV ion transmission through conical glass capillaries, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and, 330, 11-17.
Sequential Injection Approach for Simultaneous Determination of Ultratrace Plutonium and Neptunium in Urine with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
Qiao J. (2013), Sequential Injection Approach for Simultaneous Determination of Ultratrace Plutonium and Neptunium in Urine with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, in Analytical Chemistry, 85(213), 8826-8833.
A novel approach to process carbonate samples for radiocarbon measurements with helium carrier gas
Wacker Lukas (2013), A novel approach to process carbonate samples for radiocarbon measurements with helium carrier gas, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 294, 214-217.
A versatile gas interface for routine radiocarbon analysis with a gas ion source
Wacker Lukas (2013), A versatile gas interface for routine radiocarbon analysis with a gas ion source, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 294, 315-319.
An update on in situ cosmogenic 14C analysis at ETH Zürich
Hippe Chrsitina (2013), An update on in situ cosmogenic 14C analysis at ETH Zürich, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 294, 81-86.
Carrier free 10Be/9Be measurements with low-energy AMS: Determination of sedimentation rates in the Arctic Ocean
Lachner Johannes (2013), Carrier free 10Be/9Be measurements with low-energy AMS: Determination of sedimentation rates in the Arctic Ocean, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 294, 67-71.
Detection of UH3+ and ThH3+ molecules and 236U background studies with low-energy AMS
Lachner Johannes (2013), Detection of UH3+ and ThH3+ molecules and 236U background studies with low-energy AMS, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 294, 364-368.
Developments in accelerator mass spectrometry
Synal Hans-Arno (2013), Developments in accelerator mass spectrometry, in International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 349-350, 192-202.
Direct coupling of a laser ablation cell to an AMS
Wacker Lukas (2013), Direct coupling of a laser ablation cell to an AMS, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 294, 287-290.
Evidence of 11-year solar cycles in tree rings from 1010 to 1110 AD – Progress on high precision AMS measurements
Güttler Dominik (2013), Evidence of 11-year solar cycles in tree rings from 1010 to 1110 AD – Progress on high precision AMS measurements, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 294, 459-463.
First data of Uranium-236 in the North Sea
Christl Marcus (2013), First data of Uranium-236 in the North Sea, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 294, 530-536.
Improving a gas ion source for 14C AMS
Fahrni Simon (2013), Improving a gas ion source for 14C AMS, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 294, 320-327.
Mass spectrometric detection of radiocarbon for dating applications
Synal Hans-Arno (2013), Mass spectrometric detection of radiocarbon for dating applications, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 294, 349-352.
New Be-cathode preparation method for the ETH 6 MV Tandem
Marcus Christl (2013), New Be-cathode preparation method for the ETH 6 MV Tandem, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 294, 199 -202.
Permanent magnets in accelerators can save energy, space and cost
Bødker Franz, Baandrup L. O., Hauge Nils, Laurberg K. F., Nielsen Gunver T., Baurichter Arnd, Nielsen Bjarne Roger, Bendixen F. B., Valler P., Kjeldsteen Peter, Thomsen Heine Dølrath, Balling Ole, Möller Søren Pape, Synal Hans Arno (2013), Permanent magnets in accelerators can save energy, space and cost, in IPAC 2013: Proceedings of the 4th International Particle Accelerator Conference, 3511-3513.
Plutonium release from Fukushima Daiichi fosters the need for more detailed investigations
Schneider Stephanie (2013), Plutonium release from Fukushima Daiichi fosters the need for more detailed investigations, in Scientific Reports, 3(2988), 1-5.
Simulation of MeV ion transmission through glass micro-capillaries
Simon Marius Johannes, Zhou Chunlin, Döbeli Max, Ikeda Tokihiro, Müller Arnold Milenko, Benyagoub Abdenacer H., Grygiel Clara, Guillous S., Lebius Henning, Méry Alain, Monnet Isabelle, Ropars F., Shiromaru Haruo, Cassimi Amine (2013), Simulation of MeV ion transmission through glass micro-capillaries, in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 488(SECTION 13), 1-1.
The ETH Zurich AMS facilities: Performance parameters and reference materials
Christl Marcus (2013), The ETH Zurich AMS facilities: Performance parameters and reference materials, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and , 294, 29-38.
The potential of He stripping in heavy ion AMS
Vockenhuber Christof (2013), The potential of He stripping in heavy ion AMS, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 294, 382-386.
Towards radiocarbon dating of single foraminifera with a gas ion source
Wacker Lukas (2013), Towards radiocarbon dating of single foraminifera with a gas ion source, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 294, 307-310.
Transmission of slow highly charged ions through glass capillaries: Role of the capillary shape
Zhou Chunlin, Simon Marius Johannes, Ikeda Tokihiro, Guillous S., Iskandar W., Méry Alain, Rangama Jimmy, Lebius Henning, Benyagoub Abdenacer H., Grygiel Clara, Müller Arnold Milenko, Döbeli Max, Tanis J. A., Cassimi Amine (2013), Transmission of slow highly charged ions through glass capillaries: Role of the capillary shape, in Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 88(5), 050901-1-050901-5.
A depth profile of uranium-236 in the Atlantic Ocean
Christl Marcus, Lachner Johannes, Vockenhuber Christof, Lechtenfeld Oliver, Stimac Ingrid, van der Loeff Michiel Rutgers, Synal Hans-Arno (2012), A depth profile of uranium-236 in the Atlantic Ocean, in GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA, 77, 98-107.
Existence of triply charged actinide-hydride molecules
Lachner Johannes, Christl Marcus, Vockenhuber Christof, Synal Hans-Arno, Cao-Dolg Xiaoyan, Dolg Michael (2012), Existence of triply charged actinide-hydride molecules, in PHYSICAL REVIEW A, 85(2), 022717-1.
In-air STIM with a capillary microprobe
Simon Marius Johannes, Döbeli Max, Müller Arnold Milenko, Synal Hans Arno (2012), In-air STIM with a capillary microprobe, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and, 273, 237-240.
Performance of the ETH gas ionization chamber at low energy
Mueller A. M., Doebeli M., Suter M., Synal H. -A. (2012), Performance of the ETH gas ionization chamber at low energy, in NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATO, 287, 94-102.
Ultra-trace determination of plutonium in urine samples using a compact accelerator mass spectrometry system operating at 300 kV
Dai Xiongxin, Christl Marcus, Kramer-Tremblay Sheila, Synal Hans-Arno (2012), Ultra-trace determination of plutonium in urine samples using a compact accelerator mass spectrometry system operating at 300 kV, in JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY, 27(1), 126-130.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Prof. Clements Walther Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Prof. Dr. Ralph Spolenak Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Prof. Dr. Milko Jaksic Croatia (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Dr. Friedrich Aumayr Austria (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. Bernd Kromer Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Dr. Oliver von Trzebiatowski, EMPA Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Toshiaki Ikeda Japan (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. Jürg Beer Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Prof. Tim Eglington Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Prof. Andreas Türler Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
CIMAP/GANIL France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
AMS-13 Talk given at a conference Progress in Design and Performance of Low Energy AMS Systems: Status Report 24.08.2014 Aix-en-Provence, France Simon Marius Johannes; Christl Marcus; Synal Hans-Arno; Maxeiner Sascha Sven; Seiler Martin Thomas;
International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications Poster Use of a capillary microprobe for heavy ion microbeams in Ion Beam Analysis and MeV SIMS 07.07.2014 Padova, Italy Schulte-Borchers Martina;
Joint Training Course on Ion Beam Microscopy Talk given at a conference Formation of micro-beams by capillary collimation 03.07.2014 Legnaro, Italy Döbeli Max; Schulte-Borchers Martina;
Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry Talk given at a conference Simulation of MeV ion transmission through capillaries 28.05.2014 San Antonio, United States of America Döbeli Max;
AGU Fall meeting Talk given at a conference Mass spectrometric C-14 detection techniques: Progress Report 02.12.2013 San Francisco, United States of America Synal Hans-Arno; Maxeiner Sascha Sven; Seiler Martin Thomas;
Workshop on Options of AMS in Earth Sciences Talk given at a conference Progress in 14C-AMS 28.11.2013 Bremerhafen, Germany Synal Hans-Arno;
Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on "Advanced Ion Beam Techniques: Imaging and Characterisation with MeV ions" Poster MeV SIMS with a capillary microprobe 30.09.2013 Trieste, Italy Döbeli Max; Synal Hans-Arno; Schulte-Borchers Martina;
Radiochemieseminar Individual talk Aktinidenmessungen im Ultra-Sprurenstof Bereich - einige Anwendungsbeispiele 18.09.2013 Spiez, Switzerland Christl Marcus;
ECAART 11 Conference Talk given at a conference Advances in low-energy AMS of 10Be and 26Al 12.09.2013 Namur, Belgium Lachner Johannes; Maxeiner Sascha Sven; Christl Marcus; Synal Hans-Arno;
ECAART 11 Conference Talk given at a conference Low Energy AMS of higherActinides (AM,Cm) 12.09.2013 Namur, Belgium Lachner Johannes; Synal Hans-Arno; Maxeiner Sascha Sven; Christl Marcus;
23rd International Symposium on Ion Atom Collisions (ISIAC 2013) Talk given at a conference Measurement and simulation of MeV ion transmission through glass micro-capillaries 19.07.2013 Beijing, China Simon Marius Johannes;
International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis Poster Heavy ion microbeams extracted into air using a capillary microprobe 23.06.2013 Seattle, United States of America Synal Hans-Arno; Simon Marius Johannes; Schulte-Borchers Martina; Döbeli Max;
96th Canadian Chemistry Conference Talk given at a conference Detecting ultra-trace levels of actinides with a compact AMS system 24.05.2013 Quebec, Canada Lachner Johannes; Christl Marcus; Synal Hans-Arno;
Workshop on Options of AMS in Earth Sciences Talk given at a conference From the Oeschger counter to MICADAS: Latest Developments in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry 03.05.2013 Bern, Switzerland Synal Hans-Arno;
Opening Workshop of Berne MICADAS Talk given at a conference From the Oescher counters to MICADAS: Leatest Developments in AMS 03.05.2013 Bern, Switzerland Synal Hans-Arno;
DPG Frühjahrstagung Talk given at a conference Absorbermethode zur 10Be und 26Al-Detektion 22.03.2013 Hannover, Germany Lachner Johannes; Synal Hans-Arno; Christl Marcus;
DPG Frühjahrstagung Talk given at a conference myCADAS - results and technical developments 22.03.2013 Hannover, Germany Synal Hans-Arno; Seiler Martin Thomas; Maxeiner Sascha Sven;
University of Salento Individual talk GIC - Basics and developments 01.03.2013 Lecce, Italy Synal Hans-Arno; Döbeli Max;
Colloquium der Universität Heidelberg Individual talk The Art of Dating: 14C-Altersbestimmungen Neue Nachweismethoden und ausgewählte Beispiele 02.12.2012 Heidelberg, Germany Synal Hans-Arno;
Physikalische Kolloquium Zürich Individual talk The Art of Dating: Progress in Radiocarbon Dating and related Applications 14.11.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Synal Hans-Arno;
Workshop onOpportunities for pplied research at the new tandem Accelerators of IFIN-HH Individual talk Latest developments in AMS measurement technonogies 01.11.2012 Bucharest, Romania Synal Hans-Arno;
Colloquium der Zürcher Physikalischen Gesellschaft Individual talk Radiokarbon Altersbestimmungen: Neue Nachweismethoden und ausgewählten Anwendungsbeispiele 18.10.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Synal Hans-Arno;
Conference on Particle Accelerators: Technology and Applications in Scien Individual talk Latest Developments in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: Overview of Modern Facilities and Research Programs 09.09.2012 New Delhi, India Synal Hans-Arno;
Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry Talk given at a conference A capillary microbeam for STIM and PIXE 06.08.2012 Fort Worth, United States of America Döbeli Max;
International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications (ICNMTA) Talk given at a conference In-air Capillary Microprobe for STIM and PIXE 23.07.2012 Lisbon, Portugal Schulte-Borchers Martina; Simon Marius Johannes;
Festkolloquium der Universität Hannover Talk given at a conference Reducing size and complexity of accelerator mass spectrometers 11.07.2012 Hannover, Austria Synal Hans-Arno;
21 Radiocarbon Conference Talk given at a conference Progress in mass spectrometric radiocarbon detection techniques 09.07.2012 Paris, France Seiler Martin Thomas; Synal Hans-Arno; Maxeiner Sascha Sven;
21 Radiocarbon Conference Poster Charge exchange cross sections for carbon ios in Helium 09.07.2012 Paris, France Maxeiner Sascha Sven; Seiler Martin Thomas; Synal Hans-Arno;
21 Radiocarbon Conference Poster Simple carbon dioxide transport of carbonate samples to a gas ionsource 09.07.2012 Paris, France Seiler Martin Thomas; Synal Hans-Arno;
21 Radiocarbon Conference Talk given at a conference Data reduction of small radiocarbon samples 09.07.2012 Paris, France Synal Hans-Arno; Christl Marcus;
DPG Frühjahrstagung Talk given at a conference Expanding the actinide capabilities of the compact (0.5 MV) ETH Zurich AMS system Tandy 22.03.2012 Hannover, Germany Synal Hans-Arno; Lachner Johannes; Christl Marcus;
DPG Frühjahrstagung Talk given at a conference He Strippergas bei Radiocarbon AMS 16.03.2012 Stuttgart, Germany Christl Marcus;
DPG Früjahrstagung Talk given at a conference Actinidenmessungen am ETH Kleinbeschleuniger Tandy 15.03.2012 Stuttgart, Germany Lachner Johannes; Synal Hans-Arno; Christl Marcus;
DPG Frühjahrstagung Talk given at a conference 10Be und 26Al Messungen mit Niederenergie AMS 15.03.2012 Stuttgart, Germany Synal Hans-Arno; Lachner Johannes; Christl Marcus;
DPG Frühjahrstagung Talk given at a conference myCADAS-Radiokarbon MS 12.03.2012 Hannover, Germany Synal Hans-Arno; Maxeiner Sascha Sven; Seiler Martin Thomas;
VERA Seminar Individual talk AMS of 10Be/9Be and 26Al/27Al at low energies 07.03.2012 Wien, Austria Lachner Johannes;


Knowledge transfer events



Self-organised

Title Date Place
Vakuum Kurs 10.09.2014 Zürich, Switzerland

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Other activities ETH Studienwoche für Maturanden German-speaking Switzerland Western Switzerland 2014
Talks/events/exhibitions Wie alt is Mona Lisa, Atome lügen nicht..... German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: radio, television Das Lächeln der Mona Lisa ServusTV International German-speaking Switzerland 2013
Talks/events/exhibitions Laborführung German-speaking Switzerland 2013
Media relations: radio, television TM Wissen ServusTV German-speaking Switzerland International 2013

Awards

Title Year
Swiss Vacuum Preis 2014

Use-inspired outputs


Start-ups

Name Year
Ionplus 2013

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
121902 New Developments in Ion Beam Physics 01.11.2008 Project funding (Div. I-III)
156636 New Developments in Ion Beam Physics 01.11.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)
121902 New Developments in Ion Beam Physics 01.11.2008 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

The growing demand of analytic ion beam technologies in both major research fields of the ETH Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics (LIP), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Materials Sciences (MS) has encouraged us to apply for a new grant following up our initial research project started in 2008. Our intention to exploit synergies with ion beam technologies turned out to be exceptionally successful and our accomplishments have triggered follow up research activities, which will strengthen our leading role in the strong international competition in this field. We will focus again on the investigation of basic processes involved in ion beam physics to further improve measurement technology, generate new directions for the experimental procedures, and thus open up new application fields. The proposal is structured into the three main topics:A. Developments of new instrumentation beyond AMS: Here, our primary objective will be the development of a radiocarbon dating system without using an accelerator as it is implemented in all existing AMS systems. Basic studies of charge exchange and molecule dissociation processes and proof-of-principle experiments will be conducted. Specific design studies for a mass spectrometer for radiocarbon dating and experiments to evaluate the best-suited configuration of such a system are planned. B. Low Energy AMS of Actinides:With the upgrade of the ETH Tandy AMS system impressive progress of low energy AMS of actinides (1.2 MeV of beam energy) has been demonstrated. We will exploit the new opportunities to optimize measurement procedures, to enhance overall detection and transmission efficiencies, and to reduce background levels. Systematic studies of properties of He as stripper gas will be conducted and the implications to the measurement procedures will be investigated. With the perspective to efficiently determine 236U/238U ratios down to the 10-12 level, the full range of applications for anthropogenic and natural occurring 236U in environmental samples becomes available. In addition, the potential for new measurement and application opportunities of other actinides will be evaluated.C. Capillary ion microprobe: In contrast to conventional MeV ion microprobes where large, highly sophisticated and expensive magnetic lens systems are applied, we are investigating the use of tapered capillaries to collimate and focus ion beams to sub-micron spot size. In the past two years we were able to implement a simple prototype of such a device as a proof of concept. A further improvement of this instrument necessitates a more thorough investigation of the physical processes leading to phase space compression of the transmitted ion beam. In addition, we propose several approaches to significantly enhance the device performance and to explore the application potential of this novel type of microprobe.
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