Resilience; Climate variability; Climate change; Agriculture; Landscape; Livelihoods; Food security; Adaptation; Vulnerability; Sub-Sahara Africa
Rüegg SR McMahon BJ Häsler B Esposito R Nielsen LR Ifejika Speranza C Ehlinger T Peyre M Ara (2017), A Blueprint to Evaluate One Health., in Front. Public Health
, 5(20), 1-16.
Balvanera P. T. M. Daw T. Gardner B. Martín-López A. Norström C. Ifejika Speranza M. Spierenb (2017), Key features for more successful place-based sustainability research on social-ecological systems: a Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) perspective., in Ecology and Society
, 22(1)(14), 1-45.
Ouko C Kiteme B Ifejika Speranza C. Mukunga D.and Aynekulu E. (2015), Can conservation agriculture help in building above and belowground carbon stocks in Eastern Kenya?
, Internal Working Paper, Centre for Training & Integrated Research in ASAL Development (CETRAD)., Nanyuki.
Ifejika Speranza C. and Bockel L. (2015), Climate ResilienceAssessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects and Programmes (CRAAF). Background paper to the FAO.
, FAO - Background paper, Rome.
Williams T. O. Mul M. Cofie O. Kinyangi J. Zougmore R. Wamukoya G. Nyasimi M. Mapfumo P. (2015), Climate Smart Agriculture in the African Context
, African Development Bank, Senegal.
Ifejika Speranza C. Wiesmann U. and Rist S. (2014), An Indicator framework for assessing livelihood resilience in the context of social-ecological dynamics., in Global Environmental Change
, 28, 109-119.
Adegoke J. Jagtap S. Jimoh D. Ifejika Speranza C. Areola F. Ibe C. Abdulkadir A. Jibrin J. (2014), Chapter 2. Nigeria’s Changing Climate: Risks, Impacts & Adaptation in the Agriculture Sector., in In Adegoke J. Ibe C. and Araba A. (Editors) (ed.), A Report by The Advisory Committee on Agricultural Resilience in Nigeria (ACARN)., Abuja, Nigeria, 37-54.
Vermeulen S. Abubakar Y. Conway G. Dziba L. Hoevel M. Ibe C. Ibrahim A. Olokor J. Ifejika Sp (2014), Chapter 5: Agricultural Research and Technology Development for Climate Resilient Agriculture., in In Adegoke J. Ibe C. and Araba A. (Editors) (ed.), A Report by The Advisory Committee on Agricultural Resilience In Nigeria (ACARN)., Abuja, Nigeria, 102-131.
Ibe C. Adegoke J. Ifejika Speranza C. Shisanya C. Conway G. Vemeulen S. Araba D. Obatola P. (2014), Chapter 7: Policy Interventions in Support of Agricultural Resilience in Nigeria., in In Adegoke J. Ibe C. and Araba A. (Editors) (ed.), A Report by The Advisory Committee on Agricultural Resilience In Nigeria (ACARN)., Abuja, Nigeria, 150-200.
de Chastonay Anne (2014), Master thesis: Land Management and Soil Organic Carbon Distribution on Slopes in Frienisberg.
, Master Thesis, Geography, University of Bern, Bern.
Schotte Sarah-Kay (2014), Master thesis: Mainstreaming Climate Change into Public Administration - A Vertical Analysis of Tanzania’s Agricultural Sector.
, Master thesis, Geogrphy, University of Bern, Bern.
Ifejika Speranza Chinwe and Scholz Imme (2013), Adaptation to Climate Change: Analysing Capacities in Africa, in Regional Environmental Change
, 13(3), 471-475.
Ifejika Speranza Chinwe (2013), Buffer capacity: capturing a dimension of resilience to climate change in African smallholder agriculture, in Regional Environmental Change
, 13(3), 521-535.
Ifejika Speranza C. and Bockel L., Climate Resilience Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects and Programmes (CRAAF). -An Expert Assessment Tool.
, Centre for Development nd Environment Working paper., Bern.
This project departs from the hypothesis that resilient agriculture-based livelihoods correlate with resilient agricultural landscapes and identifies the factor constellations relevant for such positive relations. It does so using the concept of resilience which is increasingly recognised in Human Geography and Development Studies. However, existing conceptualisations of resilience have limitations for research that departs from a livelihood perspective. Such limitations include the heavy focus on vulnerability and risk, the conceptualisation of resilience as the time a system requires to return to its pre-disturbance state or as the size of a perturbation required to shift a system to another state governed by other variables. I attempt to address this conceptual gap by re-configuring and operationalizing resilience for livelihood-oriented research of social-ecological systems. Thus, the project has the following research objectives: (1) it examines whether and how resilient agricultural livelihoods translate to resilient landscapes and in what ways; (2) it examines how socio-economic factors, institutions and policies affect farmer capacity to create resilient livelihoods and -landscapes; (3) it explores the implications of existing regional climate change projections and rainfall trends for building resilient livelihoods and landscapes under different socio-economic scenarios, and (4) it explores policy options for improving the resilience of livelihoods and landscapes to climate change. Building on various strands of scientific inquiry, I use resilience to refer to the capacity of individuals, social groups or social-ecological systems to absorb (withstand, live with) disturbances while retaining the same basic structure and ways of functioning (the ability to persist and the ability to adapt), the capacity for self-organisation, and the capacity to adapt to stress and change. Resilience thus comprises three features: buffer capacity, self-organisation and the capacity for learning. Since resilience is a normative concept and an inferred scientific construct that cannot be directly observed or measured I will develop proxies and indicators for measuring the resilience of agriculture-based livelihoods and landscapes to climate change. I draw on the concepts of vulnerability, ecosystem services, adaptation, adaptive capacity, agency and structure as well as livelihood approaches and related concepts to underpin the analysis of resilience. Resilient landscapes will also be captured using the same concept of resilience but with criteria and indicators relevant to the landscape context. Three broad groups of factors can be used for characterising resilient landscapes - ecological, socio-economic and institutional. Ecological factors include diversity, connectivity, and biomass. Socio-economic factors include wealth, social networks, trust between individuals, or access to different types of capital. Institutional factors focus on the ability of formal and informal institutions to mitigate or to support local actors mitigate perturbations. I adopt a case study approach whereby I will use past project sites on conservation agriculture technologies and sustainable land management in Kenya, Tanzania and Nigeria. Based on defined socio-ecological zones, three to four project sites for in-depth analysis will be selected, each for a distinct socio-ecological zone. My methodology combines the use of qualitative and quantitative data, point- and spatial data, derived through interviews, focus group discussions, field point measurements and GIS and remote sensing data. I will thus not only use content analysis but also conduct statistical analysis ranging from descriptive statistics to factor and cluster analysis. A resilient livelihoods index and a resilient landscape index will be developed and correlated to test the hypothesis. The project makes thematic as well as methodological and policy contributions. If the hypothesis holds true that resilient livelihoods translate to resilient landscapes then policies need to be more geared to supporting farmers to improve ecosystem services. Methodologically, the further improvement of the resilience check - an analytical tool for capturing the resilience of adaptations to change (in this project case, climate change) increases the body of tools available in Human Geography and Development studies. I plan to carry out the research in the Integrative Geography research group of the institute of Geography, University of Bern.