Project

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Homogeneous photocatalytic water splitting

Applicant Patzke Greta Ricarda
Number 136205
Funding scheme Sinergia
Research institution Institut für Chemie Universität Zürich
Institution of higher education University of Zurich - ZH
Main discipline Inorganic Chemistry
Start/End 01.10.2011 - 31.12.2014
Approved amount 1'485'368.00
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All Disciplines (3)

Discipline
Inorganic Chemistry
Physical Chemistry
Organic Chemistry

Keywords (8)

water splitting; homogeneous catalysis; hydrogen technology; water reducing catalysts; polyoxometalates; computational techniques; time resolved spectroscopy; reaction mechanisms

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary

The storage of light energy in chemical bonds is by far the most promising and sustainable strategy to solve our worldwide energy and climate problems. Not only is solar energy inexhaustible, its general use would also drastically reduce global CO2 emission. Water is an equally ubiquitous resource so that artificial photosynthesis based on water splitting is the ideal carbon-neutral way out of the fossile fuel dilemma. Water reduction catalysts (WRCs) promote hydrogen production, whereas water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) facilitate the challenging oxidative half reaction of oxygen evolution. Extensive synthetic, mechanistic and optimization work is now required to develop WRC/WOC catalyst systems that produce solar fuels at a competitive price. Cheap, replaceable and non-toxic WRC/WOC couples would offer distinct operational advantages over photoelectrolytic water splitting, such as single step and low cost processes without preliminary generation of electricity.

Whereas an increasing number of studies report on the integration of WRCs and WOCs into heterogeneous water splitting systems, visible light driven homogeneous overall water splitting with WRC/WOC pairs has not been described to date. Bio-inspired homogeneous catalysts are exceptionally promising due to their manifold structural tuning options that can render artificial photosynthesis setups close to the robustness, self-repair options and high performance of the natural photosystems. The Sinergia project thus explores forefronts of overall water splitting research: we integrate preparative, physico-chemical and theoretical expertise into the quest for the first homogeneous WRC/WOC catalytic system. Our goal is a unified concept for water splitting through robust, stable and economically viable homogeneous catalysts. The synthetic part (projects 1 and 2) is thus focused on the development of easily accessible homogeneous WRCs and WOCs based on abundant metals (e.g. Co, Mn, Fe and combinations thereof). Special emphasis will be placed on water-stable WRC complexes and bio-inspired polyoxometalate-based WOCs with Mn cores. Project 3 is concentrated on the investigation of the catalytic WRC/WOC half reactions with advanced in situ time-resolved IR spectroscopy. This will provide highly sought-after insight into the operational mechanisms of these catalysts that is required for their informed design. In parallel, theoretical models of WRCs/WOCs in solution will be developed in project 4 to optimize the synthetic strategy with a grid approach and to correlate the spectroscopic results with calculated water reduction/oxidation pathways.

The most challenging task is the quest for the “missing chemical links” between WRCs and WOCs, namely common photosensitizers and electron shuttles. Cutting-edge in situ studies of the underlying reaction pathways will provide the requested mechanistic pathways to bring the homogeneous water splitting concept to life through the systematic development of recyclable and robust electron transfer agents. Such pioneering investigations would add new directions to Swiss research programs on renewable energy sources, such as the Swiss Hydrogen Association HYDROPOLE, and we aim to place Swiss research on sustainable hydrogen technology at the forefront of current European research activities.

 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Mechanism of photocatalytic hydrogen generation by a polypyridyl-based cobalt catalyst in aqueous solution.
Rodenberg Alexander, Orazietti Margherita, Probst Benjamin, Bachmann Cyril, Alberto Roger, Baldridge Kim K, Hamm Peter (2015), Mechanism of photocatalytic hydrogen generation by a polypyridyl-based cobalt catalyst in aqueous solution., in Inorganic Chemistry, 54(2), 646-57.
Photochemical and electrocatalytic water oxidation activity of cobalt carbodiimide
Ressnig Debora, Shalom Menny, Patscheider Jörg, Moré René, Evangelisti Fabio, Antonietti Markus, Patzke Greta R (2015), Photochemical and electrocatalytic water oxidation activity of cobalt carbodiimide, in J. Mater. Chem. A,, 3(9), 5072-5082.
Ascorbate as an electron relay between an irreversible electron donor and Ru(II) or Re(I) photosensitizers.
Bachmann Cyril, Probst Benjamin, Guttentag Miguel, Alberto Roger (2014), Ascorbate as an electron relay between an irreversible electron donor and Ru(II) or Re(I) photosensitizers., in Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England), 50(51), 6737-9.
Photosensitizing properties of Alkynylrhenium(I) complexes [Re(-C C-R)(CO)(3)(N boolean AND N)] (N boolean AND N=2,2 '-bipy, phen) for H-2 production
Oberholzer Miriam, Probst Benjamin, Bernasconi Dominik, Spingler Bernhard, Alberto Roger (2014), Photosensitizing properties of Alkynylrhenium(I) complexes [Re(-C C-R)(CO)(3)(N boolean AND N)] (N boolean AND N=2,2 '-bipy, phen) for H-2 production, in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, (19), 3002-3009.
Ultrafast multi-dimensional attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy of adsorbates at metal surfaces
Kraack Jan Philip, Lotti Davide, Hamm Peter (2014), Ultrafast multi-dimensional attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy of adsorbates at metal surfaces, in J. Phys. Chem. Lett., (5 (13)), 2325-2329.
Visible-light-driven water oxidation with nanoscale Co(3)O(4) : new optimization strategies.
Liu Hongfei, Patzke Greta R (2014), Visible-light-driven water oxidation with nanoscale Co(3)O(4) : new optimization strategies., in Chemistry, an Asian journal, 9(8), 2249-59.
3d element complexes of pentadentate Bipyridine-Piyridine-based ligand scaffolds: Structures and photocatalytic activities
Bachmann Cyril, Guttentag Miguel, Spingler Bernhard, Alberto Roger (2013), 3d element complexes of pentadentate Bipyridine-Piyridine-based ligand scaffolds: Structures and photocatalytic activities, in Inorganic Chemistry, 52(10), 6055-61.
A highly stable polypyridyl-based cobalt catalyst for homo- and heterogeneous photocatalytic water reduction.
Guttentag Miguel, Rodenberg Alexander, Bachmann Cyril, Senn Anna, Hamm Peter, Alberto Roger (2013), A highly stable polypyridyl-based cobalt catalyst for homo- and heterogeneous photocatalytic water reduction., in Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003), 42(2), 334-7.
All-inorganic 1D chain-based architecture of a novel dimanganese-substituted Keggin polyoxotungstate
Car Pierre-Emmanuel, Spingler Bernhard, Weyeneth Stephen, Patscheider Jörg, Patzke Greta R. (2013), All-inorganic 1D chain-based architecture of a novel dimanganese-substituted Keggin polyoxotungstate, in c, Greta R. Patzkea, , 52, 151-158.
Closer to photosystem II: a Co4O4 cubane catalyst with flexible ligand architecture.
Evangelisti Fabio, Güttinger Robin, Moré René, Luber Sandra, Patzke Greta R (2013), Closer to photosystem II: a Co4O4 cubane catalyst with flexible ligand architecture., in Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135(50), 18734-7.
Cobalt-Manganese Spinel Oxides as Visible-Light-Driven Water Oxidation Catalysts
Liu Hongei, Patzke Greta R. (2013), Cobalt-Manganese Spinel Oxides as Visible-Light-Driven Water Oxidation Catalysts, in Kirihara Soshu, Hernandez-Ramirez Francisco, Mathur Sanjay, Widjaja Sujanto (ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 75.
Photocatalytic water oxidation with cobalt-containing tungstobismutates: Tuning the metal core
Evangelisti Fabio, Car Pierre-Emmanuel, Blacque Olivier, Patzke Greta Ricarda (2013), Photocatalytic water oxidation with cobalt-containing tungstobismutates: Tuning the metal core, in Catalysis Science and Technology, 3(12), 3117-3129.
Structure and properties of new gallium-containing polyoxotungstates with hexanuclear and tetranuclear cores
Von Allmen Kim, Car Pierre-Emmanuel, Blacque Olivier, Fox Thomas, Müller Rafael P, Patzke Greta R (2013), Structure and properties of new gallium-containing polyoxotungstates with hexanuclear and tetranuclear cores, in Zeitschrift fur Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie, 640(5), 781-789.
1D- and 2D-architectures via self-assembly of the novel sandwich-type polyoxometalate [Zn 2Sb 2(B-α-ZnW 9O 34) 2] 14-
Ni Lubin, Patzke Greta Ricarda (2012), 1D- and 2D-architectures via self-assembly of the novel sandwich-type polyoxometalate [Zn 2Sb 2(B-α-ZnW 9O 34) 2] 14-, in CrystEngComm, 14(20), 6778-6782.
New perspectives on polyoxometalate catalysts: Alcohol oxidation with Zn/Sb-polyoxotungstates
Ni Lubin, Patscheider Jörg, Baldridge Kim K, Patzke Greta R (2012), New perspectives on polyoxometalate catalysts: Alcohol oxidation with Zn/Sb-polyoxotungstates, in Chemistry - A European Journal, 18, 13293-13298.
Synthesis and characterization of open and sandwich-type polyoxometalates reveals visible-light-driven water oxidation via POM-photosensitizer complexes
Car Pierre-Emmanuel, Guttentag Miguel, Baldridge Kim K, Alberto Roger, Patzke Greta R (2012), Synthesis and characterization of open and sandwich-type polyoxometalates reveals visible-light-driven water oxidation via POM-photosensitizer complexes, in Green Chemistry, 14(6), 1680-1688.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Prof. André Roodt, Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein South Africa (Africa)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Exchange of personnel
Prof. Roger Tsien, Department of Chemistry, University of California, San Diego United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Joe O'Connor, Department of Chemistry, University of California, San Diego United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Isabel Santos, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, Sacavém Portugal (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Prof. Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt, KIT Karlsruhe, Institute of Technical and Polymer Chemistry Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. Franco Cozzi, University of Milan, Department of Organic and Industrial Chemistry Italy (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Invited Lecture, University of the Free State Individual talk Mechanism of Photocatalytic H2 Formation with Cobalt Catalysts ans poly-Pyridine Ligands 25.11.2014 Bloemfontein, South Africa Alberto Roger;
9th Annual Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin Symposium Poster Comprehensive Cobalt-based Water Oxidation Catalysts: From Nanomaterials to PSII Mimics 06.10.2014 Zürich, Switzerland Evangelisti Fabio;
Sustainability in Chemistry Poster Investigating photocatalytic H2-production mechanism with a Cobalt based catalyst 28.09.2014 Erlangen, Germany Orazietti Margherita;
LightChEC Symposium and Summer School Poster Novel Alkynyl rhenium photosensitizer in photocatalytic H2 production 12.09.2014 Les Diablerets, Switzerland Oberholzer Miriam;
Fall Meeting of the Swiss Chemical Society Poster Polyoxometalates: structural diversities and efficient catalysts for artificial photosynthesis 11.09.2014 Zürich, Switzerland von Allmen Kim;
Fall Meeting of the Swiss Chemical Society Poster Water oxidation with robust and versatile cobalt-based catalysts. Bottom up approach 11.09.2014 Zürich, Switzerland Evangelisti Fabio;
LightChEC Symposium and Summer School Poster Investigating photocatalytic H2-production mechanism with a Cobalt based catalyst 09.09.2014 Les Diablerets, Switzerland Orazietti Margherita;
LightChEC Symposium and Summer School Poster A New Method for Observing Ultrafast Dynamics at Interfaces 09.09.2014 Les Diablerets, Switzerland Lotti Davide;
EuroBIC12 - 12th European Biological Inorganic Chemistry Conference Poster Ascorbate as Relay Between an Irreversible Electron Donor and a Re(I) or Ru(II) Photosensitizer 24.08.2014 Zürich, Switzerland Bachmann Cyril;
248th ACS National Meeting Talk given at a conference Comprehensive Cobalt-based Water Oxidation Catalysts: From Nanomaterials to PSII Mimics 10.08.2014 San Francisco, United States of America Evangelisti Fabio;
7th International Conference on Coherent Multidimensional Spectroscopy Poster Ultrafast Multi-Dimensional Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy 13.07.2014 Eugene , United States of America Lotti Davide;
1st International Symposium on Energy Challenges and Mechanics Talk given at a conference Nanoscale and bio-inspired cobalt oxide materials for artificial photosynthesis 08.07.2014 Aberdeen, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Patzke Greta Ricarda;
European Colloquium on Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms Talk given at a conference Mechanism of Photocatalytic H2 Formation with Cobalt Catalysts ans poly-Pyridine Ligands 19.06.2014 Debrecen, Hungary Alberto Roger;
XXVth IUPAC Symposium on Photochemistry Poster Ascorbate as Relay Between an Irreversible Electron Donor and a Re(I) or Ru(II) Photosensitizer 13.06.2014 Bordeaux, France Bachmann Cyril;
2014 EMN Summer Meeting Talk given at a conference Water oxidation catalysts for artificial photocatalysis: From biomimetics to economic solids 08.06.2014 Cancun, Mexico Patzke Greta Ricarda;
Invited Talk, University of Florida Individual talk Oxides Today: Air & Water - Energy & Healthcare 05.06.2014 Gainesville, United States of America Patzke Greta Ricarda;
Invited Lecture, Paul-Scherrer-Institute Individual talk Light to Chemical Energy Conversion: Molecules, Nanoparticles or Solids? 22.05.2014 Villingen, Switzerland Patzke Greta Ricarda;
Invited Lecture, Princeton University Individual talk Water Splitting for Artificial Photosynthesis: Biomimetics or Solids? 13.05.2014 Princeton , United States of America Patzke Greta Ricarda;
Invited Lecture, Yale University Individual talk Water Splitting: Biomimetics, Solids - or Solar Power? 12.05.2014 New Haven, United States of America Patzke Greta Ricarda;
247th ACS National Meeting Talk given at a conference Comprehensive cobalt-based water oxidation catalysts: From nanomaterials to PSII mimics 16.03.2014 Dallas, United States of America Patzke Greta Ricarda;
Conference on Molecules and Materials for Artificial Photosynthesis Talk given at a conference Oxides and Oxoclusters for Solar Fuels 06.02.2014 Cancun, Mexico Patzke Greta Ricarda;
Invited Lecture, Freie Universität Berlin Individual talk Multiple Facets of Technetium and Rhenium Chemistry in Meolecular Imaging and Photocatalysis 04.02.2014 Berlin, Germany Alberto Roger;
NCCR MUST 4th Annual Meeting Poster A PhotochemicalWay to Hydrogen Production - Catalysis from Nanoseconds to Minutes 08.01.2014 Engelberg, Switzerland Rodenberg Alexander;
Invited Lecture, Fribourg Chemical Society Individual talk Metal Oxide Materials: Energy Applications 03.12.2013 Fribourg, Switzerland Patzke Greta Ricarda;
Swiss-Kyoto Symposium 2013 Talk given at a conference Homogeneous Water Reduction with Poly-Pyridine-based Cobalt Catalysts 21.11.2013 Zürich, Switzerland Alberto Roger;
Invited Lecture, University of Florida Individual talk Oxide Materials for Clean Energy 18.11.2013 Gainesville, United States of America Patzke Greta Ricarda;
International Interdisciplinary Research Laboratory Talk given at a conference Oxide Materials for Water Oxidation 18.10.2013 Lugano, Switzerland Patzke Greta Ricarda;
8th Annual Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin Symposium Poster Photocatalytic Water Oxidation through Cobalt-containing complexes 10.10.2013 Zürich, Switzerland Evangelisti Fabio;
Swiss Chemical Society Fall Meeting Poster Photocatalytic Water Oxidation with Polyoxometalates 06.09.2013 Lausanne, Switzerland Evangelisti Fabio;
SCS Fall Meeting 2013 Talk given at a conference Investigating the mechanism of hydrogen evolution of Cobalt based catalysts 06.09.2013 Lausanne, Switzerland Orazietti Margherita;
Swiss Chemical Society Fall Meeting Poster Novel {fac-Re(CO)3}+ Based Photosensitizers for Photocatalytic H2-Production 06.09.2013 Lausanne, Switzerland Oberholzer Miriam;
Invited Lecture, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces Individual talk Polyoxometalates and Oxide Materials: Energy Applications and Environmental Challenges 04.09.2013 Potsdam-Golm, Germany Patzke Greta Ricarda;
CMOS Emerging Technologies Research Symposium 2013 Talk given at a conference Oxide materials for green energy 17.07.2013 Whistler, Canada Patzke Greta Ricarda;
MC11: 11th International Conference on Materials Chemistry Talk given at a conference Oxide-based water oxidation catalysts: From clusters to nanomaterials 08.07.2013 Warwick, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Patzke Greta Ricarda;
11th International Conference on Materials Chemistry Poster Photocatalytic Water Oxidation with Polyoxometalates: Tuning the Metal Core 08.07.2013 Warwick, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Evangelisti Fabio;
5th NAGC Workshop Talk given at a conference Polyoxometalates: Catalysts and Biomaterials 22.05.2013 Limmassol, Cyprus Patzke Greta Ricarda;
Invited Lecture, University of Monteviedo Individual talk Multiple Facets of Technetium and Rhenium in Imaging and Photocatalysis 08.03.2013 University of Montevideo, Uruguay Alberto Roger;
ICACC 2013 Talk given at a conference Nanoscale Oxides for Photocatalytic Applications 27.01.2013 Daytona Beach, Florida, United States of America Patzke Greta Ricarda;
CMSZH Graduate School Retreat Poster Metal oxides, Polyoxometalates and Co/Ln Cubane as water oxidation catalysts 23.01.2013 Charmey, Switzerland Evangelisti Fabio;
The 3rd International Solvothermal and Hydrothermal Association Conference Talk given at a conference Hydrothermal Oxide Synthesis: From MARS to our Environment 13.01.2013 Austin/Texas, United States of America Patzke Greta Ricarda;
Frontiers in Metal-Oxide Cluster Science 2012 Talk given at a conference Functional POMs: Oxidation Catalysts & Bio-Composites 18.11.2012 Lanzarote, Spain Patzke Greta Ricarda;
Invited Lecture, ETH Institute of Energy Technology Individual talk On the way to water treatment and oxidation 24.10.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Patzke Greta Ricarda;
ZFM Colloquium, Leibniz University Talk given at a conference Oxide Materials for Energy and Environment 09.07.2012 Hannover, Germany Patzke Greta Ricarda;
Advances in Quantum Chemistry: Interfacing Electronic Structure with Dynamics Talk given at a conference A sector model for carboxyllic acids and a pathway model for electron A/D couples 20.06.2012 Minneapolis, United States of America Baldridge Kim K.;
2012 Inorganic Chemistry Gordon Research Conference Talk given at a conference Oxide Nanomaterials & Polyoxometalates: Current Environmental Applications 17.06.2012 Biddeford, United States of America Patzke Greta Ricarda;
WCAM 2012: 1st World Annual Advanced Materials Conference Talk given at a conference Functional Oxide Materials for Environmental Challenges 06.06.2012 Beijing, China Patzke Greta Ricarda;
Gordon Conference - Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels Poster Photocatalytic Generation of H2 with a Highly Stable Polypyridyl-based Cobalt Catalyst 13.05.2012 Barga, Italy Rodenberg Alexander;
21. DECHEMA Diskussionstagung "Anorganisch-Technische Chemie" Talk given at a conference Oxide Materials Development: Energy - Environment - Healthcare 01.03.2012 Frankfurt, Switzerland Patzke Greta Ricarda;
Invited Lecture, University of Konstanz Individual talk Multiple Facets of Technetium and Rhenium in Imaging and Photocatalysis 26.01.2012 Konstanz, Germany Alberto Roger;
7th Princess Chulabhorn International Science Congress. Cancer: From Basic Research to Cure Talk given at a conference Calculation of Franck-Condon factor for Harmonic Oscillators 29.11.2011 Bangkok, Thailand Baldridge Kim K.;
7th Princess Chulabhorn International Science Congress. Cancer: From Basic Research to Cure Talk given at a conference Sector model scheme for placement of explicit water molecules for computational prediction of pKa 29.11.2011 Bangkok, Thailand Baldridge Kim K.;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Talks/events/exhibitions Scientifica 2013: Risiko Energie, Eine exotherme Experimentalvorlesung German-speaking Switzerland 2013

Awards

Title Year
Forschungskredit UZH 2015
Forschungskredit UZH 2014

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
119798 Synthetic and Spectroscopic Studies for an Improved Photocatalytic System for H2 Generation 01.04.2008 Project funding (Div. I-III)
160801 Photocatalytic Processes at Solvated Interfaces 01.02.2016 Sinergia
146130 The role of the NF?B-inducing kinase NIK in the development and function of cellular immunity 01.11.2013 Project funding (Div. I-III)
144964 Upgrade of the UZH NMR Core Facility 01.12.2012 R'EQUIP
150784 An AC Sub-Kelvin Magnetometer at the University of Zürich Irchel (ASKUZI) 01.10.2014 R'EQUIP

Abstract

The storage of light energy in chemical bonds is by far the most promising and sustainable strategy to solve our worldwide energy and climate problems. Not only is solar energy inexhaustible, its general use would also drastically reduce global CO2 emission. Water is an equally ubiquitous resource so that artificial photosynthesis based on water splitting is the ideal carbon-neutral way out of the fossile fuel dilemma. Water reduction catalysts (WRCs) promote hydrogen production, whereas water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) facilitate the challenging oxidative half reaction leading to O2 evolution. Extensive synthetic, mechanistic and optimization work is now required to develop WRC/WOC catalyst systems that produce solar fuels at a competitive price. Cheap, replaceable and non-toxic WRC/WOC couples would offer distinct operational advantages over photoelectrolytic water splitting, such as single step and low cost processes without preliminary generation of electricity. Whereas an increasing number of studies report on the integration of WRCs and WOCs into heterogeneous water splitting systems, visible light driven homogeneous overall water splitting with WRC/WOC pairs has not been reported to date. This research goal is particularly worthwhile, because bio-inspired homogeneous catalysts are exceptionally promising due to their manifold structural tuning options that can render artificial photosynthesis approaches close to the robustness, self-repair options and high performance of the natural photosystems. Therefore, the present Sinergia proposal is located at the forefront of overall water splitting research: we integrate preparative, physico-chemical and theoretical expertise into the quest for the first homogeneous WRC/WOC catalytic system. Our ultimate Sinergia goal is a unified concept for water splitting through robust, stable and economically viable homogeneous catalysts. The synthetic part (projects 1 and 2) is thus focused on the development of easily accessible homogeneous WRCs and WOCs based on abundant metals (e.g. Mn, Fe, Co and combinations thereof). Special emphasis will be placed on water-stable WRC complexes and bio-inspired polyoxometalate-based WOCs with Mn cores. Project 3 is focused on the investigation of the catalytic WRC/WOC half reactions with advanced in situ time-resolved IR spectroscopy. This will provide highly sought-after insight into the operational mechanisms of these catalysts that is required for their informed design. In parallel, theoretical models of WRCs/WOCs in solution will be developed in project 4 to optimize the synthetic strategy with a grid approach and to correlate the spectroscopic results with calculated water reduction/oxidation pathways. The most challenging Sinergia task is the quest for the “missing chemical links” between WRCs and WOCs, namely common photosensitizers and electron shuttles. Intense in situ studies of the underlying reaction pathways will provide the requested mechanistic insight to bring the homogeneous water splitting concept to life through the systematic development of recyclable and robust electron transfer agents. Such pioneering investigations would add new directions to Swiss research programs on renewable energy sources, such as the Swiss Hydrogen Association HYDROPOLE, and our individual collaborations in this direction can be strengthened and focused with a Sinergia framework. In this way, we aim to place Swiss research on sustainable hydrogen technology at the forefront of current European research activities (e.g. FCH JU of the European Research Commission).
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