Project

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Interaction of Aerosols with Clouds and Radiation

English title Interaction of Aerosols with Clouds and Radiation
Applicant Weingartner Ernest
Number 135356
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Labor für Atmosphärenchemie Paul Scherrer Institut
Institution of higher education Paul Scherrer Institute - PSI
Main discipline Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Start/End 01.12.2011 - 30.11.2015
Approved amount 222'876.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Meteorology

Keywords (6)

ice nuclei; mixed phase clouds; indirect aerosol effect; ice crystal; cloud condensation nuclei; climate change

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary

High uncertainties in future climate predictions arise from insufficient knowledge of the interaction of clouds with visible (solar) and infrared (terrestrial) radiation. The optical properties and lifetime of clouds are strongly influenced by the ability of atmospheric aerosol particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN). This so-called indirect aerosol effect has been recognized as one of the greatest source of uncertainty in assessing human impact on climate.

Up to now, the climate relevant properties of clouds and their formation processes are still poorly understood, particularly those of mixed-phase clouds where supercooled cloud droplets and ice crystals coexist. Previous research has found that the cloud radiative properties strongly depend on the cloud ice mass fraction, which is influenced by the abundance of IN. Increased IN concentrations are also thought to enhance precipitation, thus causing a decrease in cloud lifetime and cloud cover, resulting in a warming of the atmosphere.

Burning questions that we will address are:

  • Which aerosol particles act as IN in our atmosphere ?
  • By which detailed mechanisms do atmospheric aerosols contribute to the formation of ice ?

To answer these questions, one major goal of this project is to develop a new inlet for the measurement of cloud droplets and ice crystals. This inlet will also allow the extraction of small ice particles in mixed-phase clouds for the physico-chemical characterization of tropospheric IN. The inlet will represent a novel tool for the in-situ investigation of clouds and will deliver information that is not available by means of any other existing inlet.

Measurements will be performed at the Jungfraujoch, one of the world’s most prominent high Alpine research stations located at 3580 m altitude in the middle of Switzerland. This unique location offers the possibility to perform these studies in mixed-phase clouds that are representative for the current European background. The proposed research will be performed in a collaborative effort of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry of the Paul Scherrer Institut (aerosol/cloud research) and the Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (cloud microphysics and optics).

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
On-line single particle analysis of ice particle residuals from mountain-top mixed-phase clouds using laboratory derived particle type assignment
Schmidt S. Schneider J. Klimach T. Mertes S. Schenk L. P. Kupiszewski P. Curtius J. an (2017), On-line single particle analysis of ice particle residuals from mountain-top mixed-phase clouds using laboratory derived particle type assignment, in Atmos. Chem. Phys. ., 17, 575-594.
Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds
M. Schnaiter et al. (2016), Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16, 5091-5110.
Development and characterization of an ice-selecting pumped counterflow virtual impactor (IS-PCVI) to study ice crystal residuals
Hiranuma N. et al. (2016), Development and characterization of an ice-selecting pumped counterflow virtual impactor (IS-PCVI) to study ice crystal residuals, in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 9(8), 3817-3836.
Ice Nucleating Particle Measurements at 241 K during Winter Months at 3580m MSL in the Swiss Alp
Boose Y. et al. (2016), Ice Nucleating Particle Measurements at 241 K during Winter Months at 3580m MSL in the Swiss Alp, in Jounal of Atmospheric Sciences, 73(5), 2203-2228.
Ice nucleating particles in the Saharan Air Layer
Boose Y. et al. (2016), Ice nucleating particles in the Saharan Air Layer, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16, 9067-9087.
Ice residual properties in mixed-phase clouds at the high-alpine Jungfraujoch site
Kupiszewski P. et al. (2016), Ice residual properties in mixed-phase clouds at the high-alpine Jungfraujoch site, in Journal of Geophysical Research, 121(20), ---.
In situ characterization of mixed phase clouds using the Small Ice Detector and the Particle Phase Discriminator
P. Vochezer et al. (2016), In situ characterization of mixed phase clouds using the Small Ice Detector and the Particle Phase Discriminator, in Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 159-177.
Quasi-Spherical Ice in Convective Clouds
Jarvinen E. et al. (2016), Quasi-Spherical Ice in Convective Clouds, in Jounal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 73(10), 3885-3910.
Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particle residuals sampled by three different techniques
A. Worringen et al. (2015), Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particle residuals sampled by three different techniques, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 4161-4178.
The Ice Selective Inlet: a novel technique for exclusive extraction of pristine ice crystals in mixed-phase clouds
P. Kupiszewski E. Weingartner et. al. (2015), The Ice Selective Inlet: a novel technique for exclusive extraction of pristine ice crystals in mixed-phase clouds, in Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3087-3106.
Transition operator calculation with the Green’s dyadic technique for electromagnetic scattering: a numerical approach using the Dyson equation
U. Tricoli et al. (2015), Transition operator calculation with the Green’s dyadic technique for electromagnetic scattering: a numerical approach using the Dyson equation, in J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer., 162, 7-88.
Laboratory study of microphysical and scattering properties of corona-producing cirrus clouds
E. Järvinen et al. (2014), Laboratory study of microphysical and scattering properties of corona-producing cirrus clouds, in Applied Optics, 53, 7566-7575.
The Cloud Particle Spectrometer with Polarization Detection (CPSPD): A next generation open-path cloud probe for distinguishing liquid cloud droplets from ice crystals
D. Baumgartner et al. (2014), The Cloud Particle Spectrometer with Polarization Detection (CPSPD): A next generation open-path cloud probe for distinguishing liquid cloud droplets from ice crystals, in Atmspheric Research, 142, 2-14.
Chapter 8: Measurements of Ice Nucleating Particles and Ice Residuals
Cziczo D. Ladino L. Boose Y. Kanji Z. Kupiszewski P. Lance S. Mertes S. and Wex H., Chapter 8: Measurements of Ice Nucleating Particles and Ice Residuals, in Meteorological Monographs.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Prof. Dr. Darrel Baumgardner, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Mexico (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Dr. U. Pöschl, Biogeochemistry Department, Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Mainz Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. A. Petzold, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, DLR Oberpfaffenhofen Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. J. Curtius, Institut für Atmosphäre und Umwelt, Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. J. Schneider and Prof. S. Borrmann, University of Mainz, Particle Chemistry Department, Mainz Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. A. Wiedensohler, Institut für Troposphärenforschung, Leipzig Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. C. Hüglin and Dr. S. Reimann, EMPA, Dübendorf Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. A Heymsfield and Dr. Carl Schmitt, NCAR United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Dr. K. Bower, Prof. T.W. Choularton, Prof. M. Gallagher, University of Manchester Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. K. Sellegri, Laboratoire de météorologie Physique, Université Blaise Pascal, 63170 Aubiere France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Dr. J. Ulanowski and Prof. P. Kaye, CAIR, University of Hertfordshire Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Prof. Markus Leuenberger, Climate and Environmental Physics, University of Bern Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. U. Lohmann and Prof. T. Peter, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zürich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Prof. H. Burtscher and Dr. M. Fierz, Institut für Aerosol- und Sensortechnik, FHNW, Windisch Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Prof. S. Weinbruch, Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Mineralogie, Darmstadt Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
26th General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) Talk given at a conference Nearly spherical ice in anvil cirrus clouds and its influence to climate 22.06.2015 Prag, Czech Republic Schnaiter Martin;
26th General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) Talk given at a conference Surface roughness of small cirrus ice particles. 22.06.2015 Prague, Czech Republic Schnaiter Martin;
German Physical Society Spring Meeting Talk given at a conference In situ characterization of small cloud ice particles in mixed phase clouds 23.03.2015 Heidelberg, Germany Schnaiter Martin;
International Aerosol Conference 2014 Talk given at a conference Hunting the Particles That Act as Ice Nuclei in Mixed Phase Clouds 29.09.2014 Busan, Korean Republic (South Korea) Kupiszewski Piotr; Weingartner Ernest; Schnaiter Martin;
14th Conference on Cloud Physics, American Meteorological Society Poster Ice residual properties in free tropospheric mixed-phase clouds 06.07.2014 Boston, United States of America Weingartner Ernest; Schnaiter Martin; Kupiszewski Piotr;
European Geosciences Union General Assembly Poster In-situ single particle composition analysis of free tropospheric ice nuclei and ice residues in mixed-phase clouds during INUIT-JFJ 2013 27.04.2014 vienna, Austria Weingartner Ernest; Kupiszewski Piotr; Schnaiter Martin;
European Geosciences Union General Assembly Poster Physical and chemical properties of ice residuals during the 2013 and 2014 CLACE campaigns 27.04.2014 Vienna, Austria Schnaiter Martin; Weingartner Ernest; Kupiszewski Piotr;
German Physical Society Spring Meeting Talk given at a conference Ice crystal characterization at the AIDA cloud chamber 20.03.2014 Berlin, Germany Schnaiter Martin;
European Aerosol Conference 2013 Poster In-situ single particle composition analysis of ice residuals in mixed-phase clouds during INUIT-JFJ 2013 01.09.2013 Prague, Czech Republic Weingartner Ernest; Schnaiter Martin; Kupiszewski Piotr;
European Aerosol Conference 2013 Poster In-situ single particle composition analysis of ice residuals in mixed-phase clouds during INUIT-JFJ 2013 01.09.2013 Prague, Czech Republic Kupiszewski Piotr; Weingartner Ernest; Schnaiter Martin;
Davos Atmosphere and Cryosphere Assembly 2013 Poster Design of an ice selective inlet for the characterization of ice in mixed-phase clouds 08.07.2013 Davos, Switzerland Weingartner Ernest; Kupiszewski Piotr; Schnaiter Martin;
Davos Atmosphere and Cryosphere Assembly 2013 Talk given at a conference Cloud microphysics and physico-chemical characterization of ice residuals in mixed-phase clouds: CLACE 2013 08.07.2013 Davos, Switzerland Kupiszewski Piotr; Weingartner Ernest; Schnaiter Martin;
Davos Atmosphere and Cryosphere Assembly 2013 Poster In situ characterization of mixed phase cloud ice particles 08.07.2013 Davos, Switzerland Schnaiter Martin; Weingartner Ernest; Kupiszewski Piotr;
Swiss Global Change Day Poster Physical and chemical characteristics of ice residuals: CLACE 2013 16.04.2013 Bern, Switzerland Kupiszewski Piotr; Weingartner Ernest; Schnaiter Martin;
European Science Foundation Atmospheric Ice Nucleation workshop Poster Physical and chemical characteristics of ice residuals: CLACE 2013 06.04.2013 Vienna, Austria Kupiszewski Piotr; Weingartner Ernest; Schnaiter Martin;
German Physical Society Spring Meeting Poster In situ characterization of cloud ice particles 25.02.2013 Jena, Germany Schnaiter Martin; Weingartner Ernest; Kupiszewski Piotr;
European Aerosol Conference 2012 Poster A new ice selective inlet for the characterization of the atmospheric ice phase 02.09.2012 Granada, Spain Weingartner Ernest; Kupiszewski Piotr; Schnaiter Martin;
16th International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation Talk given at a conference Ice Selective Inlet: A novel tool for ice nucleation measurements 30.07.2012 Leipzig, Germany Weingartner Ernest; Kupiszewski Piotr; Schnaiter Martin;


Awards

Title Year
Best Poster Award, EAC 2012, Granada, Spain 2012

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
121911 Soot Nanoparticles in the Past and Present Atmosphere 01.01.2009 Ambizione
140663 Modelling of aerosol effects in mixed-phase clouds 01.01.2013 Project funding (Div. I-III)
142214 Characterization, calibration and validation of an ice selective inlet 01.06.2012 International short research visits
172649 Using Photothermal Interferometry to Improve our Understanding of Carbonaceous Aerosol Impacts 01.07.2017 Project funding (Div. I-III)
134641 Kohlenstoffkreislauf-Forschung auf dem Jungfraujoch 01.04.2011 Project funding (Div. I-III)
100280 The effects of organic compounds on the hygroscopic properties of inorganic aerosols 01.07.2003 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

High uncertainties in future climate predictions arise from insufficient knowledge of the interaction of clouds with visible (solar) and infrared (terrestrial) radiation. The optical properties and lifetime of clouds are strongly influenced by the ability of atmospheric aerosol particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN). This so-called indirect aerosol effect has been recognized as one of the greatest source of uncertainty in assessing human impact on climate. Up to now, the climate relevant properties of clouds and their formation processes are still poorly understood, particularly those of mixed-phase clouds where supercooled cloud droplets and ice crystals coexist. Previous research has found that the cloud radiative properties strongly depend on the cloud ice mass fraction, which is influenced by the abundance of IN. Increased IN concentrations are also thought to enhance precipitation, thus causing a decrease in cloud lifetime and cloud cover, resulting in a warming of the atmosphere. Burning questions in this context are: - Which aerosol particles act as IN in our atmosphere ? - By which detailed mechanisms do atmospheric aerosols contribute to the formation of ice ?To explore and reduce these uncertainties, one major goal of this project is to develop a new inlet for the measurement of cloud droplets and ice crystals. This inlet will also allow the extraction of small ice particles in mixed-phase clouds for the physico-chemical characterization of tropospheric IN. The inlet will represent a novel tool for the in-situ investigation of clouds and will deliver information that is not available by means of any other existing inlet.Another focus will be the combination of ground-based and remote-sensing observations of mixed-phase clouds. This will contribute to better parameterization of radiative properties of mixed-phase clouds in climate models. The newly designed inlet will be an integral part of these measurements.These studies will be performed at the Jungfraujoch, one of the world’s most prominent high Alpine research stations located at 3580 m altitude in the middle of Switzerland. This unique location offers the possibility to perform these studies in mixed-phase clouds that are representative for the current European background. The proposed research will be performed in a collaborative effort of several Swiss and a German institute. It is in line with the expertise of the involved institutions, i.e. the Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry of the Paul Scherrer Institut (aerosol/cloud research), the PMOD/WRC in Davos and MeteoSwiss in Payerne (radiation) as well as the Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (cloud microphysics and optics).With this proposal we seek financial support for two PhD students, a postdoctoral researcher and partial salary for a technician.
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