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Klima- und Umweltphysik

English title Climate and Environmental Physics
Applicant Stocker Thomas
Number 135152
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Klima- und Umweltphysik Physikalisches Institut Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Other disciplines of Environmental Sciences
Start/End 01.04.2011 - 31.03.2013
Approved amount 2'320'000.00
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Keywords (4)

climate dynamics; stable isotopes; paleoclimate reconstruction; greenhouse gases

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
By the unique combination of physciallly based modelling, high-resolution analytics on polar ice cores, and the measurement of environmental tracers (stable and unstable isotopes), progress in the understanding of the Earth System was made.
Lay summary

Understanding past, present and future climate change requires both highest quality paleoclimatic data and climate simulation capabilities. A hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical climate models has been used, ranging from simplified models to state-of-the-art comprehensive models. Direct simulation of paleoceanographic tracers and ensemble simulations has been performed over many 100,000 years. The models were also used to perform simulations over the last millennium, the 20th, and 21st centuries to investigate the effect of climate change on the global carbon cycle. Climate reconstruction is based on polar ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica on which greenhouse gas concentrations were measured including their isotopic composition, and chemical components in high-resolution. The research covers the last glacial maximum (ca 20,000 years before present), the sequence of abrupt events during the last ice age, and, generally, previous glacials during the past 800,000 years. A better quantification of environmental processes using a palette of natural radionuclides (14C, 37Ar, 39Ar, 81Kr, 85Kr) was achieved. This permits dating of groundwater and by extending these studies to the stable isotopes of water, information on past humidity conditions was obtained.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.05.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
A centrifugal ice microtome for measurements of atmospheric CO2 on air trapped in polar ice cores
Bereiter B., Stocker T. F., Fischer H. (2013), A centrifugal ice microtome for measurements of atmospheric CO2 on air trapped in polar ice cores, in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 6, 251-262.
A high resolution record of atmospheric carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotopic composition from the penultimate glacial maximum to the glacial inception
Schneider R., Schmitt J., Köhler P., Joos F., Fischer H. (2013), A high resolution record of atmospheric carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotopic composition from the penultimate glacial maximum to the glacial inception, in Climate of the Past Discussions, 9(2015), 2057-2057.
A reconstruction of radiocarbon production and total solar irradiance from the Holocene 14C and CO2 records: implications of data and model uncertainties
Roth R., Joos F. (2013), A reconstruction of radiocarbon production and total solar irradiance from the Holocene 14C and CO2 records: implications of data and model uncertainties, in Climate of the Past Discussions, 9(2), 1165-1235.
Adapting the assessments
Stocker T. F. (2013), Adapting the assessments, in Nature Geoscience, 6, 7-8.
An Ensemble Kalman Filter multi-tracer assimilation: Determining uncertain ocean model parameters for improved climate-carbon cycle projections
Gerber M., Joos F. (2013), An Ensemble Kalman Filter multi-tracer assimilation: Determining uncertain ocean model parameters for improved climate-carbon cycle projections, in Ocean Modelling, 64, 29-45.
Analysis of 85Kr: a comparison at the 10-14 level using micro-liter samples
Yang G.-M., Cheng C. F., Jiang W., Lu Z.-T., Purtschert R., Sun Y.-R., Tu L.-Y., Hu S.-M. (2013), Analysis of 85Kr: a comparison at the 10-14 level using micro-liter samples, in Scientific Reports, 3(1596), 1.
Are Greenhouse Gas Signals of Northern Hemisphere winter extra-tropical cyclone activity dependent on the identification and tracking algorithm?
Ulbrich U., Leckebusch G. C., Grieger J., Schuster M., Akperov M. G., Bardin M. Y., Feng Y., Gulev S., Inatsu M., Keay K., Kew S. F., Liberato M. L. R., Lionello P., Mokhov I. I., Neu U., Pinto J. G., Raible C. C., Reale M., Rudeva I., Simmonds I., Tilinina N. D., Trigo I. F., Ulbrich S., Wang X. L., Wernli H. (2013), Are Greenhouse Gas Signals of Northern Hemisphere winter extra-tropical cyclone activity dependent on the identification and tracking algorithm?, in Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 22(1), 61-68.
Atmospheric CO2 response to volcanic eruptions: The role of ENSO, season, and variability
Froelicher T. L., Joos F., Raible C. C., Sarmiento J. L. (2013), Atmospheric CO2 response to volcanic eruptions: The role of ENSO, season, and variability, in Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 27(1), 239-251.
Carbon dioxide and climate impulse response functions for the computation of greenhouse gas metrics: a multi-model analysis
Joos F., Roth R., Fuglestvedt J. S., Peters G. P., Enting I. G., von Bloh W., Brovkin V., Burke E. J., Eby M., Edwards N. R., Friedrich T., Frölicher T. L., Halloran P. R., Holden P. B., Jones C., Kleinen T., Mackenzie F. T., Matsumoto K., Meinshausen M., Plattner G.-K., Reisinger A., Segschneider J., Shaffer G., Steinacher M., Strassmann K. (2013), Carbon dioxide and climate impulse response functions for the computation of greenhouse gas metrics: a multi-model analysis, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13(5), 2793-2825.
Dating groundwater in the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin: Understanding tracer variations in the subsurface
Corcho Alvarado J. A., Paces T., Purtschert R. (2013), Dating groundwater in the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin: Understanding tracer variations in the subsurface, in Applied Geochemistry, 29, 189-198.
Direct linking of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores at the Toba eruption (74 ka BP)
Svensson A., Bigler M., Blunier T., Clausen H. B., Dahl-Jensen D., Fischer H., Fujita S., Goto-Azuma K., Johnsen S. J., Kawamura K., Kipfstuhl S., Kohno M., Parrenin F., Popp T., Rasmussen S. O., Schwander J., Seierstad I., Severi M., Steffensen J. P., Udisti R., Uemura R., Vallelonga P., Vinther B. M., Wegner A., Wilhelms F. (2013), Direct linking of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores at the Toba eruption (74 ka BP), in Climate of the Past, 9(2), 749-766.
Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core
Dahl-Jensen D., Albert M. R., Aldahan A., Azuma N., Balslev-Clausen D., Baumgartner M., Berggren A.-M., Bigler M., Binder T., Blunier T., Bourgeois J. C., Brook E. J., Buchardt S. L., Buizert C., Capron E., Chappellaz J., Chung J., Clausen H. B., Cvijanovic I., Davis S. M., Ditlevsen P., Eicher O., Fischer H., Fisher D. A., Fleet L. (2013), Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core, in Nature, 493, 489-494.
Estimated strength of the Atlantic overturning circulation during the last deglaciation
Ritz S. P., Stocker T. F., Grimalt J. O., Menviel L., Timmermann A. (2013), Estimated strength of the Atlantic overturning circulation during the last deglaciation, in Nature Geoscience, 6, 208-212.
Historical and Idealized Climate Model Experiments: An EMIC Intercomparison
Eby M., Weaver A. J., Alexander K., Zickfeld K., Abe-Ouchi A., Cimatoribus A. A., Crespin E., Drijfhout S. S., Edwards N. R., Eliseev A. V., Feulner G., Fichefet T., Forest C. E., Goosse H., Holden P. B., Joos F., Kawamiya M., Kicklighter D., Kienert H., Matsumoto K., Mokhov I. I., Monier E., Olsen S. M., Pedersen J. O. P., Perrette M. (2013), Historical and Idealized Climate Model Experiments: An EMIC Intercomparison, in Climate of the Past Discussions, 8, 4121-4181.
History of Nitrous Oxide from Ice Cores
Schilt A. (2013), History of Nitrous Oxide from Ice Cores, in Elias S. A. (ed.), Elsevier, Philidelphia , 1.
IMILAST - a community effort to intercompare extratropical cyclone detection and tracking algorithms: assessing method-related uncertainties
Neu U., Akperov M. G., Bellenbaum N., Benestad R., Blender R., Caballero R., Cocozza A., Dacre H. F., Feng Y., Fraedrich K., Grieger J., Gulev S., Hanley J., Hewson T., Inatsu M., Keay K., Kew S. F., Kindem I., Leckebusch G. C., Liberato M. L. R., Lionello P., Mokhov I. I., Pinto J. G., Raible C. C., Reale M. (2013), IMILAST - a community effort to intercompare extratropical cyclone detection and tracking algorithms: assessing method-related uncertainties, in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94, 529-547.
Impact of an abrupt cooling event on interglacial methane emissions in northern peatlands
Zürcher S., Spahni R., Joos F., Steinacher M., Fischer H. (2013), Impact of an abrupt cooling event on interglacial methane emissions in northern peatlands, in Biogeosciences, 10(3), 1963-1981.
Large-scale temperature response to external forcing in simulations and reconstructions of the last millennium
Fernández-Donado L., González-Rouco J. F., Raible C. C., Ammann C. M., Barriopedro D., Garcia-Bustamante E., Jungclaus J. H., Lorenz S. J., Luterbacher J., Phipps S. J., Servonnat J., Swingedouw D., Tett S. F. B., Wagner S., Yiou P., Zorita E. (2013), Large-scale temperature response to external forcing in simulations and reconstructions of the last millennium, in Climate of the Past, 9, 393-421.
Last interglacial temperature evolution – a model inter-comparison
Bakker P., Stone E. J., Charbit S., Gröger M., Krebs-Kanzow U., Ritz S. P., Varmar V., Khon S., Lunt D. J., Mikolajewicz U., Prange M., Renssen H., Schneider B., Schulz M. (2013), Last interglacial temperature evolution – a model inter-comparison, in Climate of the Past, 9(2), 605-619.
Monthly resolved biannual precipitation oxygen isoscape for Switzerland
Kern Z., Kohán B., Leuenberger M. (2013), Monthly resolved biannual precipitation oxygen isoscape for Switzerland, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 13, 9895-9916.
Oxygen and indicators of stress for marine life in multi-model global warming projections
Cocco V., Joos F., Steinacher M., Frölicher T. L., Bopp L., Dunne J., Gehlen M., Heinze C., Orr J., Oschlies A., Schneider B., Segschneider J., Tjiputra J. (2013), Oxygen and indicators of stress for marine life in multi-model global warming projections, in Biogeosciences, 10(3), 1849-1868.
Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: conclusions from a model inter-comparison project (WETCHIMP)
Melton J. R., Wania R., Hodson E. L., Poulter B., Ringeval B., Spahni R., Bohn T., Avis C. A., Beerling D. J., Chen G., Eliseev A. V., Denisov S. N., Hopcroft P. O., Lettenmaier D. P., Riley W. J., Singarayer J. S., Subin Z. M., Tian H., Zürcher S., Brovkin V., van Bodegom P. M., Kleinen T., Yu Z. C., Kaplan J. O. (2013), Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: conclusions from a model inter-comparison project (WETCHIMP), in Biogeosciences, 10, 753-788.
Spectral biases in tree-ring climate proxies
Franke J., Frank D., Raible C. C., Esper J., Brönnimann S. (2013), Spectral biases in tree-ring climate proxies, in Nature Climate Change, 3, 360-364.
Synchronous Change of Atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic Temperature During the Last Deglacial Warming
Parrenin F., Masson-Delmotte V., Koehler P., Raynaud D., Paillard D., Schwander J., Barbante C., Landais A., Wegner A., Jouzel J. (2013), Synchronous Change of Atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic Temperature During the Last Deglacial Warming, in Science, 339(6123), 1060-1063.
The closing door of climate targets
Stocker T. F. (2013), The closing door of climate targets, in Science, 339(6117), 280-282.
9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings
Steinhilber F., Abreu J. A., Beer J., Brunner I., Christl M., Fischer H., Heikkilä U., Kubik P. W., Mann M., McCracken K. G., Miller H., Miyahara H., Oerter H., Wilhelms F. (2012), 9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, 109(16), 5967-5971.
A detailed framework of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 5 volcanic events recorded in two Greenland ice-cores
Abbott P. M., Davies S. M., Steffensen J. P., Pearce N. J. G., Bigler M., Johnsen S. J., Seierstad I. K., Svensson A., Wastegård S. (2012), A detailed framework of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 5 volcanic events recorded in two Greenland ice-cores, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 36, 59-77.
A global picture of the first abrupt climatic event occurring during the last glacial inception
Capron E., Landais A., Chappellaz J., Buiron D., Fischer H., Johnsen S. J., Jouzel J., Leuenberger M., Masson-Delmotte V., Stocker T. F. (2012), A global picture of the first abrupt climatic event occurring during the last glacial inception, in Geophysical Research Letters, 39(L15703), 1-8.
An atom counter for measuring 81Kr and 85Kr in environmental samples
Jiang W., Bailey K., Lu Z. T., Mueller P., O'Connor T. M., Chen C. F., Hu S. M., Purtschert R., Sturchio N. C., Sun Y. R., Williams W. D., Yang G. M. (2012), An atom counter for measuring 81Kr and 85Kr in environmental samples, in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 91, 1-6.
Assessment of tourism and recreation destinations under climate change conditions in Austria
Matzarakis A., Hämmerle M., Endler C., Muthers S., Koch E. (2012), Assessment of tourism and recreation destinations under climate change conditions in Austria, in Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 21(2), 157-165.
Atlantic hurricanes and associated insurance loss potentials in future climate scenarios: limitations of high-resolution AGCM simulations
Raible C. C., Kleppek S., Wüest M., Bresch D. N., Kitoh A., Murakami H., Stocker T. F. (2012), Atlantic hurricanes and associated insurance loss potentials in future climate scenarios: limitations of high-resolution AGCM simulations, in Tellus A, 64(15672), 1-13.
Carbon isotope constraints on the deglacial CO2 rise from ice cores
Schmitt J., Schneider R., Elsig J., Leuenberger D., Lourantou A., Chappellaz J., Köhler P., Joos F., Stocker T. F., Leuenberger M., Fischer H. (2012), Carbon isotope constraints on the deglacial CO2 rise from ice cores, in Science, 336(6082), 711-714.
Centennial mineral dust variability in high-resolution ice core data from Dome C, Antarctica
Lambert F., Bigler M., Steffensen J. P., Hutterli M., Fischer H. (2012), Centennial mineral dust variability in high-resolution ice core data from Dome C, Antarctica, in Climate of the Past, 8(2), 609-623.
Change in dust variability in the Atlantic sector of Antarctica at the end of the last deglaciation
Wegner A., Gabrielli P., Wilhelms-Dick D., Ruth U., Kriews M., De Deckker P., Barbante C., Cozzi G., Delmonte B., Fischer H. (2012), Change in dust variability in the Atlantic sector of Antarctica at the end of the last deglaciation, in Climate of the Past, 8(1), 135-147.
Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.1)
Schmidt G. A., Jungclaus J. H., Ammann C. M., Bard E., Braconnot P., Crowley T. J., Delaygue G., Joos F., Krivova N. A., Muscheler R., Otto-Bliesner B. L., Pongratz J., Shindell D. T., Solanki S. K., Steinhilber F., Vieira L. E. A. (2012), Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.1), in Geoscientific Model Development, 5(1), 185-191.
Climate variability of the mid- and high-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere in ensemble simulations from 1500 to 2000 AD
Wilmes S. B., Raible C. C., Stocker T. F. (2012), Climate variability of the mid- and high-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere in ensemble simulations from 1500 to 2000 AD, in Climate of the Past, 8, 373-390.
Comment on "Why hasn't Earth warmed as much as expected?"
Knutti R., Plattner G.-K. (2012), Comment on "Why hasn't Earth warmed as much as expected?", in Journal of Climate, 25(6), 2192-2199.
Continuous measurements of methane mixing ratios from ice cores
Stowasser C., Buizert C., Gkinis V., Chappellaz J., Schüpbach S., Bigler M., Faïn X., Sperlich P., Baumgartner M., Schilt A., Blunier T. (2012), Continuous measurements of methane mixing ratios from ice cores, in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 5(5), 999-1013.
Determination of crustal fluid residence times using nucleogenic 39Ar
Yokochi R., Sturchio N. C., Purtschert R. (2012), Determination of crustal fluid residence times using nucleogenic 39Ar, in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 88, 19-26.
Duration of Greenland Stadial 22 and ice-gas Δage from counting of annual layers in Greenland NGRIP ice core
Vallelonga P., Bertagna G., Blunier T., Kjær H. A., Popp T. J., Rasmussen S. O., Steffensen J. P., Stowasser C., Svensson A. S., Warming E., Winstrup M., Bigler M., Kipfstuhl S. (2012), Duration of Greenland Stadial 22 and ice-gas Δage from counting of annual layers in Greenland NGRIP ice core, in Climate of the Past, 8, 1839-1847.
Dynamics of decadal variability in the Atlantic subpolar gyre: a stochastically forced oscillator
Born A., Mignot J. (2012), Dynamics of decadal variability in the Atlantic subpolar gyre: a stochastically forced oscillator, in Climate Dynamics, 39(1-2), 461-474.
Enhanced Atlantic subpolar gyre variability through baroclinic threshold in a coarse resolution model
Mengel M., Levermann A., Schleussner C.-F., Born A. (2012), Enhanced Atlantic subpolar gyre variability through baroclinic threshold in a coarse resolution model, in Earth System Dynamics, 3, 189-197.
Estimating annual CO2 flux for Lutjewad Station using three different gap-filling techniques
Dragomir C., Klaassen W., Voiculescu M., Georgescu L., van der Laan S. (2012), Estimating annual CO2 flux for Lutjewad Station using three different gap-filling techniques, in The Scientific World Journal, 2012, 1-10.
First continuous phosphate record from Greenland ice cores
Kjær H. A., Svensson A., Vallelonga P., Kettner E., Schüpbach S., Bigler M., Steffensen J. P., Hansson M. E. (2012), First continuous phosphate record from Greenland ice cores, in Climate of the Past Discussions, 7(6), 3959-3989.
High-resolution interpolar difference of atmospheric methane around the Last Glacial Maximum
Baumgartner M., Schilt A., Eicher O., Schmitt J., Schwander J., Spahni R., Fischer H., Stocker T. F. (2012), High-resolution interpolar difference of atmospheric methane around the Last Glacial Maximum, in Biogeosciences, 9(10), 3961-3977.
How has climate responded to natural pertubations?
Wolff E. W., Harrison S. P., Knutti R., Sanchez-Goñi M. F., Wild O., Daniau A.-L., Masson-Delmotte V., Prentice I. C., Spahni R. (2012), How has climate responded to natural pertubations?, in Cornell S. E., Downy C., Prentice I. C., House J. I. (ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 72-101.
Incremental growth and mineralogy of Pannonian (Late Miocene) sciaenid otoliths: paleoecological implications
Kern Z., Kázmér M., Bosnakoff M., Bajnóczi B., Váczi T., Katona L. (2012), Incremental growth and mineralogy of Pannonian (Late Miocene) sciaenid otoliths: paleoecological implications, in Geologica Carpathica, 63(2), 175-178.
Melting of Northern Greenland during the last interglaciation
Born A., Nisancioglu K. H. (2012), Melting of Northern Greenland during the last interglaciation, in The Cryosphere, 6, 1239-1250.
Methods to merge overlapping tree–ring isotope series to generate multi–centennial chronologies
Hangartner S., Kress A., Saurer M., Frank D., Leuenberger M. (2012), Methods to merge overlapping tree–ring isotope series to generate multi–centennial chronologies, in Chemical Geology, 294--295, 127-134.
Mode change of millennial CO2 variability during the last glacial cycle associated with a bipolar marine carbon seesaw
Bereiter B., Lüthi D., Siegrist M., Schüpbach S., Stocker T. F., Fischer H. (2012), Mode change of millennial CO2 variability during the last glacial cycle associated with a bipolar marine carbon seesaw, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, 109(25), 9755-9760.
Model limits on the role of volcanic carbon emissions in regulating glacial-interglacial CO2 variations
Roth R., Joos F. (2012), Model limits on the role of volcanic carbon emissions in regulating glacial-interglacial CO2 variations, in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 329-330 , 141-149.
North Atlantic storminess and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the last Millennium: Reconciling contradictory proxy records of NAO variability
Trouet V., Scourse J. D., Raible C. C. (2012), North Atlantic storminess and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the last Millennium: Reconciling contradictory proxy records of NAO variability, in Global and Planetary Change, 84-85, 48-55.
Ocean acidification limits temperature-induced poleward expansion of coral habitats around Japan
Yara Y., Vogt M., Fujii M., Yamano H., Hauri C., Steinacher M., Gruber N., Yamanaka Y. (2012), Ocean acidification limits temperature-induced poleward expansion of coral habitats around Japan, in Biogeosciences, 9(12), 4955-4968.
On the impact of impurities on the densification of polar firn
Hörhold M. W., Laepple T., Freitag J., Bigler M., Fischer H., Kipfstuhl S. (2012), On the impact of impurities on the densification of polar firn, in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 325-326, 93-99.
On the relationship between Nd isotopic composition and ocean overturning circulation in idealized freshwater discharge events
Rempfer J., Stocker T. F., Joos F., Dutay J.-C. (2012), On the relationship between Nd isotopic composition and ocean overturning circulation in idealized freshwater discharge events, in Paleoceanography, 27(3), 1-24.
Past and recent changes in the North Atlantic oscillation
Pinto J. G., Raible C. C. (2012), Past and recent changes in the North Atlantic oscillation, in WIREs Clim Change, 3(1), 79-90.
Rapid progression of ocean acidification in the California Current System
Gruber N., Hauri C., Lachkar Z., Loher D., Frölicher T. L., Plattner G.-K. (2012), Rapid progression of ocean acidification in the California Current System, in Science, 337(6091), 220-223.
Rapid vegetation response to lateglacial and early Holocene climatic fluctuation in the South Carpathian Mountains (Romania)
Magyari E. K., Jakab G., Bálint M., Kern Z., Buczkó K., Braun M. (2012), Rapid vegetation response to lateglacial and early Holocene climatic fluctuation in the South Carpathian Mountains (Romania), in Quaternary Science Reviews, 35, 116-130.
Removing the North Pacific halocline: Effects on global climate, ocean circulation and the carbon cycle
Menviel L., Timmermann A., Elison Timm O., Mouchet A., Abe-Ouchi A., Chikamoto M. O., Harada N., Ohgaito R., Okazaki Y. (2012), Removing the North Pacific halocline: Effects on global climate, ocean circulation and the carbon cycle, in Deep Sea Research II, 61-64, 106-113.
Sensitivity of Nd isotopic composition in seawater to changes in Nd sources and paleoceanographic implications
Rempfer J., Stocker T. F., Joos F., Dutay J.-C. (2012), Sensitivity of Nd isotopic composition in seawater to changes in Nd sources and paleoceanographic implications, in Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(C12010), 1-24.
Simulated winter circulation types in the North Atlantic and European region for preindustrial and glacial conditions
Hofer D., Raible C. C., Merz N., Dehnert A., Kuhlemann J. (2012), Simulated winter circulation types in the North Atlantic and European region for preindustrial and glacial conditions, in Geophysical Research Letters, 39(L15805), 1-5.
Simulating atmospheric CO2, 13C and the marine carbon cycle during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle: possible role for a deepening of the mean remineralization depth and an increase in the oceanic
Menviel L., Joos F., Ritz S. P. (2012), Simulating atmospheric CO2, 13C and the marine carbon cycle during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle: possible role for a deepening of the mean remineralization depth and an increase in the oceanic, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 56, 46-68.
Stability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: A model intercomparison
Weaver A. J., Sedláček J., Eby M., Alexander K., Crespin C., Fichefet T., Philippon-Berthier G., Joos F., Kawamiya M., Matsumoto K., Steinacher M., Tachiiri K., Tokos K., Yoshimori M., Zickfeld K. (2012), Stability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: A model intercomparison, in Geophysical Research Letters, 39(L20709), 1-7.
Testing the robustness of a precipitation proxy-based North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction
Lehner F., Raible C. C., Stocker T. F. (2012), Testing the robustness of a precipitation proxy-based North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 45, 85-94.
The Carrington event not observed in most ice core nitrate records
Wolff E. W., Bigler M., Curran M. A. J., Dibb J. E., Frey M. M., Legrand M., McConnell J. R. (2012), The Carrington event not observed in most ice core nitrate records, in Geophysical Research Letters, 39(L08503), 1-5.
The freshwater balance of polar regions in transient simulations from 1500 to 2100 AD using a comprehensive coupled climate model
Lehner F., Raible C. C., Hofer D., Stocker T. F. (2012), The freshwater balance of polar regions in transient simulations from 1500 to 2100 AD using a comprehensive coupled climate model, in Climate Dynamics, 39(1-2), 347-363.
The global carbon budget 1959–2011
Le Quéré C., Andres R. J., Boden T., Conway T., Houghton R. A., House J. I., Marland G., Peters G. P., van der Werf G., Ahlström A., Andrew R. M., Bopp L., Canadell J. G., Ciais P., Doney S. C., Enright C., Friedlingstein P., Huntingford C., Jain A. K., Jourdain C., Kato E., Keeling R. F., Klein Goldewijk K., Levis S., Levy P. (2012), The global carbon budget 1959–2011, in Earth System Science Data Discussion, 5, 1107-1157.
The impact of different glacial boundary conditions on atmospheric dynamics and precipitation in the North Atlantic region
Hofer D., Raible C. C., Dehnert A., Kuhlemann J. (2012), The impact of different glacial boundary conditions on atmospheric dynamics and precipitation in the North Atlantic region, in Climate of the Past, 8(3), 935-949.
Towards explaining the Holocene carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records: Results from transient ocean carbon cycle-climate simulations
Menviel L., Joos F. (2012), Towards explaining the Holocene carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records: Results from transient ocean carbon cycle-climate simulations, in Paleoceanography, 24(PA1207), 1-17.
Variability of North Pacific Intermediate-Deep water ventilation during Heinrich events in two coupled models
Chikamoto M. O., Menviel L., Abe-Ouchi A., Ohgaito R., Timmermann A., Okazaki Y., Harada N., Oka A., Mouchet A. (2012), Variability of North Pacific Intermediate-Deep water ventilation during Heinrich events in two coupled models, in Deep Sea Research II, 61-64, 114-126.
Variability of the ocean carbon cycle in response to the North Atlantic Oscillation
Keller K. M., Joos F., Raible C. C., Cocco V., Froelicher T. L., Dunne J. P., Gehlen M., Bopp L., Orr J. C., Tjiputra J., Heinze C., Segschneider J., Roy T., Metzl N. (2012), Variability of the ocean carbon cycle in response to the North Atlantic Oscillation, in Tellus B, 64(18738), 1-25.
39Ar detection at the 10-16 isotopic abundance level with atom trap trace analysis
Jiang W., Williams W., Bailey K., Davis A. M., Hu S.-M., Lu Z.-T., O'Connor T. P., Purtschert R., Sturchio N. C., Sun Y. R., Mueller P. (2011), 39Ar detection at the 10-16 isotopic abundance level with atom trap trace analysis, in Physical Review Letters, 106(10), 03001-1-03001-4.
A coupled dynamical ocean–energy balance atmosphere model for paleoclimate studies
Ritz S. P., Stocker T. F., Joos F. (2011), A coupled dynamical ocean–energy balance atmosphere model for paleoclimate studies, in Journal of Climate, 24(2), 349-75.
A multi-proxy, high-resolution record of peatland development and its drivers during the last millennium from the subalpine Swiss Alps
van der Knaap W. O., Lamentowicz M., van Leeuwen J. F. N., Hangartner S., Leuenberger M., Mauquoy D., Goslar T., Mitchell E.A.D., Lamentowicz L., Kamenik C. (2011), A multi-proxy, high-resolution record of peatland development and its drivers during the last millennium from the subalpine Swiss Alps, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(23-24), 3467-3480.
A refined TALDICE-1a age scale from 55 to 112 ka before present for the Talos Dome ice core based on high-resolution methane measurements
Schüpbach S., Federer U., Bigler M., Fischer H., Stocker T. F. (2011), A refined TALDICE-1a age scale from 55 to 112 ka before present for the Talos Dome ice core based on high-resolution methane measurements, in Climate of the Past, 7(2), 1001-1009.
A sublimation technique for high-precision measurements of d13CO2 and mixing ratios of CO2 and N2O from air trapped in ice cores
Schmitt J., Schneider R., Fischer H. (2011), A sublimation technique for high-precision measurements of d13CO2 and mixing ratios of CO2 and N2O from air trapped in ice cores, in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 4(7), 1445-1461.
Age structure and recharge conditions of a coastal aquifer (northern Germany) investigated with 39Ar, 14C, 3H, He isotopes and Ne
Sültenfuss J., Purtschert R., Führböter J. (2011), Age structure and recharge conditions of a coastal aquifer (northern Germany) investigated with 39Ar, 14C, 3H, He isotopes and Ne, in Hydrogeology Journal, 19(1), 221-236.
Annual layering in the NGRIP ice core during the Eemian
Svensson A., Bigler M., Kettner E., Dahl-Jensen D., Johnsen S., Kipfstuhl S., Nielsen M., Steffensen J. P. (2011), Annual layering in the NGRIP ice core during the Eemian, in Climate of the Past, 7(4), 1427-1437.
Causes and consequences of past and projected Scandinavian summer temperatures, 500-2100 AD
Buentgen U., Raible C. C., Frank D., Helama S., Cunningham L., Hofer D., Wilson R., Nievergelt D., Verstege A., Stenseth N. C., Esper J. (2011), Causes and consequences of past and projected Scandinavian summer temperatures, 500-2100 AD, in PLOS One, 6(9), 1-9.
Climate forcing reconstructions for use in the PMIP simulations of the last millennium
Schmidt G. A., Jungclaus J. H., Ammann C. M., Bard E., Braconnot P., Crowley T. J., Delaygue G., Joos F., Krivova N. A., Muscheler R., Otto-Bliesner B. L., Pongratz J., Shindell D. T., Solanki S. K., Steinhilber F., Vieira L. E. A. (2011), Climate forcing reconstructions for use in the PMIP simulations of the last millennium, in Geoscientific Model Development, 4, 33-45.
Climate on the southern Black Sea coast during the Holocene: implications from the Sofular Cave record
Göktürk O. M., Fleitmann D., Badertscher S., Cheng H., Edwards R. L., Leuenberger M., Fankhauser A., Tüysüz O., Kramers J. (2011), Climate on the southern Black Sea coast during the Holocene: implications from the Sofular Cave record, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(19-20), 2433-2445.
Constraining global methane emissions and uptake by ecosystems
Spahni R., Wania R., Neef L., van Weele M., Pison I., Bousquet P., Frankenberg C., Foster P. N., Joos F., Prentice I. C., van Velthoven P. (2011), Constraining global methane emissions and uptake by ecosystems, in Biogeosciences, 8(6), 1643-1665.
Deconstructing the Last Glacial termination: the role of millennial and orbital-scale forcings
Menviel L., Timmermann A., Elison Timm O., Mouchet A. (2011), Deconstructing the Last Glacial termination: the role of millennial and orbital-scale forcings, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(9-10), 1155-1172.
Deep ocean ventilation, carbon isotopes, marine sedimentation and the deglacial CO2 rise
Tschumi T., Joos F., Gehlen M., Heinze C. (2011), Deep ocean ventilation, carbon isotopes, marine sedimentation and the deglacial CO2 rise, in Climate of the Past, 7(3), 771-800.
Eddy-induced reduction of biological production in eastern boundary upwelling systems
Gruber N., Lachkar Z., Frenzel H., Marchesiello P., Münnich M., McWilliams J. C., Nagai T., Plattner G.-K. (2011), Eddy-induced reduction of biological production in eastern boundary upwelling systems, in Nature Geoscience, 4, 787-792.
Energy policies avoiding a tipping point in the climate system
Bahn O., Edwards N. R., Knutti R., Stocker T. F. (2011), Energy policies avoiding a tipping point in the climate system, in Energy Policy, 39, 334-348.
European source and sink areas of CO2 retrieved from Lagrangian transport model interpretation of combined O2 and CO2 measurements at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch
Uglietti C., Leuenberger M., Brunner D. (2011), European source and sink areas of CO2 retrieved from Lagrangian transport model interpretation of combined O2 and CO2 measurements at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11(8017), 8017-8036.
Expression of the bipolar see-saw in Antarctic climate records during the last deglaciation
Stenni B., Burion D., Frezzotti M., Albani S., Barbante C., Bard E., Barnola J. M., Baroni M., Baumgartner M., Bonazza M., Capron E., Castellano E., Chappellaz J., Delmonte B., Falourd S., Genoni L., Iacumin P., Jouzel J., Kipfstuhl S., Landais A., Lemieux-Dudon B., Maggi V., Masson-Delmotte V., Mazzola C., Minster B. (2011), Expression of the bipolar see-saw in Antarctic climate records during the last deglaciation, in Nature Geoscience, 4, 46-49.
Fingerprints of changes in the terrestrial carbon cycle in response to large reorganizations in ocean circulation
Bozbiyik A., Steinacher M., Joos F., Stocker T. F., Menviel L. (2011), Fingerprints of changes in the terrestrial carbon cycle in response to large reorganizations in ocean circulation, in Climate of the Past, 7(1), 319-338.
Flood risk modelling
Poussin J. K., Bubeck P. J. Ward P., Gaslikova L., Schwerzmann A., Raible C. C. (2011), Flood risk modelling, in Botzen W., Bowman M. J., Dircke P., Ward P. J., Aerts J. (ed.), Routledge, Abingdon, 93-122.
Future storm surge impacts on insurable losses for the North Sea region
Gaslikova L., Schwerzmann A., Raible C. C., Stocker T. F. (2011), Future storm surge impacts on insurable losses for the North Sea region, in Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 11(4), 1205-1216.
How well do Integrated Assessment Models simulate climate change?
van Vuuren D. P., Lowe J., Stehfest E., Gohar L., Hof A. F., Hope C., Warren R., Meinshausen M., Plattner G.-K. (2011), How well do Integrated Assessment Models simulate climate change?, in Climatic Change, 104(2), 255-285.
Impact of climate change mitigation on ocean acidification projections
Joos F., Frölicher T. L., Steinacher M., Plattner G.-K. (2011), Impact of climate change mitigation on ocean acidification projections, in Hansson L., Gattuso J.-P. (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 272-290.
Long-term climate implications of twenty-first century options for carbon dioxide emission mitigation
Friedlingstein P., Solomon S., Plattner G.-K., Knutti R., Ciais P., Raupach M. R. (2011), Long-term climate implications of twenty-first century options for carbon dioxide emission mitigation, in Nature Climate Change, 1, 457-461.
Modelling Nd-isotopes with a coarse resolution ocean circulation model: Sensitivities to model parameters and source/sink distributions
Rempfer J., Stocker T. F., Joos F., Dutay J.-C., Siddall M. (2011), Modelling Nd-isotopes with a coarse resolution ocean circulation model: Sensitivities to model parameters and source/sink distributions, in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75, 5927-5950.
Natural 37Ar concentrations in soil air: Implications for monitoring underground nuclear explosions
Riedmann R., Purtschert R. (2011), Natural 37Ar concentrations in soil air: Implications for monitoring underground nuclear explosions, in Environmental Science and Technology, 45(20), 8656-8664.
Noble gases as proxies of mean ocean temperature: sensitivity studies using a climate model of reduced complexity
Ritz S. P., Stocker T. F., Severinghaus J. P. (2011), Noble gases as proxies of mean ocean temperature: sensitivity studies using a climate model of reduced complexity, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(25-26), 3728-3741.
On some methodological problems in the use of environmental tracers to estimate hydrogeologic parameters and to calibrate flow and transport models
Zuber A., Różański K., Kania J., Purtschert R. (2011), On some methodological problems in the use of environmental tracers to estimate hydrogeologic parameters and to calibrate flow and transport models, in Hydrogeology Journal, 19(1), 53-69.
On the suitability of partially clathrated ice for analysis of concentration and δ13C of palaeo-atmospheric CO2
Schaefer H., Lourantou A., Chappellaz J., Lüthi D., Bereiter B., Barnola J. (2011), On the suitability of partially clathrated ice for analysis of concentration and δ13C of palaeo-atmospheric CO2, in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 307(3-4), 334-340.
Optimization of high-resolution continuous flow analysis for transient climate signals in ice cores
Bigler M., Svensson A., Kettner E., Vallelonga P., Nielsen M. E., Steffensen J. P. (2011), Optimization of high-resolution continuous flow analysis for transient climate signals in ice cores, in Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 4483-4489.
Pleistocene water intrusions from the Mediterranean and Caspian seas into the Black Sea
Badertscher S., Fleitmann D., Cheng H., Edwards R. L., Gokturk O. M., Zumbuhl A., Leuenberger M., Tuysuz O. (2011), Pleistocene water intrusions from the Mediterranean and Caspian seas into the Black Sea, in Nature Geoscience, 4(4), 236-239.
Pooled versus separate measurements of tree-ring stable isotopes
Linan I. D., Gutierrez E., Helle G., Heinrich I., Andreu-Hayles L., Planells O., Leuenberger M., Burger C., Schleser G. (2011), Pooled versus separate measurements of tree-ring stable isotopes, in Science of the Total Environment, 409(11), 2244-2251.
Reconstruction of past climate conditions over central Europe from groundwater data
Corcho Alvarado J. A., Leuenberger M., Kipfer R., Paces T., Purtschert R. (2011), Reconstruction of past climate conditions over central Europe from groundwater data, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(23-24), 3423-3429.
Regional impacts of climate change and atmospheric CO2 on future ocean carbon uptake: A multi-model linear feedback analysis
Roy T., Bopp L., Gehlen M., Schneider B., Cadule P., Frölicher T. L., Segschneider J., Tjiputra J., Heinze C., Joos F. (2011), Regional impacts of climate change and atmospheric CO2 on future ocean carbon uptake: A multi-model linear feedback analysis, in Journal of Climate, 24(0), 2300-2318.
Sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 and climate to explosive volcanic eruptions
Frölicher T. L., Joos F., Raible C. C. (2011), Sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 and climate to explosive volcanic eruptions, in Biogeosciences, 8(8), 2317-2339.
Sensitivity of Holocene atmospheric CO2 and the modern carbon budget to early human land use: analyses with a process-based model
Stocker B. D., Strassmann K., Joos F. (2011), Sensitivity of Holocene atmospheric CO2 and the modern carbon budget to early human land use: analyses with a process-based model, in Biogeosciences, 8(1), 69-88.
Sensitivity of pelagic calcification to ocean acidification
Gangstø R., Joos F., Gehlen M. (2011), Sensitivity of pelagic calcification to ocean acidification, in Biogeosciences, 8(2), 433-458.
Simultaneous stable isotope analysis of methane and nitrous oxide on ice core samples
Sapart C. J., van der Veen C., Vigano I., Brass M., van de Wal R. S. W., Bock M., Fischer H., Sowers T., Buizert C., Sperlich P., Blunier T., Behrens M., Schmitt J., Seth B., Röckmann T. (2011), Simultaneous stable isotope analysis of methane and nitrous oxide on ice core samples, in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 4(12), 2607-2618.
Structure and origin of Holocene cold events
Wanner H., Solomina O., Grosjean M., Ritz S. P., Jetel M. (2011), Structure and origin of Holocene cold events, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(21-22), 3109-3123.
TALDICE-1 age scale of the Talos Dome deep ice core, East Antarctica
Buiron D., Chappellaz J., Stenni B., Frezzotti M., Baumgartner M., Capron E., Landais A., Lemieux-Dudon B., Masson-Delmotte V., Montagnat M., Parrenin F., Schilt A. (2011), TALDICE-1 age scale of the Talos Dome deep ice core, East Antarctica, in Climate of the Past, 7(1), 1-16.
The IPCC AR5 guidance note on consistent treatment of uncertainties: a common approach across the working groups
Mastrandrea M. D., Mach K. J., Plattner G.-K., Edenhofer O., Stocker T. F., Field C. B., Ebi K. L., Matschoss P. R. (2011), The IPCC AR5 guidance note on consistent treatment of uncertainties: a common approach across the working groups, in Climatic Change, 108(4), 675-691.
The relationship of winter season North Atlantic blocking frequencies to extreme cold or dry spells in the ERA-40
Bühler T., Raible C. C., Stocker T. F. (2011), The relationship of winter season North Atlantic blocking frequencies to extreme cold or dry spells in the ERA-40, in Tellus A, 63, 212-222.
Variations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in control and transient simulations of the last millennium
Hofer D., Raible C. C., Stocker T. F. (2011), Variations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in control and transient simulations of the last millennium, in Climate of the Past, 7(1), 133-150.
Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample
Gkinis V., Popp T. J., Blunier T., Bigler M., Schüpbach S., Kettner E., Johnsen S. J. (2011), Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample, in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 4(11), 2531-2542.
A 13,600-year diatom oxygen isotope record from the South Carpathians (Romania): Reflection of winter conditions and possible links with North Atlantic circulation changes
Magyari E. K., Demény A., Buczkó K., Kern Z., Vennemann T., Fórizs I., Vincze I., Braun M., Kovács I. J., Udvardi B., Veres D., A 13,600-year diatom oxygen isotope record from the South Carpathians (Romania): Reflection of winter conditions and possible links with North Atlantic circulation changes, in Quaternary International.
Allowable carbon emissions lowered by multiple climate targets
Steinacher M., Joos F., Stocker T. F., Allowable carbon emissions lowered by multiple climate targets, in Nature.
Amplified inception of European Little Ice Age by sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedbacks
Lehner F., Born A., Raible C. C., Stocker T. F., Amplified inception of European Little Ice Age by sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedbacks, in Journal of Climate.
Is the Atlantic subpolar gyre bistable in comprehensive coupled climate models?
Born A., Stocker T. F., Raible C. C., Levermann A., Is the Atlantic subpolar gyre bistable in comprehensive coupled climate models?, in Climate Dynamics.
Long-term climate change commitment and reversibility: An EMIC Intercomparison
Zickfeld K., Eby M., Alexander K., Weaver A., Crespin E., Fichefet T., Goosse H., Philippon-Berthier G., Edwards N., Holden P., Eliseev A., Mokhov I., Feulner G., Kienert H., Perrette M., Schneider von Deimling T., Forest C., Friedlingstein P., Joos F., Spahni R., Steinacher M., Kawamiya M., Tachiiri K., Kicklighter D., Monier E., Long-term climate change commitment and reversibility: An EMIC Intercomparison, in Journal of Climate.
Multiple tree-ring proxies (earlywood width, latewood width and d13C) from pedunculate oak (Quercus Robur L.), Hungary
Kern Z., Patkó M., Kázmér M., Fekete J., Kele S., Pályi Z., Multiple tree-ring proxies (earlywood width, latewood width and d13C) from pedunculate oak (Quercus Robur L.), Hungary, in Quaternary International.
Noble gas radionuclides in Yellowstone geothermal gas emissions: A reconnaissance
Yokochi R., Sturchio N. C., Purtschert R., Jiang W., Lu Z. T., Müller P., Yang G. M., Kennedy B .M., Kharaka Y., Noble gas radionuclides in Yellowstone geothermal gas emissions: A reconnaissance, in Chemical Geology.
On the interference of 86Kr2+ during carbon isotope analysis of atmospheric methane using continuous flow combustion - isotope ratio mass spectrometry
Schmitt J., Seth B., Bock M., van der Veen C., Möller L., Sapart C.J., Prokopiou M., Sowers T., Röckmann T., Fischer H., On the interference of 86Kr2+ during carbon isotope analysis of atmospheric methane using continuous flow combustion - isotope ratio mass spectrometry, in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques.
Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: Methodology of a model intercomparison project (WETCHIMP)
Wania R., Melton J. R., Hodson E. L., Poulter B., Ringeval B., Spahni R., Bohn T., Avis C. A., Chen G., Eliseev A. V., Hopcroft P. O., Riley W. J., Subin Z. M., Tian H., Brovkin V., van Bodegom P. M., Kleinen T., Yu Z. C., Singarayer J. S., Zürcher S., Lettenmaier D. P., Beerling D. J., Denisov S. N., Prigent C., Papa F., Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: Methodology of a model intercomparison project (WETCHIMP), in Geoscientific Model Development, 5, 4071-4136.
The past ecology of Abies alba provides new perspectives on the potential of silver fir forests under warmer-than-present climates
Tinner W., Colombaroli D., Heiri O., Henne P. D., Steinacher M., Untenecker J., Vescovi E., Allen J. R. M., Carraro G., Conedera M., Joos F., Lotter A. F., Luterbacher J., Samartin S., Valsecchi V., The past ecology of Abies alba provides new perspectives on the potential of silver fir forests under warmer-than-present climates, in Ecological Monograph.

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
137635 Schweizerische Beteiligung an der Eis-Tiefbohrung in Nordwest Grönland NEEM (Teil 2) 01.01.2012 Research Infrastructure
170726 IsoConCair: Charakterisierung der Konzentrations- und Isotopenzusammensetzung der Hauptluftkomponenten 01.12.2016 R'EQUIP
124932 Kohlenstoffkreislauf-Forschung auf dem Jungfraujoch 01.04.2009 Project funding (Div. I-III)
119612 Schweizerische Beteiligung an der Eis-Tiefbohrung in Nordwest Grönland (NEEM) 01.04.2008 Research Infrastructure
125116 Klima- und Umweltphysik 01.04.2009 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Climate and Earth System modelling at our division is organized in two streams. First, the climate model of reduced complexity, referred to as the Bern3D model, is developed in our division and includes a 3-dimensional dynamical component of the ocean circulation and tracer transport and a 2-dimensional atmospheric moisture and energy balance. In addition, modules of the global marine and terrestrial carbon cycle, including isotopes are coupled. We use this cost-efficent model to investigate the physical and biogeochemical dynamics of large-scale climate reorganizations such as glacial terminations, sequences of abrupt climate change and long-term climate evolution over the past 800,000 years. Direct simulation of paleoceanographic tracers and ensemble simulations will be performed. We propose to extend this time scale to the last 2 million years in order to prepare and extend the process understanding for the climate transition of 40,000-yr to 100,000-yr glaciation cycles. Variations of noble gas concentrations will be simulated, and uncertainties in reconstructing global ocean temperature changes based on this proxy will be estimated. The second modeling stream uses the comprehensive community system model CESM1.0, developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (USA). It will be used to perform simulations over the 20th and 21st centuries to investigate the sensitivity of the global carbon cycle on forced and natural climate change. We will focus on ocean acidification and decreasing oxygen trends. As part of the community development, we plan to implement carbon cycle isotope modules into the CESM1.0 both for the ocean and the terrestrial components. Climate reconstruction from a range of polar ice cores will focus on three streams: (i) reconstruction of greenhouse gas concentrations, (ii) reconstruction of isotopic compositions of the greenhouse gases, and (iii) high-resolution chemical records of the atmosphere. First, of particular interest will be high-resolution greenhouse gas measurements on various ice cores in order to determine phases between these gases and their isotopic composition. This information will be compared to physical-biogeochemical model simulations performed in our division. The interhemispheric difference, jointly with the complete isotope signal of CH4, carries a wealth of information which we would like to harvest in the next two years. Second, the isotopic signatures of various gases will now be routinely measured and a number of records over selected time windows will be established. The last glacial maximum, the sequence of abrupt events during MIS3, and with the availability of the new ice core from NEEM Station (Greenland), the penultimate interglacial, are windows of primary interest. However, also previous glacials MIS10, MIS12, and MIS16, and their transitions into interglacials, as recorded in Antarctic cores, will be analysed for isotopes in greenhouse gases. Third, in-field measurements using Continuous Flow Analysis have provided, for the first time, an uninterrupted record of chemical changes in Greenland snow over the past 125,000 years. These data will be analysed and interpreted in the coming two years with a focus on aerosol components. In addition to the three streams, we would like to start an effort in expanding our research infrastructure in ice core science including a rapid dry extraction device, a borehole sonar, and a planning phase for a fast access drill for ice sheet exploration.Isotopes yield indispensable information on environmental processes such as characteristic exchange fluxes between reservoirs and fingerprints of specific changes. In the coming two years, we will extract climate information form various aquifers in international collaborations. Our contribution is the dating of these old waters using a palette of natural radionuclides (14C, 81Kr, 85Kr, 37Ar, 39Ar, 14C). By extending these measurements to the stable isotopes of water, information on past humidity conditions may be obtained. Isotopic composition of the major air components (N2 and O2) and the elemental ratios (O2/N2, Ar/N2, etc.) will be measured on air entrapped in polar ice cores, as well as in modern air to constrain changes in local temperature, and also mean ocean temperature, during abrupt climate change and large climate reorganizations.
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