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A brain state-dependent role of reactivation for memory formation

English title A brain state-dependent role of reactivation for memory formation
Applicant Rasch Björn
Number 133685
Funding scheme SNSF Professorships
Research institution Lehrstuhl für Neuropsychologie Psychologisches Institut Universität Zürich
Institution of higher education University of Zurich - ZH
Main discipline Psychology
Start/End 01.04.2011 - 31.03.2015
Approved amount 1'431'045.00
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Keywords (10)

Memory; Reactivation; Reconsolidation; Sleep; Wakefulness; Hypnosis; Emotional Memory; EEG; fMRI; Humans

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary

A brain state-dependent role of reactivation for memory formation

The overall aim of the current project is to advance our understanding on the role of memory reactivations in forming long-term memories. Reactivation of memories by a reminder or retrieval is been increasingly recognized as a crucial component for the maintenance of long-term memories. First evidence indicates that the role of reactivation may be two-fold, depending on the brain state (1): During wakefulness, reactivation of memories by a reminder leads to a transient destabilization of memories, requiring reconsolidation of these memories in order to persist. Such a destabilization of memories might open the opportunity to update already strong and integrated memories with respect to new information. In contrast during sleep, reactivation of memories stabilizes memories and renders them increasingly resistant to future interference, probably due to a strengthening and facilitated integration of memory representations in pre-existing cortical knowledge networks (2,3). The reasons and the underlying mechanisms of these opposing effects of reactivations for memory stability during waking vs. sleeping brain states are currently unknown. The goal of the current project is to enhance our knowledge of the brain state-dependent role of memory reactivations for the stability of neutral as well as emotional memories. Brain states will include different sleep stages (SWS vs. rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep),  passive vs. active waking states as well as the brain state of hypnosis. The main methodological approaches of this proposal are the recording of brain activity (using electroencephalography (EEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and combined EEG/fMRI recordings), pharmacological interventions as well as candidate gene analyses. This research will provide important conceptual advances in theories on long-term memory formation. Furthermore,  the results of this project have important implications for educational settings as well as for developing  treatment options for psychotherapy, particularly with regard to traumatic memories in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

References:

(1) Diekelmann, Büchel, Born & Rasch (2011), Nat Neurosci. 14(3):381-6

(2) Rasch, Büchel, Gais & Born (2007), Science. 2007 315(5817):1426-9.

(3) Rasch & Born (2007),  Curr Opin Neurobiol. 17(6):698-703.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
INCREASING SLOW WAVE SLEEP BY HYPNOTIC SUGGESTIONS
Cordi Maren, Rasch Björn (2016), INCREASING SLOW WAVE SLEEP BY HYPNOTIC SUGGESTIONS, in Gary Elkins (ed.), Springer, New York, 1.
No Evidence for Memory Decontextualization across One Night of Sleep.
Jurewicz Katarzyna, Cordi Maren Jasmin, Staudigl Tobias, Rasch Björn (2016), No Evidence for Memory Decontextualization across One Night of Sleep., in Frontiers in human neuroscience, 10, 7-7.
Re-presentation of Olfactory Exposure Therapy Success Cues during Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep did not Increase Therapy Outcome but Increased Sleep Spindles.
Rihm Julia S, Sollberger Silja B, Soravia Leila M, Rasch Björn (2016), Re-presentation of Olfactory Exposure Therapy Success Cues during Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep did not Increase Therapy Outcome but Increased Sleep Spindles., in Frontiers in human neuroscience, 10, 340-340.
Auditory feedback blocks memory benefits of cueing during sleep.
Schreiner Thomas, Lehmann Mick, Rasch Björn (2015), Auditory feedback blocks memory benefits of cueing during sleep., in Nature communications, 6, 8729-8729.
Boosting Vocabulary Learning by Verbal Cueing During Sleep.
Schreiner Thomas, Rasch Björn (2015), Boosting Vocabulary Learning by Verbal Cueing During Sleep., in Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991), 25(11), 4169-79.
Cueing vocabulary during daytime wake has no effect on memory
Schreiner Thomas, Rasch Björn (2015), Cueing vocabulary during daytime wake has no effect on memory, in Somnologie, 2, 1.
Cueing vocabulary during sleep increases theta activity during later recognition testing.
Schreiner Thomas, Göldi Maurice, Rasch Björn (2015), Cueing vocabulary during sleep increases theta activity during later recognition testing., in Psychophysiology, 1.
Improving sleep and cognition by hypnotic suggestion in the elderly.
Cordi Maren Jasmin, Hirsiger Sarah, Mérillat Susan, Rasch Björn (2015), Improving sleep and cognition by hypnotic suggestion in the elderly., in Neuropsychologia, 69, 176-82.
In search of a role of REM sleep in memory formation.
Rasch Björn, Born Jan (2015), In search of a role of REM sleep in memory formation., in Neurobiology of learning and memory, 122, 1-3.
No Associations between Interindividual Differences in Sleep Parameters and Episodic Memory Consolidation.
Ackermann Sandra, Hartmann Francina, Papassotiropoulos Andreas, de Quervain Dominique J-F, Rasch Björn (2015), No Associations between Interindividual Differences in Sleep Parameters and Episodic Memory Consolidation., in Sleep, 38(6), 951-9.
Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength.
Rihm Julia S, Rasch Björn (2015), Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength., in Neurobiology of learning and memory, 122, 142-51.
Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength.
Rihm Julia S, Rasch Björn (2015), Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength., in Neurobiology of learning and memory, 1.
Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion.
Cordi Maren J, Schlarb Angelika A, Rasch Björn (2014), Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion., in Sleep, 37(6), 1143-1152.
Letter to the Editor: Simply avoiding reactivating fear memory after exposure therapy may help to consolidate fear extinction memory - a reply.
Kleim B, Wilhelm F H, Temp I, Margraf J, Wiederhold B K, Rasch B (2014), Letter to the Editor: Simply avoiding reactivating fear memory after exposure therapy may help to consolidate fear extinction memory - a reply., in Psychological medicine, 1-2.
Lunar cycle effects on sleep and the file drawer problem.
Cordi Maren, Ackermann Sandra, Bes Frederik W, Hartmann Francina, Konrad Boris N, Genzel Lisa, Pawlowski Marcel, Steiger Axel, Schulz Hartmut, Rasch Björn, Dresler Martin (2014), Lunar cycle effects on sleep and the file drawer problem., in Current biology : CB, 24(12), 549-50.
No effect of odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep on declarative memory stability.
Cordi Maren J, Diekelmann Susanne, Born Jan, Rasch Björn (2014), No effect of odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep on declarative memory stability., in Frontiers in systems neuroscience, 8, 157-157.
Reactivating memories during sleep by odors: odor specificity and associated changes in sleep oscillations.
Rihm Julia S, Diekelmann Susanne, Born Jan, Rasch Björn (2014), Reactivating memories during sleep by odors: odor specificity and associated changes in sleep oscillations., in Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 26(8), 1806-18.
About sleep's role in memory
Rasch Björn, Born Jan (2013), About sleep's role in memory, in Physiological Reviews, 93(2), 681-766.
Differential effects of non-REM and REM sleep on memory consolidation?
Ackermann Sandra, Rasch  Bjoern (2013), Differential effects of non-REM and REM sleep on memory consolidation?, in Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 14(2), 430.
Sleep deprivation increases dorsal nexus connectivity to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in humans.
Bosch Oliver G, Rihm Julia S, Scheidegger Milan, Landolt Hans-Peter, Stämpfli Philipp, Brakowski Janis, Esposito Fabrizio, Rasch Björn, Seifritz Erich (2013), Sleep deprivation increases dorsal nexus connectivity to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in humans., in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(48), 19597-602.
Sleep enhances exposure therapy
Kleim Birgit, Wilhelm Frank H., Temp L., Margraf Jürgen, Wiederhold Brenda K., Rasch  Bjoern (2013), Sleep enhances exposure therapy, in Psychological Medicine, 44(7), 1511-1519.
Sleep, learning and memory: Relevance for psychiatry and psychotherapy | Schlaf, lernen und gedächtnis: Relevanz für psychiatrie und psychotherapie
Göder Robert, Nissen C., Rasch  Bjoern (2013), Sleep, learning and memory: Relevance for psychiatry and psychotherapy | Schlaf, lernen und gedächtnis: Relevanz für psychiatrie und psychotherapie, in Nervenarzt, 85(1), 50-56.
Suppressing Emotions Impairs Subsequent Stroop Performance and Reduces Prefrontal Brain Activation
Friese M. Binder J. Luechinger R. Boesiger P. & Rasch B. (2013), Suppressing Emotions Impairs Subsequent Stroop Performance and Reduces Prefrontal Brain Activation, in Plos One, 8(4), e60385.
Emotion suppression reduces hippocampal activity during successful memory encoding
Binder J. de Quervain D. Friese M. Luechinger R. Boesiger P. Rasch B. (2012), Emotion suppression reduces hippocampal activity during successful memory encoding, in Neuroimage, 63(1), 525-532.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Universität Bern Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Universität Würzburg Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Universität Manchester Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Universität Tübingen Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Universität Basel Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Donders Insitute for Neuroimaging Netherlands (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik Zürich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
State Key Lab for Cognitive Neuroscience & Learning Beijing Normal University China (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Northwestern University Chicago United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Exchange of personnel
Kinderspital Zürich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
MEG Jahrestagung Bad Kissingen 2015 Talk given at a conference Lernen im Schlaf 19.03.2015 Bad Kissingen, Germany Rasch Björn;
Swiss Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting 2015 (SSN2015) Poster Large Scale Sleep EEG Data Analysis of Slow-Waves and its relation to Episodic Memory Consolidation 24.01.2015 Fribourg, Switzerland Göldi Maurice;
KFSP Symposium "Sleep & Health" Poster Large Scale Sleep EEG Data Analysis of Slow-Waves and its relation to Episodic Memory Consolidation 15.01.2015 Zürich, Switzerland Göldi Maurice;
KFSP Symposium "Sleep and Health" Poster Besser Schlafen mit Hypnose? 15.01.2015 Zürich, Switzerland Cordi Maren;
KFSP Symposium "Sleep and Health" Talk given at a conference Effects of cueing foreign vocabulary on memory processes during sleep 15.01.2015 Zürich, Switzerland Schreiner Thomas;
Ringvorlesung Zürich Individual talk Wahrnehmung im Alter und des Alterns 17.09.2014 Zürich, Switzerland Cordi Maren;
Psychologie und Gehirn Lübeck 2014 Poster Increasing slow-wave sleep and cognition by hypnotic suggestions in the elderly 20.06.2014 Lübeck, Germany Cordi Maren;
Psychologie und Gehirn Lübeck 2014 Talk given at a conference Boosting Vocabulary Learning by Cueing during sleep 20.06.2014 Lübeck, Germany Schreiner Thomas;
ACHEMS 2014 Annual Meeting (Associations for Chemoreception Science) Talk given at a conference Odor-evoked memory reactivation during SWS in the human brain 11.04.2014 Bonita Springs, Florida, United States of America Rasch Björn;
MEG Jahrestagung Bad Kissingen (Milton Erikson Gesellschaft für klinische Hypnose) Talk given at a conference Tiefschlafverlängerung durch Hypnose 20.03.2014 Bad Kissingen, Germany Rasch Björn;
LS2 Meeting (Life Sciences Switzerland) Talk given at a conference Memory reactivation and Sleep 04.02.2014 Lausanne, Switzerland Rasch Björn;
KFSP Symposium "Sleep and Health" Talk given at a conference Lernen im Schlaf: Ist das möglich? 15.01.2014 Zürich, Switzerland Rasch Björn;
Forschungskolloquium Dresden Individual talk Reactivating memories during sleep 11.10.2013 Dresden, Germany Rasch Björn;
Hypnose Kongress 2013 der Deutschen Gesellschaft für zahnärztliche Hypnose Talk given at a conference Verlängerung des Tiefschlafanteils durch Hypnose 14.09.2013 Berlin, Germany Cordi Maren;
ZNZ Symposium (Zentrum für Neurowissenschaften Zürich) Talk given at a conference Reactivating memories during sleep: Recent findings 13.09.2013 Zürich, Switzerland Rasch Björn;
NeuroColloquium Berlin Individual talk Memory Reactivation and Sleep 21.06.2013 Berlin, Germany Rasch Björn;
Psychologie und Gehirn Würzburg 2013 Poster EMOTIONAL MEMORY REACTIVATION DURING REM SLEEP DOES NOT ALTER SUBJECTIVE FEAR 30.05.2013 Würzburg, Germany Rasch Björn; Rihm Julia;
Psychologie und Gehirn Würzburg 2013 Poster I WANT YOU TO SLEEP DEEPER: EXTENDING SLOW-WAVE SLEEP BY HYPNOTIC SUGGESTION 30.05.2013 Würzburg, Germany Rasch Björn; Cordi Maren;
Psychologie und Gehirn Würzburg 2013 Poster BOOSTING VOCABULARY-LEARNING BY REACTIVATION DURING SLEEP 30.05.2013 Würzburg, Germany Schreiner Thomas; Rasch Björn;
Schlafsymposium Zürich Talk given at a conference Lernen wir im Schlaf? 04.04.2013 Zürich, Switzerland Rasch Björn;
PsyKo'13 (Nationaler Kongress für Psychologie Studierende) Talk given at a conference Reactivating memories and sleep 24.03.2013 Sumiswald, Switzerland Rasch Björn;
Forschungskolloquium der Universität Bochum Individual talk Memory reactivation and sleep 15.01.2013 Bochum, Germany Rasch Björn;
10th Anniversary of the Laboratory for Sleep, Cognition and Consciousness Research Talk given at a conference Maintaining Memories by Reactivation during Sleep and Wakefulness 13.12.2012 Salzburg, Austria Rasch Björn;
20. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin Talk given at a conference Interindividuelle Korrelationen zwischen Schlaf- und Gedächtnisparametern in einer großen Stichprobe 06.12.2012 Berlin, Germany Rasch Björn;
21st Congress of the European Sleep Research Society Poster Neuronal correlates of emotional olfactory processing during sleep 06.09.2012 Paris, France Rasch Björn; Rihm Julia;
Psychologie und Gehirn Jena 2012 Talk given at a conference The role of reactivation for memory formation and forgetting 08.06.2012 Jena, Germany Rasch Björn;
Forschungskolloquium State Key Lab for Cognitive Neuroscience & Learning Beijing Normal University Individual talk Maintaining Memories by Reactivation 26.03.2012 Beijing, China Rasch Björn;
SSN Annual Meeting 2012 Poster Inter-individual differences in REM sleep predict overnight forgetting of visual scenes: a large sample study 03.02.2012 Zurich, Switzerland Rasch Björn;
Psychologie und Gehirn Heidelberg 2011 Talk given at a conference Geringe Zusammenhänge zwischen Gedächtnisleistung und Schlafparametern in einer grossen Stichprobe 23.06.2011 Heidelberg, Germany Rasch Björn;
Limadoko Congress of the Psychological Institute of the University of Zurich Poster The relationship between dreaming, sleep and memory consolidation 22.05.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Schoch Sarah;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media Forel hypnotisiert Zürich Tagesanzeiger German-speaking Switzerland 2015
Media relations: radio, television Il giardino di Albert RSI1 Italian-speaking Switzerland 2015
Media relations: radio, television Nachtclub Ralph Wicki SRF1 German-speaking Switzerland 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Schlafen machet schlau NZZ German-speaking Switzerland 2015
Media relations: print media, online media Berceuse néerlandaise ATS / Agence Télégraphique Suisse Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland 2014
Media relations: radio, television Besser schlafen dank Hypnose SRF German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Dank Hypnose besser schlafen und leben 20 Minuten German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Die Hypnose kann den Tiefschlaf bei einzelnen Menschen markant verlängern Freiburger Nachrichten German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Ein Fisch, der immer tiefer schwimmt NZZ German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: radio, television hypnose au service du sommeil RTS Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Hypnose verbessert den Tiefschlaf International 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Hypnotisiert im Schlaflabor Tagesanzeiger German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Le cerveau n'a aucun répit La Liberte Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland 2014
Media relations: radio, television Lernen im Schlaf SRF 4 German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: radio, television Mieux dormir grâce à l'hypnose, c'est possible La tele Rhaeto-Romanic Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Studie beweist: Lernen im Schlaf funktioniert Freiburger Nachrichten German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Tiefer Schlaf dank Hypnose Schweizer Illustrierte German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: radio, television Übeltäter am Nachthimmel NZZ German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Media relations: print media, online media Wörter lernen im Schlaf St Galler Tagblatt German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Talks/events/exhibitions Zwischen Wachen und Schlafen: Schlafen um zu erinnern German-speaking Switzerland 2013
Media relations: radio, television DRS3 schweigt Radio DRS3 German-speaking Switzerland 2012
Talks/events/exhibitions Vortrag an der Kantonsschule Oerlikon German-speaking Switzerland 2011
Talks/events/exhibitions Vortrag an der Seniorenuniversität der Universität Basel German-speaking Switzerland 2011

Awards

Title Year
Brain Products Young Scientist Award 2015 Prämierte Arbeit: "Boosting Vocabulary Learning by Verbal Cueing During Sleep" (Schreiner & Rasch 2014, Cerebral Cortex) 2015
Forschungspreis Biopsychologie der Fachgruppe Biologische Psychologie und Neuropsychologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie (DGPs). Prämierte Arbeit: "Boosting Vocabulary Learning by Verbal Cueing During Sleep" (Schreiner & Rasch, 2014, Cerebral Cortex) 2015
Travel Grant der Schweizerische Akademie der Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften 2015
Travel Grant der Swiss Society for Neuroscience 2015
Vontobel Preis für Alter(n)sforschung für die Arbeit "Improving sleep and cognition by hypnotic suggestion in the elderly." Cordi et al., 2015, Neuropsychologia 2015
SNF doc.mobility Grant "Neural correlates of anxiety reactivation during sleep" für Julia Rihm (9 monatiger Aufenthalt an der Northwestern University Chicago). 2014
Wissenschaftspreis der Deutschen Gesellschaft für zahnärztliche Hypnose 2014

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
162388 Oscillatory mechanisms underlying memory retention and reactivation during sleep 01.10.2015 Project funding (Div. I-III)
151657 Neural correlates of anxiety reactivation during sleep 01.04.2014 Doc.Mobility

Abstract

Memory formation is highly dynamic, requiring both long-term storage of relevant information as well as forgetting of maladaptive memories. I hypothesize that reactivation of memories represent a key mechanism for both processes (forming and forgetting memories), depending on the sleeping or waking state of the brain: During wakefulness, reactivation of memories by retrieval or a reminder leads to a transient destabilization of memories, giving the opportunity to update maladaptive memories with respect to new information. In contrast during slow-wave sleep (SWS), reactivation of memories stabilizes memories and integrates them into long-term knowledge. The major aim of the present proposal is to examine the underlying mechanisms of a brain-state dependent role of reactivation in forming and forgetting memories in humans. In subpart A, I will identify the neurophysiological correlates of forming and forgetting memories by reactivation during wakefulness and SWS, respectively. Subpart B focuses on the importance of the neuromodulator acetylcholine in this process. In subpart C, I will investigate the function of reactivating memories during REM sleep for memory stability, with a special focus on emotional memories. Finally, subpart D will be concerned with the mechanisms of memory reactivation and destabilization in the brain state of hypnosis. The main methodological approaches of this proposal are the recording of brain activity (using electroencephalography (EEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and combined EEG/fMRI recordings), pharmacological interventions as well as candidate gene analysis. The results of the planned experiments are highly relevant for theoretical accounts on memory formation and have direct implications for therapeutical, clinical as well as educational settings. By moving into a novel field (brain state-dependent reactivation of neutral and emotional memories), the proposed research allows me to establish full scientific independence.
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