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Physical properties of crystal- and bubble-bearing magmas

English title Physical properties of crystal- and bubble-bearing magmas
Applicant Ulmer Peter
Number 132878
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Geochemie und Petrologie ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Geology
Start/End 01.10.2010 - 30.09.2012
Approved amount 184'062.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Geology
Other disciplines of Earth Sciences

Keywords (12)

experimental rock deformation; rheology of bubble-bearing magmas; viscosity; seismic wave propagation velocity; bubble-bearing magmas; magma rheology; petrology; synchrotron X-rax tomography; haplogranite system; seismic properties; volcanic magma systems; Lipari

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
This proposal continues experimental studies initiated in 2004 aiming to quantify physical, rheologic and thermochemical properties of partially molten, crystal-rich, felsic, hydrous magmas under shallow crustal conditions relevant for high-level magma reservoirs and volcanic conduits. Viscosity, strain, differential stress, yield strength, seismic wave propagation velocities and acoustic emissions of bubble-bearing, partially molten magmas are determined in a combined approach using experimental petrology / rock deformation studies and limited field-based petrology and structural geology. Such data are indispensable to understand and model the dynamics of magma extraction and ascend in volcanic conduits, to interpret the complex petrologic and structural patterns observed in shallow-level granitoids and their extrusive and explosive volcanic counterparts and to put constraints on the probability and style of volcanic eruptions from such magma reservoirs. Direct measurements of compressional and shear wave propagation velocities and acoustic emissions of vapor-oversaturated magmas provide fundamental information for the identification of such reservoirs and under active and seemingly dormant volcanoes and constrain the physical state (crystallinity, bubble-content) of these potentially hazardous materialsAn experimental rock deformation / seismic velocity measurement study is conducted on fully and partially molten, bubble-bearing felsic compositions (haplogranite) in a gas-pressure rock-deformation apparatus at 30 - 200 MPa and temperatures ranging from 400 - 1100°C. The investigation of Non-Newtonian behavior (high stress, high strain-rate experiments at low temperatures) enables us to access aspects of magma fragmentation / flow partitioning into narrow shear zones of partially crystallized, bubble-bearing igneous systems. Limited field work on silicic volcanics ranging from nearly completely degassed crystal-poor to crystal-rich rhyolites to highly vesicular pumices on the island of Lipari supplements additional rheological information on acidic volcanics ranging from highly viscous lava flows, to plug extrusions to explosive sub-Plinian eruptions and serves to test and apply experimental data, in particular macro- and microstructural findings, directly to a natural volcanic system with similar compositions. Experimentally deformed and natural bubble-bearing samples are analyzed by 3-D X-ray tomography at the Swiss Light Source to further improve the understanding of the deformation mechanisms and to link microstructural observations directly with the measured rheologic and seismic behavior of the investigated samples.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Rheological flow laws for multiphase magmas: the first empirical approach
Pistone Mattia, Caricchi Luca, Cordonnier Bennoit, Ulmer Peter (2016), Rheological flow laws for multiphase magmas: the first empirical approach, in Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 321, 158-170.
Gas-driven filter pressing in magmas: Insights into in-situ melt segregation from crystal mushes
Pistone Mattia, Arzilli F., Dobson Kate J., Cordonnier Bennoit, Reusser Eric, Ulmer Peter, Marone Ferderica, Whittington A.G., Mancini L., Fife Julie, Blundy Jon D. (2015), Gas-driven filter pressing in magmas: Insights into in-situ melt segregation from crystal mushes, in Geology, 43, 699-702.
In situ X-ray tomographic microscopy observations of vesiculation of bubble-free and bubble-bearing magmas
Pistone Mattia, caricchi Luca, Fife Julie, Mader K., Ulmer Peter (2015), In situ X-ray tomographic microscopy observations of vesiculation of bubble-free and bubble-bearing magmas, in Bulletin of Volcanology, 77, 1-15.
The viscous to brittle transition in crystal- and bubble-bearing magmas
Pistone Mattia, Cardonnier Bennoit, Caricchi Luca, Ulmer Peter, Marone Federica (2015), The viscous to brittle transition in crystal- and bubble-bearing magmas, in Frontiers in Earth Sciences, 3, 1-14.
Rheology of volatile-bearing crystal mushes: Mobilization vs. viscous death
Pistone Mattia, Caricchi Luca, Ulmer Peter, Reusser Eric, Ardia Paola (2013), Rheology of volatile-bearing crystal mushes: Mobilization vs. viscous death, in Chemical Geology, 345, 16-39.
Deformation experiments of bubble- and crystal-bearing magmas: Rheological and microstructrural analysis
Pistone Mattia Caricchi L. Ulmer P. Burlini L. Ardia P. Reusser E. Marone F. & Arbaret L. (2012), Deformation experiments of bubble- and crystal-bearing magmas: Rheological and microstructrural analysis, in Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, 1-39.
Development of a laser-based heating system for in-situ synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy
Fife Juli F. Rappaz Micheal Pistone Mattia Celcer Tine & Mikuljan Gordan (2012), Development of a laser-based heating system for in-situ synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy, in Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 19, 352-358.
The viscous-brittle transition of crystal-bearing slilic melt: direct observation of magma rupture and healing
Cordonnier Benoit, Caricchi Luca, Pistone Mattia, Castro J., Hess Kai-Uwe, Manga Michael, Dingwell Donald B., Burlini Luigi (2012), The viscous-brittle transition of crystal-bearing slilic melt: direct observation of magma rupture and healing, in Geology, 40, 611-614.
Strain-induced magma degassing: insights from simple shear experiments on bubble-bearing melts
Caricchi Luca Pommier A. Pistone M. Castro J. Burgisser A. & Perugini D. (2011), Strain-induced magma degassing: insights from simple shear experiments on bubble-bearing melts, in Bulletin of Volcanology, 73, 1245-1257.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
SLS (Swiss Light Source) Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
University of Bristol Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
University of Orleans France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
University of Geneva Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
4-D Adamello Conference Poster Rheology of volatile-rich crystal mush: mobilization vs viscous death 04.09.2012 Bagolino, Italy, Italy Ulmer Peter; Pistone Mattia;
EGU 2012 Talk given at a conference Rheology of volatile-rich crystal mush 02.04.2012 Vienna, Austria, Austria Ulmer Peter; Pistone Mattia;
AGU Fall Meeting 2011 Talk given at a conference Rheology of three-phase magmas 05.12.2011 San Francisco, USA, United States of America Ulmer Peter; Pistone Mattia;
Swiss Geoscience Meeting 2011 Talk given at a conference Rheology of volatile-rich crystal mush 11.11.2011 Zürich, Schweiz, Switzerland Ulmer Peter; Pistone Mattia;
EGU Vienna 2011 Talk given at a conference Rheology of Three-Phase Magmas 03.04.2011 Vienna, Austria, Austria Pistone Mattia; Ulmer Peter;
AGU Fall Meeting 2010 Talk given at a conference The Non-Newtonian Rheology of Real Magmas: insights into 3D microstructures 13.12.2010 San Francisco, USA, United States of America Pistone Mattia; Ulmer Peter;
EGU Vienna 2010 Talk given at a conference The brittle-ductile transition in crystal- and bubble-bearing felsic magmas 18.11.2010 Vienna, Austria, Austria Ulmer Peter; Pistone Mattia;


Awards

Title Year
Outstanding young scientist award by the Earth Magnetism and Rock Physics Division of the EGU on Rheology of multiphase magmas 2012

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
120221 Physical properties of crystal- and bubble-bearing magmas 01.04.2008 Project funding (Div. I-III)
120221 Physical properties of crystal- and bubble-bearing magmas 01.04.2008 Project funding (Div. I-III)
140578 Rheologic, physical and kinetic properties of igneous systems 01.04.2012 Project funding (Div. I-III)
156408 Petrology and kinetics of igneous systems 01.10.2014 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

This project requests funding for two years for one PhD student (Mattia Pistone) to finalize the PhD project started in September 2008. This proposal continues experimental studies initiated in spring 2004 aiming to quantify physical and rheologic properties of partially molten, crystal-rich, felsic, hydrous magmas under shallow crustal conditions relevant for high-level magma reservoirs and volcanic conduits. Specifically, we propose to gather quantitative information on viscosity, strain, differential stress, seismic wave propagation velocities and acoustic emissions of bubble-bearing, partially molten H2O-rich, felsic magma compositions in combining experimental petrology / rock deformation as well as limited field-based petrology and structural geology to extract crucial properties from sub-liquidus, high-level magma storage to volcanic systems. Such data are required to understand and model the dynamics of magma transport in volcanic conduits, to interpret the complex petrologic and structural patterns observed in shallow-level granitoids, extrusive and explosive volcanic rocks and to put constraints on the probability and style of volcanic eruptions from such magma reservoirs. We propose to continue the ongoing project already providing significant new data on the following subject: An experimental rock deformation, seismic velocity measurement and acoustic emission study on fully and partially molten, bubble-bearing felsic compositions (haplogranite in the Na2O-K2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O system) in a gas-pressure rock-deformation apparatus at 30 - 200 MPa and 400 - 1100°C. This project provides a set of quantitative data on the rheologic and elastic properties of hydrous magmas that are directly relevant for processes operating in sub-volcanic magma reservoirs and extrusion via ascent in a volcanic conduit by laminar flow and by shearing and fracturing. The possibility to access experimentally stress and strain rate ranges identical to those present during volcanic eruptions, provide the opportunity to explore the full rheological complexity of magmas that, in turn, controls transport and explosive fragmentation of magmas.Limited field work conducted on highly viscous magmas ranging from degassed crystal-poor to crystal-rich rhyolite to highly vesicular pumices on the island of Lipari supplements additional microstructural information on acidic volcanics extruded as lava flows, plugs or explosive sub-Plinian eruptions. Natural volcanics serve to test and apply experimental data, in particular macro- and microstructural findings, combined with the laboratory experiments, can help retrieving rheological information from natural erupted products. Both experimentally deformed and natural bubble-bearing samples are imaged by 3-D X-ray tomography at the SLS (PSI Villingen) to gain further information on the deformation mechanisms and to link microstructural observations directly with the measured rheologic and seismic behavior of the investigated samples.Direct measurements of seismic wave propagation velocities of both, compressional and shear waves, and acoustic emissions of fully and partially molten, bubble-bearing systems (magmas) under H2O-oversaturated conditions provide fundamental information for the identification of processes responsible for a variety of characteristic seismic events commonly related to the ascent and eruption of highly viscous, crystal and bubble-bearing magmas and for the localization and characterization of magmatic reservoirs in the Earth´s crust.
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