Project

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Who is in and who is out? Dualization and the political representation of insiders and outsiders in Western Europe

English title Who is in and who is out? Dualization and the political representation of insiders and outsiders in Western Europe
Applicant Häusermann Silja
Number 131994
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Politikwissenschaft Universität Zürich
Institution of higher education University of Zurich - ZH
Main discipline Political science
Start/End 01.01.2011 - 31.03.2014
Approved amount 138'380.00
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Keywords (6)

labor markets; welfare states; dualization; insider/outsider; political parties; representation

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
Inequality is on the rise in almost all Western European countries for the first time in more than five decades. This does not come as a surprise, since both the flexibilization of labor markets, as well as welfare state retrenchment have been major trends in the policy development of these countries since the 1980s. These reforms, in combination with weak economic growth have led to an increasing division of the working class into labor market insiders and outsiders. Labor market insiders hold standard, protected and stable jobs, while outsiders are marginally or atypically employed, and more likely to be unemployed. This divide of the working class in people with "good jobs" and people with "bad jobs" is referred to as dualization, and it is a major source of growing inequality. The determinants, structure and outcomes of dualization are increasingly well researched. However, we know almost nothing about the extent of dualization across countries, and about the politics of dualization. This is where this project finds its motivation and starting point. We want to investigate how deep the divide between insiders and outsiders has become in different European countries, and whether this divide impacts on the democratic process. Thereby, we focus on electoral politics: do we see differences in the levels of participation and party choices of insiders and outsiders? What are the policy preferences of these groups? Are outsiders mobilized by political extremism? We contend that the electoral implications of dualization depend on the configuration of party competition. The presence or absence of a radical right- or left-wing rival to moderate left parties explains whether outsiders are mobilized and represented, or ignored. In order to test this hypothesis, we will proceed in two steps. On the basis of micro-level data, we first develop a measure of dualization, based on the proportion of outsiders and their relative economic deprivation for all west European countries. Second, we will analyze the electoral dynamics of dualization. We will analyze voting behavior and party constituencies in 12 European democracies based on survey data, before investigating more closely the match between constituency preferences and party positions in six countries, on the basis of survey data and coded party positions in electoral campaigns. The project will provide the first comparative empirical analysis of how labor market dualization affects representation in Western democracies.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Sharing the risk? Households, labor market vulnerability and social policy preferences in Western Europe
Häusermann Silja, Kurer Thomas, Schwander Hanna (2016), Sharing the risk? Households, labor market vulnerability and social policy preferences in Western Europe, in Journal of Politics, 78(4), 1045-1060.
High-skilled outsiders? Labor market vulnerability, education and welfare state preferences
Häusermann Silja, Kurer Thomas, Schwander Hanna (2014), High-skilled outsiders? Labor market vulnerability, education and welfare state preferences, in Socio-Economic Review, 13(2), 235-258.
Who is in and who is out? A risk-based conceptualization of insiders and outsiders
Schwander Hanna, Haeusermann Silja (2013), Who is in and who is out? A risk-based conceptualization of insiders and outsiders, in JOURNAL OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL POLICY, 23(3), 248-269.
Varieties of Dualization? Labor market segmentation and insider-outsider divides across regimes
Häusermann Silja, Schwander Hanna (2012), Varieties of Dualization? Labor market segmentation and insider-outsider divides across regimes, in Emmenegger Patrick (ed.), 27-51.
Who are the outsiders and what do they want? Explaining welfare preferences in dualized societies
Häusermann Silja, Schwander Hanna (2011), Who are the outsiders and what do they want? Explaining welfare preferences in dualized societies, in Les Cahiers europeens de Sciences Po, 1, 1.
The potential for cross-class coalitions: Assessing socio-economic status, labor market risk and welfare state support
Kurer Thomas, The potential for cross-class coalitions: Assessing socio-economic status, labor market risk and welfare state support.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Network of Excellence RECWOWE (EU) France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Universität Zürich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Universität Bremen Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Presentation at the Harvard Inequality and Social Policy Seminar Individual talk Inequality and the politics of dualization 02.12.2013 Boston, United States of America Häusermann Silja;
Workshop on welfare state analysis Talk given at a conference Are social democratic parties really insider parties? Social democratic electoral strategy in Western Europe 22.11.2013 Lund, Sweden Schwander Hanna;
Conference for Europeanists Talk given at a conference Are social democratic parties really insider parties? Social democratic electoral strategy in Western Europe 25.06.2013 Amsterdam, Netherlands Schwander Hanna;
Invited Talk Individual talk The politics of dualization 13.05.2013 Geneva, Switzerland Häusermann Silja;
Workshop on welfare state analysis Talk given at a conference The vulnerable middle class? Labour market vulnerability and its impact on welfare state preferences’, 12.04.2013 Odense, Denmark Häusermann Silja; Schwander Hanna;
ECPR Joint Sessions Talk given at a conference Are social democratic parties really insider parties? Social democratic electoral strategy in Western Europe 11.03.2013 Mainz, Germany Schwander Hanna;
ECPR Joint Sessions Talk given at a conference Explaining welfare state preferences and insider-outsider divides in dualized societies 11.03.2013 Mainz, Germany Schwander Hanna; Kurer Thomas; Häusermann Silja;
Invited Talk Individual talk Labour Market Dualism: The status, attitudes and preferences of insiders and outsiders. 06.05.2012 Köln, Germany Häusermann Silja;
Jahrestagung der Schweizerischen Vereinigung für Politische Wissenschaft Talk given at a conference Social democratic parties as insider parties? Counter-evidence from France, Germany and Great Britain’, 02.02.2012 Luzern, Switzerland Schwander Hanna;
Invited Talk Individual talk Insider outsider politics in European societies 01.11.2011 Lund, Sweden Häusermann Silja;
ESpanet Italia Individual talk Dualization and insider-outsider politics in post-industrial European Societies. 24.06.2011 Milano, Italy Häusermann Silja;
Invited Talk Individual talk Dualization and insider-outsider politics in post-industrial European societies. des Projekts 15.06.2011 Madrid, Spain Häusermann Silja;
Joint Doctoral Seminar of Oxford and Science Po Talk given at a conference Explaining Welfare preferences in dualized societies 25.05.2011 Paris, France Schwander Hanna;
Conference for Europeanists Talk given at a conference Explaining Welfare preferences in dualized societies 14.04.2011 Montreal, Canada Häusermann Silja; Schwander Hanna;


Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
146104 Years of Turmoil: The Political Consequences of the Financial and Economic Crisis in Europe 01.09.2013 Project funding (Div. I-III)
111756 Nationaler politischer Wandel in entgrenzten Räumen - nationale und transnationale Kampagnen im Vergleich 01.10.2006 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Inequality is on the rise in almost all Western European countries for the first time in more than five decades (OECD 2009). To scholars of comparative political economy, this does not come as a surprise, since both the flexibilization of labor markets as well as welfare state retrenchment have been major trends in the policy development of these countries since the 1980s. These reforms, in combination with de-industrialization and sluggish economic growth have led to an increasing division of the working class into labor market insiders and outsiders (Rueda 2005, 2006). Labor market insiders hold standard, protected and stable jobs, while outsiders are marginally or atypically employed, and more likely to be unemployed. This divide of the working class in people with “good jobs” and people with “bad jobs” is referred to as dualization (Berger and Piore 1980, Palier and Thelen 2010), and it is a major source of growing inequality. The determinants, structure and outcomes of dualization are increasingly well researched. However, we know almost nothing about the extent of dualization across countries, and about the politics of dualization. This is where this project finds its motivation and starting point. We want to investigate how deep the divide between insiders and outsiders has become in different European countries, and whether this divide impacts on the democratic process. Thereby, we focus on electoral politics: do we see differences in the levels of participation and party choices of insiders and outsiders? What are the policy preferences of these groups? Under what conditions do social democratic parties fail to bridge the gap between the heterogeneous preferences of different working class segments? Are outsiders mobilized by radical right-wing or left-wing parties? We contend that the electoral implications of dualization depend on the configuration of party competition. The presence or absence of a radical right- or left-wing rival to moderate left parties explains whether outsiders are mobilized and represented, or ignored. In order to answer our questions and test this hypothesis, we will proceed in two steps. On the basis of micro-level data, we will first develop a measure of dualization, based on the proportion of outsiders and their relative economic deprivation for all west European countries. Second, we will analyze the electoral dynamics of dualization. We will start by analyzing voting behavior and party constituencies in 12 European democracies based on survey data, before investigating more closely the match between constituency preferences and party positions in six countries, on the basis of survey data and coded party positions in electoral campaigns. The project will provide the first comparative empirical analysis of how labor market dualization affects representation in Western democracies.
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