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Neuroimaging of cognitive flexibility and action monitoring in paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

English title Neuroimaging of cognitive flexibility and action monitoring in paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Applicant Walitza Susanne
Number 130237
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrischer Dienst Universität Zürich
Institution of higher education University of Zurich - ZH
Main discipline Neurophysiology and Brain Research
Start/End 01.11.2010 - 31.10.2013
Approved amount 375'000.00
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All Disciplines (3)

Discipline
Neurophysiology and Brain Research
Genetics
Mental Disorders, Psychosomatic Diseases

Keywords (16)

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD); Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); children; action monitoring; inhibition; cognitive flexibility; orbito-fronto-striatal circuit; anterior cingulate cortex; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); event related potentials (ERP); Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; EEG; FMRI; ERP; neuroimaging; genetics

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is the world's fourth most common psychiatric disorder with a frequent onset in childhood or adolescence and poor long-term prognosis. Children and adults with OCD suffer from unrealistic and excessive recurrent and intrusive thoughts (obsessions) which are usually accompanied by stereotypic repetitive behaviours (compulsions). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents affecting up to 5-7% of the children and is characterized by inappropriate levels of inattention as well as hyperactivity and/or impulsivity. The causes and pathophysiology of these highly heritable disorders are still unknown. Brain imaging studies point to dysfunction of specific but partly overlapping brain circuits at rest and during cognitive tasks. Aims: Our aim is to better understand the core problems in juvenile OCD - impaired action monitoring and cognitive flexibility - by measuring when and where critical brain function fail, how these problems are affected by genetic and neuropsychological profiles, and how they contrast with the partly opposite problems of children with ADHD. Context and impact: Integrating findings from two complementary functional imaging approaches allows for the first time to compare the specific brain dysfunctions in OCD and ADHD at the same time point and in the same brain circuits. This approach will provide a new level of understanding of the partly parallel and partly opposite core dysfunctions in these disorders. Neuropsychology, genetics and biochemical studies will complement the neuroimaging investigations to determine sensitive biomarkers. In the long run, OCD diagnostics and treatment will be improved by the combination of biomarkers from neuroimaging, neuropsychology and genetics. Experimental Design and Methods: A group of 12-16 year old non-medicated children with OCD will be compared to matched patients with ADHD and a healthy control group. Brain networks involved in action monitoring and cognitive flexibility will be examined with multimodal brain imaging. All participants will take part in neuropsychological testings, and in electroencephalography (EEG) and functional/structural magnetic resonance (MRI) sessions. The gene analyses will add a multi-level perspective on the question whether brain activation of patients with OCD and ADHD is modulated by genetic variants.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex.
Guadalupe Tulio, Mathias Samuel R, vanErp Theo G M, Whelan Christopher D, Zwiers Marcel P, Abe Yoshinari, Abramovic Lucija, Agartz Ingrid, Andreassen Ole A, Arias-Vásquez Alejandro, Aribisala Benjamin S, Armstrong Nicola J, Arolt Volker, Artiges Eric, Ayesa-Arriola Rosa, Baboyan Vatche G, Banaschewski Tobias, Barker Gareth, Bastin Mark E, Baune Bernhard T, Blangero John, Bokde Arun L W, Boedhoe Premika S W, Bose Anushree, Brem Silvia, Brodaty Henry, Bromberg Uli, Brooks Samantha, Büchel Christian, Buitelaar Jan, Calhoun Vince D, Cannon Dara M, Cattrell Anna, Cheng Yuqi, Conrod Patricia J, Conzelmann Annette, Corvin Aiden, Crespo-Facorro Benedicto, Crivello Fabrice, Dannlowski Udo, de Zubicaray Greig I, de Zwarte Sonja M C, Deary Ian J, Desrivières Sylvane, Doan Nhat Trung, Donohoe Gary, Dørum Erlend S, Ehrlich Stefan, Espeseth Thomas, Fernández Guillén, Flor Herta, Fouche Jean-Paul, Frouin Vincent, Fukunaga Masaki, Gallinat Jürgen, Garavan Hugh, Gill Michael, Suarez Andrea Gonzalez, Gowland Penny, Grabe Hans J, Grotegerd Dominik, Gruber Oliver, Hagenaars Saskia, Hashimoto Ryota, Hauser Tobias U, Heinz Andreas, Hibar Derrek P, Hoekstra Pieter J, Hoogman Martine, Howells Fleur M, Hu Hao, Hulshoff Pol Hilleke E, Huyser Chaim, Ittermann Bernd, Jahanshad Neda, Jönsson Erik G, Jurk Sarah, Kahn Rene S, Kelly Sinead, Kraemer Bernd, Kugel Harald, Kwon Jun Soo, Lemaitre Herve, Lesch Klaus-Peter, Lochner Christine, Luciano Michelle, Marquand Andre F, Martin Nicholas G, Martínez-Zalacaín Ignacio, Martinot Jean-Luc, Mataix-Cols David, Mather Karen, McDonald Colm, McMahon Katie L, Medland Sarah E, Menchón José M, Morris Derek W, Mothersill Omar, Maniega Susana Munoz, Mwangi Benson (2017), Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex., in Brain imaging and behavior, 11(5), 1497-1514.
Increased fronto-striatal reward prediction errors moderate decision making in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Hauser T U, Iannaccone R, Dolan R J, Ball J, Hättenschwiler J, Drechsler R, Rufer M, Brandeis D, Walitza S, Brem S (2017), Increased fronto-striatal reward prediction errors moderate decision making in obsessive-compulsive disorder., in Psychological medicine, 47(7), 1246-1258.
Increased decision thresholds enhance information gathering performance in juvenile Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).
Hauser Tobias U, Moutoussis Michael, Iannaccone Reto, Brem Silvia, Walitza Susanne, Drechsler Renate, Dayan Peter, Dolan Raymond J (2017), Increased decision thresholds enhance information gathering performance in juvenile Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)., in PLoS computational biology, 13(4), 1005440-1005440.
Distinct Subcortical Volume Alterations in Pediatric and Adult OCD: A Worldwide Meta- and Mega-Analysis.
Boedhoe Premika S W, Schmaal Lianne, Abe Yoshinari, Ameis Stephanie H, Arnold Paul D, Batistuzzo Marcelo C, Benedetti Francesco, Beucke Jan C, Bollettini Irene, Bose Anushree, Brem Silvia, Calvo Anna, Cheng Yuqi, Cho Kang Ik K, Dallaspezia Sara, Denys Damiaan, Fitzgerald Kate D, Fouche Jean-Paul, Giménez Mònica, Gruner Patricia, Hanna Gregory L, Hibar Derrek P, Hoexter Marcelo Q, Hu Hao, Huyser Chaim, Ikari Keisuke, Jahanshad Neda, Kathmann Norbert, Kaufmann Christian, Koch Kathrin, Kwon Jun Soo, Lazaro Luisa, Liu Yanni, Lochner Christine, Marsh Rachel, Martínez-Zalacaín Ignacio, Mataix-Cols David, Menchón José M, Minuzzi Luciano, Nakamae Takashi, Nakao Tomohiro, Narayanaswamy Janardhanan C, Piras Fabrizio, Piras Federica, Pittenger Christopher, Reddy Y C Janardhan, Sato Joao R, Simpson H Blair, Soreni Noam, Soriano-Mas Carles, Spalletta Gianfranco, Stevens Michael C, Szeszko Philip R, Tolin David F, Venkatasubramanian Ganesan, Walitza Susanne, Wang Zhen, van Wingen Guido A, Xu Jian, Xu Xiufeng, Yun Je-Yeon, Zhao Qing, Zhao Qing, Thompson Paul M, Stein Dan J, van den Heuvel Odile A (2017), Distinct Subcortical Volume Alterations in Pediatric and Adult OCD: A Worldwide Meta- and Mega-Analysis., in The American journal of psychiatry, 174(1), 60-69.
Classifying adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on functional and structural imaging.
Iannaccone Reto, Hauser Tobias U, Ball Juliane, Brandeis Daniel, Walitza Susanne, Brem Silvia (2015), Classifying adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on functional and structural imaging., in European child & adolescent psychiatry, 24(10), 1279-89.
Temporally Dissociable Contributions of Human Medial Prefrontal Subregions to Reward-Guided Learning.
Hauser Tobias U, Hunt Laurence T, Iannaccone Reto, Walitza Susanne, Brandeis Daniel, Brem Silvia, Dolan Raymond J (2015), Temporally Dissociable Contributions of Human Medial Prefrontal Subregions to Reward-Guided Learning., in The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 35(32), 11209-20.
Conflict monitoring and error processing: new insights from simultaneous EEG-fMRI.
Iannaccone Reto, Hauser Tobias U, Staempfli Philipp, Walitza Susanne, Brandeis Daniel, Brem Silvia (2015), Conflict monitoring and error processing: new insights from simultaneous EEG-fMRI., in NeuroImage, 105, 395-407.
Cognitive flexibility in adolescence: neural and behavioral mechanisms of reward prediction error processing in adaptive decision making during development.
Hauser Tobias U, Iannaccone Reto, Walitza Susanne, Brandeis Daniel, Brem Silvia (2015), Cognitive flexibility in adolescence: neural and behavioral mechanisms of reward prediction error processing in adaptive decision making during development., in NeuroImage, 104, 347-54.
Imaging genetics in obsessive-compulsive disorder: linking genetic variations to alterations in neuroimaging.
Grünblatt Edna, Hauser Tobias U, Walitza Susanne (2014), Imaging genetics in obsessive-compulsive disorder: linking genetic variations to alterations in neuroimaging., in Progress in neurobiology, 121, 114-24.
Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in impaired decision making in juvenile attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Hauser Tobias U, Iannaccone Reto, Ball Juliane, Mathys Christoph, Brandeis Daniel, Walitza Susanne, Brem Silvia (2014), Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in impaired decision making in juvenile attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder., in JAMA psychiatry, 71(10), 1165-73.
The neurobiological link between OCD and ADHD.
Brem Silvia, Grünblatt Edna, Drechsler Renate, Riederer Peter, Walitza Susanne (2014), The neurobiological link between OCD and ADHD., in Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, 6(3), 175-202.
Trio study and meta-analysis support the association of genetic variation at the serotonin transporter with early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Walitza Susanne, Marinova Zoya, Grünblatt Edna, Lazic Stanley E, Remschmidt Helmut, Vloet Timo D, Wendland Jens R (2014), Trio study and meta-analysis support the association of genetic variation at the serotonin transporter with early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder., in Neuroscience letters, 580, 100-3.
[Obsessive-compulsive disorders in DSM-5 – what is new?].
Walitza Susanne (2014), [Obsessive-compulsive disorders in DSM-5 – what is new?]., in Zeitschrift fur Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 42(2), 121-127.
Extraordinarily fast response to low-dose sertraline in a child with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder and high functioning serotonin transporter genotype.
Grünblatt Edna, Tschakarjan Senop, Brezinka Veronika, Walitza Susanne (2014), Extraordinarily fast response to low-dose sertraline in a child with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder and high functioning serotonin transporter genotype., in Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology, 24(2), 102-4.
Klinische Praxis der Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörungen und hyperkinetischen Störungen
Werling Anna, Drechsler Renate, Walitza Susanne (2014), Klinische Praxis der Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörungen und hyperkinetischen Störungen, in PSYCH up2date, 8(4), 257-272.
The feedback-related negativity (FRN) revisited: New insights into the localization, meaning and network organization
Hauser Tobias U., Iannaccone Reto, Stämpfli Philipp, Drechsler Renate, Brandeis Daniel, Walitza Susanne, Brem Silvia (2014), The feedback-related negativity (FRN) revisited: New insights into the localization, meaning and network organization, in NeuroImage, 84, 159-168.
Wie biologisch sind Zwangsstörungen? Genetische Befunde und Bildgebung bei Zwangsstörungen
Walitza Susanne, Brem Silvia, Hauser Tobias, Gruenblatt Edna (2014), Wie biologisch sind Zwangsstörungen? Genetische Befunde und Bildgebung bei Zwangsstörungen, in Kindheit und Entwicklung.
In vitro study methodologies to investigate genetic aspects and effects of drugs used in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Grünblatt Edna, Bartl Jasmin, Marinova Zoya, Walitza Susanne (2013), In vitro study methodologies to investigate genetic aspects and effects of drugs used in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder., in Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996), 120(1), 131-9.
Die Behandlung der Angsterkrankungen. Teil 2: Zwangsstörungen und posttraumatische Belastungsstörung
Keck Martin E, Ropohl Axel, Bondolfi Guido, Brenni Corinna Constantin, Hättenschwiler Josef, Hatzinger Martin, Hemmeter Ulrich Michael, Holsboer-Trachsler Edith, Kawohl Wolfram, Poppe Christine, Preisig Martin, Rennhard Stefan, Seifritz Erich, Weidt Steffi, Walitza Susanne, Rufer Michael (2013), Die Behandlung der Angsterkrankungen. Teil 2: Zwangsstörungen und posttraumatische Belastungsstörung, in Swiss Medical Forum, 13(17), 337-344.
Neuroimaging of cognitive brain function in paediatric obsessive compulsive disorder: A review of literature and preliminary meta-analysis
Brem Silvia, Hauser Tobias U., Iannaccone Reto, Brandeis Daniel, Drechsler Renate, Walitza Susanne (2012), Neuroimaging of cognitive brain function in paediatric obsessive compulsive disorder: A review of literature and preliminary meta-analysis, in Journal of Neural Transmission, 119(11), 1425-1448.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Zentrum für Angst- und Depressionsbehandlung Zürich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Universitätsspital Zürich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, UCL Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Universitäre Psychatrische Dienste Bern (UPD), Direktion Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
4. Curriculum Entwicklungspsychopharmakologie des Kindes- & Jugendalters. Organisiert durch die Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrische Klinik der UPK Basel in Kooperation mit den Universitätskliniken für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie Bern und Zürich Talk given at a conference Evidenzbasierung der Pharmakotherapie bei ADHS: die neue Cochrane-Analyse 09.06.2016 Basel, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
2nd Burghölzli Psychiatry Meeting Poster Novel Super-Resolution Tractography Density Marker for Tract Based Spatial Statistics 17.11.2015 Zürich, Switzerland Iannaccone Reto; Hauser Tobias; Brem Silvia; Walitza Susanne;
DGZ Kongress “Zwangsstörungen – Fortschritte in der Therapie” Talk given at a conference Fronto-striatale Beeinträchtigungen in der Entscheidungsfindung bei Patienten mit Zwangsstörungen 25.09.2015 Prien am Chiemsee, Germany Drechsler Renate; Brandeis Daniel; Iannaccone Reto; Walitza Susanne; Brem Silvia; Hauser Tobias;
ZNZ SYMPOSIUM 2015 Poster Family-based and case-control association studies of the dopamine and serotonin transporter gene in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 11.09.2015 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
”Ordnung & Chaos”, 17. Fortbildungstagung des Kollegiums für Hausarztmedizin (KHM) Talk given at a conference ADHS: Übergang vom Kind zum Erwachsenen 25.06.2015 Luzern, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
16th ESCAP congress, Symposium: Recent advances in the etiopathogenesis of pediatric OCD and related disorders: epigenetic, autoimmune and environmental aspects Talk given at a conference Epigenetic changes in the serotonergic system in pediatric OCD 20.06.2015 Madrid, Spain Walitza Susanne;
5th World Congress on ADHD Poster About Variability of Comorbidity in ADHD: New findings of comorbidity in a clinically referred sample of children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Switzerland 28.05.2015 Glasgow, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Walitza Susanne;
XXXIV. DGKJP-Kongress Talk given at a conference Epigenetische Veränderungen des serotonergen Systems in Zwangsstörungen im Kindesalter 04.03.2015 München, Germany Walitza Susanne;
XXXIV. DGKJP-Kongress Talk given at a conference Bedeutung genetischer Faktoren bei Zwangsstörungen mit frühem und spätem Beginn - Was bedeuten aktuelle genetische Befunde für die Praxis und den einzelnen Patienten? 04.03.2015 München, Germany Walitza Susanne;
3. Curriculum Entwicklungspsychopharmakologie des Kindes- & Jugendalters. Organisiert durch die Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrische Klinik der UPK Basel in Kooperation mit den Universitätskliniken für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie Bern und Zürich Talk given at a conference Pharmakotherapie der ADHS 06.02.2015 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Annual meeting of the British Association for Cognitive Neuroscience (BACN) Talk given at a conference A multimodal investigation of the Feedback-Related Negativity: Insights into the localization, meaning and network organization 11.09.2014 York, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Hauser Tobias;
3rd Meeting of EARLI SIG22 – Neuroscience and Education Talk given at a conference Understanding the impaired decision making mechanisms in juvenile attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 12.06.2014 Göttingen, Germany Walitza Susanne; Iannaccone Reto; Hauser Tobias; Brem Silvia; Brandeis Daniel;
3rd Meeting of EARLI SIG22 – Neuroscience and Education Poster Investigating the role of the Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC) in arithmetic fact learning: a simultaneous tDCS-fMRI study. 12.06.2014 Göttingen, Germany Hauser Tobias; Brem Silvia;
Annual Meeting of the Organisation for Human Brain Mapping OHBM 2014 Poster Multimodal neuroimaging of decision making in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 08.06.2014 Hamburg, Germany Brandeis Daniel; Walitza Susanne; Brem Silvia; Hauser Tobias; Iannaccone Reto;
Psychiatry under the Lens of Algorithms: First Zurich Computational Psychiatry Meeting Poster Classifying Adolescent Attention Deficit Hyperactvity Disorder (ADHD) based on Error Processing 19.05.2014 Zürich, Switzerland Brem Silvia; Hauser Tobias; Walitza Susanne; Brandeis Daniel; Iannaccone Reto;
Psychiatry under the Lens of Algorithms: First Zurich Computational Psychiatry Meeting Poster Impaired decision making in juvenile attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 19.05.2014 Zürich, Switzerland Hauser Tobias; Brem Silvia; Brandeis Daniel; Iannaccone Reto; Walitza Susanne;
7th Neuroscience Forum: Kontinuum in der Psychiatrie Talk given at a conference ADHS bei Jugendlichen: Eine Komplexe Welt 02.04.2014 Basel, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrisches Kolloquium KJPD Zürich FS 2014 Individual talk Lernen und Entscheiden bei Jugendlichen mit ADHS und Zwang: Erkenntnisse aus der Forschung für die Klinik 06.03.2014 Zürich, Switzerland Hauser Tobias;
Vortrag im Rahmen des Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrischen Kolloquiums KJPD Zürich FS 2014 Individual talk Lernen und Entscheiden bei Jugendlichen mit ADHS und Zwang: Erkenntnisse aus der Forschung für die Klinik 06.03.2014 Zürich, Switzerland Hauser Tobias;
Vortrag an der Georg-August-Universität Göttingen Individual talk Algorithms and the Brain: Computational Psychiatric Approaches to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 13.02.2014 Göttingen, Germany Hauser Tobias;
Swiss Society of Neuroscience (SSN) Annual Meeting 2014 Poster Simultaneous EEG-fMRI of decision making in juvenile attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 24.01.2014 Bern, Switzerland Walitza Susanne; Brandeis Daniel; Hauser Tobias; Brem Silvia; Iannaccone Reto;
Tag der Forschung der Psychiatrie und der Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie Talk given at a conference Translating neurophysiology and imaging in ADHD 13.12.2013 Zürich, Switzerland Brandeis Daniel;
Emotionale Verarbeitung bei ADHS: 3. Europäisches ADHS-Symposium Talk given at a conference ADHS im neurobiologischen Verlauf 09.11.2013 Dresden, Germany Brandeis Daniel;
XXXIII. DGKJP-Kongress Poster Dissociating cortical midline timecourses in decision making: Results from a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study 05.09.2013 Rostock, Germany Hauser Tobias; Brandeis Daniel; Walitza Susanne; Iannaccone Reto; Drechsler Renate; Brem Silvia;
International Conference on Basic and Clinical Multimodal Imaging BACI, 2013 Poster Impaired decision making and reward learning in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A simultaneous EEG-fMRI study 05.09.2013 Genf, Switzerland Brem Silvia; Hauser Tobias; Iannaccone Reto; Walitza Susanne; Brandeis Daniel; Drechsler Renate;
International Conference on Basic and Clinical Multimodal Imaging BACI, 2013 Poster Dissociating cortical midline timecourses in decision making: Results from a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study 05.09.2013 Genf, Switzerland Iannaccone Reto; Brandeis Daniel; Brem Silvia; Hauser Tobias; Drechsler Renate; Walitza Susanne;
21. Silser Fortbildung für Chefärzte und leitende Ärzte Talk given at a conference ADHS - Diagnose und Therapie - zu viel oder nötig? 22.08.2013 Sils Maria, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Kontinuität und Wandel in der Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie. Symposium zum 70. Geburtstag von Prof. Dr. Dr. Hans-Christoph Steinhausen Talk given at a conference Neurodiagnostik bei ADHS? 28.06.2013 Zürich, Switzerland Brandeis Daniel;
4th World Congress on ADHD - From childhood to Adult disease Talk given at a conference Guided Poster Tour: Co-morbidity: children and adolescents I 06.06.2013 Milano, Italy Walitza Susanne;
2. Curriculum Entwicklungspsychopharmakologie des Kindes- & Jugendalters. Organisiert durch die Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrische Klinik der UPK Basel in Kooperation mit den Universitätskliniken für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie Bern und Zürich Talk given at a conference Diskussion zu „Pharmakotherapie des ADHS“ 16.05.2013 Basel, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
SGAD Symposium. 4th Swiss Forum for Mood and Anxiety Disorders (SFMAD) Talk given at a conference Behandlungsoptionen von Zwangsstörungen bei Kindern: Was gibt es Neues? 18.04.2013 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Fachtagung KJH 2013 "ADHS" Talk given at a conference Biologische und Umweltursachen von ADHS / Therapie von ADHS 04.04.2013 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Gemeinsame Weiterbildungsveranstalltung der freipraktizierenden Kinder- und Jugendpsychiaterinnen und -psychiater und des KJPD Luzern Talk given at a conference ADHS - Diagnostik und Therapie 28.03.2013 Luzern, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
XXXIII. DGKJP-Kongress Talk given at a conference Einsichtsfähigkeit von Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Zwängen 06.03.2013 Rostock, Germany Walitza Susanne;
XXXIII. DGKJP-Kongress Talk given at a conference Symposium: Multimodale Bildgebung in der Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie 06.03.2013 Rostock, Germany Brandeis Daniel;
XXXIII. DGKJP-Kongress Talk given at a conference Fehlerverarbeitung und Inhibition bei Jugendlichen mit ADHS: Eine simultane EEG-fMRI-Studie 06.03.2013 Rostock, Germany Brem Silvia; Brandeis Daniel; Walitza Susanne; Drechsler Renate; Iannaccone Reto; Hauser Tobias;
XXXIII. DGKJP-Kongress Talk given at a conference Beeinträchtigtes Belohnungslernen bei Jugendlichen mit ADHS: eine simultane EEG-fMRI-Studie. 06.03.2013 Rostock, Germany Brem Silvia; Brandeis Daniel; Walitza Susanne; Drechsler Renate; Hauser Tobias; Iannaccone Reto;
XXXIII. Kongress Talk given at a conference Beeinträchtigtes Belohnungslernen bei Jugendlichen mit ADHS: eine simultane EEG-fMRI-Studie 06.03.2013 Rostock, Germany Walitza Susanne; Iannaccone Reto; Brandeis Daniel; Hauser Tobias; Brem Silvia;
8. Weiterbildung KJP Chur 'Neue Sichtweisen auf ADHS' Talk given at a conference Wie helfen die Neurowissenschaften bei der Diagnose und Therapie des ADHS? 06.12.2012 Chur, Switzerland Brandeis Daniel;
Rückblick, Einblick und Ausblick, Symposium anlässlich des 40. Jubiläums des Hegau-Jugendwerks Gailingen Talk given at a conference Aufmerksamkeit bei Kindern heute - aktuelle Konzepte der Neuropsychologie 10.11.2012 Gailingen, Germany Drechsler Renate;
Klinische Aspekte der Genetik in der Psychiatrie und Neurologie, 4. Forum Dialog Psychiatrie-Neurologie, Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik Zürich Talk given at a conference ADHD: Genetische und klinische Aspekte bei Kindern, Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen 01.11.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Neuroscience 2012 (Conference of the Society for Neuroscience) Poster Inhibition, Performance and Conflict Monitoring in Healthy Humans: A Simultaneous EEG/fMRI Study 13.10.2012 New Orleans, United States of America Hauser Tobias; Iannaccone Reto; Drechsler Renate; Brandeis Daniel; Brem Silvia; Walitza Susanne;
Neuroscience 2012 (Conference of the Society for Neuroscience) Poster The feedback-related negativity, reward prediction errors and the anterior cingulate cortex 13.10.2012 New Orleans, United States of America Hauser Tobias; Walitza Susanne; Drechsler Renate; Brandeis Daniel; Iannaccone Reto; Brem Silvia;
Regionales ADHS Experten-Meeting Talk given at a conference Soziale und emotionale Beeinträchtigungen infolge einer ADHS-Störung und Langzeitfolgen 25.09.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Regionales ADHS Experten-Meeting Talk given at a conference Faktoren, die die Wahl der Medikamente zur Behandlung von ADHS beeinflussen 25.09.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Medidays Zürich, Allgemeiner Fortbildungskurs der Medizinischen Fakultät Zürich Talk given at a conference Psychische Störungen in der Adoleszenz. ADHS im Jugendalter 03.09.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und -Psychotherapie, Jahreskongress 2012 Poster Reward learning impairments in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A simultaneous EEG-fMRI study 30.08.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne; Brem Silvia; Brandeis Daniel; Iannaccone Reto; Hauser Tobias; Drechsler Renate;
Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und -Psychotherapie, Jahreskongress 2012 Talk given at a conference Performance Monitoring and Inhibition in ADHD Patients and Controls: A Simutlaneous EEG/fMRI Study 30.08.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Iannaccone Reto;
8th Symposium of the ZIHP Poster Altered reward learning in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A simultaneous EEG-fMRI study. 24.08.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Brem Silvia; Hauser Tobias; Iannaccone Reto; Walitza Susanne; Drechsler Renate; Brandeis Daniel;
8th Symposium of the ZIHP Poster Performance monitoring and inhibition in ADHD patients and controls: A simultaneous fMRI / EEG study 24.08.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Iannaccone Reto; Hauser Tobias; Brem Silvia; Brandeis Daniel; Walitza Susanne; Drechsler Renate;
20th World IACAPAP Congress Poster Temperament and executive function in ADHD: Is there a conceptual overlap? 21.07.2012 Paris, France Drechsler Renate; Walitza Susanne;
NCCR Forum "Gehirn und Gesundheit" Talk given at a conference Entwicklungspsychiatrie des Gehirns 14.06.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
ZNZ and NCCR neuro joint symposium 2012 Poster Conflict monitoring and error processing in young healthy adults: A simultaneous EEG/fMRI study 14.06.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Iannaccone Reto; Hauser Tobias; Brem Silvia; Walitza Susanne; Drechsler Renate; Brandeis Daniel;
Das Kind eckt an: immer ADHS oder was sonst? Tagung der Abteilung Entwicklungspädiatrie Talk given at a conference ADHS und psychiatrische Begleiterkrankungen 14.06.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
ZNZ and NCCR neuro joint symposium 2012 Poster Reward Prediction Errors and the Anterior Cingulate Cortex – a simultaneous EEG/fMRI-study 14.06.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Drechsler Renate; Brandeis Daniel; Hauser Tobias; Walitza Susanne; Iannaccone Reto; Brem Silvia;
2nd Eunethydis International Conference ‘Sharpening the cutting edge of ADHD science and practice’ Talk given at a conference Combining EEG and fMRI in ADHD research - ‘right time, right place’ 24.05.2012 Barcelona, Spain Brandeis Daniel;
ADHS in der Ära der personalisierten Medizin: Wo stehen wir heute - Relevanz für die Praxis Talk given at a conference ADHS - Wo stehen wir heute in der Forschung für personalisierte Medizin 10.05.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
1. Fachtagung Integrierte Psychiatrie Winterthur-Zürich Unterland, Integrierte Psychiatrie im Diskurs: Ist die Psychiatrie der Adolsezenz gewachsen? Talk given at a conference ADHS im Spannungsfeld von Neurobiologie und Erziehung 01.03.2012 Winterthur, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
16° Congresso della Società Italiana di Psicopatologia Talk given at a conference Neuropsychology in ADHD 14.02.2012 Rom, Italy Drechsler Renate;
Swiss Society for Neuroscience, 2012 Poster Brain Activation During error Processing and Inhibition - A simultaneous EEG fMRI study 03.02.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Hauser Tobias; Brem Silvia; Brandeis Daniel; Walitza Susanne; Drechsler Renate; Iannaccone Reto;
ADHS: aktuelle Entwicklungen in Diagnostik & Therapie. Symposium Talk given at a conference Neues aus der Ursachenforschung 26.01.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
ADHS: aktuelle Entwicklungen in Diagnostik & Therapie. Symposium Talk given at a conference Einführung und Zusammenfassung 26.01.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Zwangsstörungen Jahrestagung 2011. Zwangsstörungen in Forschung und Praxis. Neue Entwicklungen in der Therapie Talk given at a conference Behandlung von Zwängen im Kindes- und Jugendalter: Wie entscheide ich über das richtige Therapie-angebot? 03.12.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Symposium Essstörungen Neuroscience. Universitäre Psychiatrische Kliniken, Basel und Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrischer Dienst, Zürich Talk given at a conference OCD and Co-morbidity: OCD between restricted and compulsive behaviour 27.10.2011 Basel, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Kinder- und Jugend-psychiatrische Seminare. Klinik für Psychiatrie, Psychosomatik und Psychotherapie des Kindes-und Jugendalters der Goethe Universität Frankfurt Individual talk Diagnostik und Therapie von Zwangsstörungen im Kindes- und Jugendalter 12.10.2011 Frankfurt, Germany Walitza Susanne;
ZNZ Symposium, 2011 Poster Decision making and reward learning in healthy adults: A simultaneous EEG / fMRI study 19.09.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne; Brem Silvia; Hauser Tobias; Iannaccone Reto; Brandeis Daniel; Drechsler Renate;
ZNZ Symposium, 2011 Poster Performance and conflict monitoring in young healthy adults: A simultaneous fMRI/EEG study 19.09.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne; Brandeis Daniel; Iannaccone Reto; Brem Silvia; Drechsler Renate; Hauser Tobias;
SGPP Jahreskongress 2011 Talk given at a conference Zwangsspektrumsstörungen: Zwänge, Tics und Trichotillomanie 14.09.2011 Interlaken, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
3rd Scientific Meeting of the Federation of the European Societies of Neuropsychology Talk given at a conference Behavioural ratings of executive functions and objective test measures - do they overlap in children with ADHD? 07.09.2011 Basel, Switzerland Drechsler Renate;
State of the Art. Ärztliche Union für Kinder und Jugendliche fPmh, Gemeinsamer Kongress Talk given at a conference Symptomatik und Behandlung von Zwangsstörungen im Kindes- und Jugendalter 01.09.2011 Montreux, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
7th Symposium of the ZIHP, Zürich 2011 Poster Performance monitoring and inhibition - A simultaneous fMRI/EEG study 26.08.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Drechsler Renate; Brem Silvia; Brandeis Daniel; Walitza Susanne; Iannaccone Reto; Hauser Tobias;
7th Symposium of the ZIHP, Zürich 2011 Poster Reward-dependent decision making in healthy human subjects: A simultaneous EEG / fMRI study. 26.08.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Brem Silvia; Hauser Tobias; Brandeis Daniel; Walitza Susanne; Drechsler Renate; Iannaccone Reto;
14th International Congress of ESCAP – European Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Talk given at a conference Research on pediatric OCD in Switzerland 11.06.2011 Helsinki, Finland Walitza Susanne;
14th International Congress of ESCAP – European Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Talk given at a conference European Research in early onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and the International College of Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) 11.06.2011 Helsinki, Finland Walitza Susanne;
10thWorld Congressof Biological Psychiatry Talk given at a conference Genetic of early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder 29.05.2011 Prag, Czech Republic Walitza Susanne;
Neuropsychopharmakologie, ZKJP Individual talk Zwangsstörungen 04.04.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Neuropsychopharmakologie, ZKJP Individual talk ADHS, Störung des Sozialverhaltens 07.03.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Symposium, Perspektiven der Genetik in der Kinder-und Jugendpsychiatrie. XXXII. DGKJP Kongress Talk given at a conference Neueste Befunde zur Genetik bei Zwangserkrankungen 02.03.2011 Essen, Germany Walitza Susanne;
Einblick ins Gehirn und Ausblick auf ADHS. Symposium Talk given at a conference Einführung 27.01.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Einblick ins Gehirn und Ausblick auf ADHS. Symposium Talk given at a conference Ursachen der ADHS: Neurobiologie oder Erziehung? 27.01.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
4. Curriculum Entwicklungspsychopharmakologie des Kindes- & Jugendalters. Organisiert durch die Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrische Klinik der UPK Basel in Kooperation mit den Universitätskliniken für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie Bern und Zürich 09.06.2016 Basel, Switzerland
3. Curriculum Entwicklungspsychopharmakologie des Kindes- & Jugendalters. Organisiert durch die Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrische Klinik der UPK Basel in Kooperation mit den Universitätskliniken für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie Bern und Zürich 06.02.2015 Zürich, Switzerland
2. Curriculum Entwicklungspsychopharmakologie des Kindes- & Jugendalters. Organisiert durch die Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrische Klinik der UPK Basel in Kooperation mit den Universitätskliniken für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie Bern und Zürich 16.05.2013 Basel, Switzerland

Knowledge transfer events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Date Place Persons involved
Jahrestagung 2015 Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Zwangsstörungen SGZ, Fachtagung für Ärzte, Psychologen und andere Therapeuten Talk 05.12.2015 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Zürcher Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Weiterbildung und Lehrpersonen (ZAL) Talk 05.11.2015 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
4. Schweizerische Jahrestagung für SZPI 2015 Talk 03.11.2015 Olten, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
5. Netzwerktreffen, Klinik und Poliklinik für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und -psychotherapie Talk 28.10.2015 Dresden, Germany Walitza Susanne;
XXXIV. DGKJP-Kongress Workshop 04.03.2015 München, Germany Walitza Susanne;
Jahrestagung 2014 Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Zwangsstörungen SGZ, Fachtagung für Ärzte, Psychologen und andere Therapeuten Talk 06.12.2014 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
I. Schweizer ADHS-Kurs für Kinderärzte Talk 19.09.2014 Zug, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
13th Day of Clinical Research, Medizinische Fakultät Universität Zürich Talk 12.06.2014 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Fortbildung in Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrischer Dienst Thurgau Talk 31.03.2014 Weinfelden, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Jahrestagung 2013 Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Zwangsstörungen SGZ. Fachtagung für Ärzte, Psychologen und andere Therapeuten Talk 07.12.2013 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Gemeinsame Weiterbildungsveranstaltung der freipraktizierenden Kinder- und Jugendpsychiaterinnen und -psychiater und des KJPD Luzern Talk 28.03.2013 Luzern, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Tag der Forschung der Psychiatrie und der Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie Zürich, 2012 Poster 12.12.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Brandeis Daniel; Hauser Tobias; Brem Silvia; Iannaccone Reto; Drechsler Renate; Walitza Susanne;
Scientifica 2012, Zürcher Wissenschaftstage Talk 01.09.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Tag der Forschung der Psychiatrie und der Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie Zürich 2011 Poster 09.12.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Drechsler Renate; Walitza Susanne; Iannaccone Reto; Brem Silvia; Hauser Tobias; Brandeis Daniel;
Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Zwangsstörungen Jahrestagung 2011. Zwangsstörungen in Forschung und Praxis. Neue Entwicklungen in der Therapie Workshop 03.12.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Zwangsstörungen Jahrestagung 2011. Zwangsstörungen in Forschung und Praxis. Neue Entwicklungen in der Therapie Talk 03.12.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;
BrainFair 2011. Das Gehirn in der Zeit – von Jung bis Alt Talk 14.03.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Walitza Susanne;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media Zwangsstörungen im Kindes- und Jugendalter PSYCH up2date German-speaking Switzerland International 2017
Media relations: print media, online media (Neue) Medikamente bei ADHS Kinderärzte Schweiz German-speaking Switzerland 2016
Media relations: print media, online media Psychiatrisch-psychotherapeutische Behandlung: Zwangs- und Ticstörungen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen Swiss Archives of Neurology, Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, German-speaking Switzerland 2016
Media relations: print media, online media Was können Biomarker heute leisten? Über den Einsatz von Biomarkern in der psychiatrischen Diagnosti PSYCH up2date German-speaking Switzerland International 2015
Talks/events/exhibitions Immer mehr Zappelphilippe? Ursachen und Behandlung von ADHS German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Talks/events/exhibitions Wenn die Angst zum Zwang wird. Angstausstellung Keine Panik! Tierisch Angst im Gehirn German-speaking Switzerland 2014
Talks/events/exhibitions Behandlungsempfehlungen für Zwangserkrankungen bei Kindern, Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen German-speaking Switzerland 2013
Media relations: print media, online media Die Behandlung der Angsterkrankungen. Schweizerische Behandlungsempfehlungen Teil 2: Zwangsstörungen Swiss Medical Forum / Schweizerisches Medizin-Forum German-speaking Switzerland 2013
Talks/events/exhibitions Ursachen, etc. der Zwangsstörungen im Kindes-und Jugendalter German-speaking Switzerland 2011
Talks/events/exhibitions Zwänge im Kindes- und Jugendalter: Wie entscheidet man sich für die richtige Therapie? Vortrag German-speaking Switzerland 2011
Other activities Zwänge im Kindes- und Jugendalter: Wie entscheidet man sich für die richtige Therapie? Workshop German-speaking Switzerland 2011
Talks/events/exhibitions Zwangserkrankungen und Tic-Störungen bei Jung und Alt German-speaking Switzerland 2011
Media relations: print media, online media Zwangsstörungen. Auch im Kindes- und Jugendalter häufig Ars Medici, Sonderreport SGP 2011, Pädiatrie German-speaking Switzerland 2011

Awards

Title Year
Foundation Adrian and Simone Frutiger Prix Annuel 2015
"Award for best presentation" im ImMed-PhD-Retreat der UZH Zürich 2013

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
149411 Neurofeedback and computerized cognitive training in different settings for children and adolescents with ADHD 01.11.2013 Project funding (Div. I-III)
145697 Serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) and 1A (HTR1A) signaling in lymphocytes from patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: role of epigenetic modifications and receptor polymorphism. 01.02.2013 Marie Heim-Voegtlin grants
125407 Neural print tuning and persistence of dyslexia 01.04.2009 Project funding (Div. I-III)
134106 Serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) and 1A (HTR1A) signaling in rat cortical neurons and lymphocytes from children and adolescents with early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: role of histone deacetylase inhibition and receptor polymorphism. 01.02.2011 Marie Heim-Voegtlin grants
141201 Neuronal markers of grapheme-phoneme training response for prediction of successful reading acquisition in children at familial risk for developmental dyslexia 01.07.2013 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is the world’s fourth most common psychiatric disorder. An early age of symptom onset has been observed in over 50% of the patients and early onset OCD has a poor long-term prognosis. Children and adults with OCD suffer from unrealistic and excessive recurrent and intrusive thoughts (obsessions) which are usually accompanied by stereotypic repetitive behaviours (compulsions). The present knowledge about the etiology of OCD is limited despite its high prevalence of 1-3% especially because only few studies have addressed OCD in children and adolescents and due to the highly variable nature of the phenotype. Genetic studies have demonstrated high familiality of the disorder, especially in early onset OCD. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. It affects up to 6-12% according to DSM-IV criteria and is characterized by inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsivity. The causes and pathophysiology of ADHD are still unknown, but considerable evidence suggests that this heterogeneous, highly heritable disorder results from complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Multimodal neuroimaging studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event related potentials (ERP) are essential to test and refine neurobiological and neuropsychological models of the disorder, as they provide direct insight into deviant information processing in the critical brain circuits regarding spatial distribution, timing and connectivity. Convergent evidence points to the importance of the orbitofronto-striatal (OFS) circuit in the pathophysiology of OCD. Hyperactivation of specific structures of the OFS loop during resting state, symptom provocation and cognitive task performance has been related to an overactive monitoring system since brain structures such as the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) or the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are involved in response monitoring and decision making processes. The ACC overactivation in OCD contrasts with hypoactivation of the ACC in patients with ADHD during monitoring, which correlates with their constantly interruptive behaviour. Contrasting ACC monitoring deficits in these disorders thus provides a unique opportunity to understand the full normal and clinical range of ACC function in adolescence, and avoids a simplistic localisation of functional deficits. Failures in inhibition processes which in turn facilitate the characteristic repetitive behaviour of OCD patients may be reflected by hypoactivation of the lateral OFC during challenging cognitive tasks. Despite an increasing number of functional neuroimaging studies the direction of causality linking hypo- and hyperactivation to OCD still remains unknown and demands further research. Aims & Hypotheses: The focus of this project is to clarify the role of the corticostriatal loops in the pathophysiology of paediatric OCD and ADHD patients by using fMRI and ERPs. Cognitive tasks probing response inhibition, error monitoring or cognitive flexibility will yield information on OFS and ACC (dys)function in OCD and ADHD as compared to controls. Gene-fMRI and gene-ERP analyses will provide a multi-level perspective on the question whether brain hyper- or hypoactivation in patients with OCD and/or ADHD is modulated by genetic variants during task performance. Finally, characteristic neuropsychological patterns of performance in the domain of cognitive flexibility (neuroanatomically related to ACC or dlPFC networks), decision-making (related to OFC networks) and self evaluation of performance will be determined and related to abnormal activity in functional networks.Experimental Design and Methods: A group of non-medicated children with OCD will be compared to patients with ADHD and a healthy age, gender and IQ matched control group. All three groups will include 16 children aged between 12 and 16 years. An additional group of 16 healthy adult controls will serve to clarify developmental aspects in error monitoring, inhibition and reversal learning. All participants will take part in neuropsychological testings and separate electroencephalography (EEG) and functional/structural magnetic resonance (MRI) sessions. The same two cognitive tasks, testing cognitive flexibility, error processing and inhibition will be used in EEG and fMRI sessions, so that information about spatial and temporal processing can be combined. Expected Value: To summarize, the present study represents a unique interdisciplinary approach, which will integrate findings from two complementary approaches of functional imaging sensitive to either spatial (fMRI) or temporal processing (EEG). Neuropsychology, genetics and biochemical studies will complement the neuroimaging investigations to determine sensitive biomarkers for improving diagnostics and treatment especially in juvenile OCD. Since confounding factors that emerge through the chronicity of the disease, medication and past treatments are minimized in our paediatric sample this study crucially contributes to unveil the causes and dysfunctions underlying the disorder.
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