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Saisonale und räumliche Charakteriseriung von CO2 Quellregionen basierend auf kontinuierlichen Messungen stabiler CO2 Isotopen mittels Laserspektroskopie am Jungfraujoch

English title Seasonal and spatial characterization of CO2 source regions based on continuous QC-laser spectroscopy measurements of stable isotopes at Jungfraujoch
Applicant Emmenegger Lukas
Number 126816
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Luftfremdstoffe / Umwelttechnik EMPA
Institution of higher education Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology - EMPA
Main discipline Climatology. Atmospherical Chemistry, Aeronomy
Start/End 01.05.2011 - 31.10.2012
Approved amount 168'000.00
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Keywords (4)

stable CO2 isotopes; laser spectroscopy; Lagrange transport model; regional characterization

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary

The increase of carbon dioxide concentration in the earth's atmosphere is the dominating driver for global warming and climate change. Its ecological and economical impacts are widely recognized, and the quantification of the sources and sinks of 2CO is thus of great scientific, political and economical interest. CO2 concentration measurements alone are not sufficient to gain information about the gross exchange fluxes between the different carbon pools (ocean, biosphere and atmosphere) because they resemble net exchanges. However, individual fluxes are marked with specific isotopic 2CO signatures, which make the study of the stable CO2 isotope ratios (d13C-2CO and d18O-2CO) highly attractive.

cycle and the corresponding models it would, however, be highly valuable to complement this information with 2 sources has mainly been performed on solid or liquid substrates, or in the gas phase close to the source. With respect to the global CO2To date, isotopic characterization of COseasonal and regional signatures of 2CO sources. Such large-scale, integrated information can be obtained from continuous, high-precision measurements performed at the high Altitude Research station Jungfraujoch, combined with state of the art Lagrangian transport simulations. One key element of this project is the long-term monitoring of d13C-2CO and d18O-2CO at a time scale of minutes, using a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer. This instrument has successfully been employed in several field campaigns, reaching a precision better than 0.05 ‰ in nearly unattended operation.

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Tracking isotopic signatures of CO2 at the high altitude site Jungfraujoch with laser spectroscopy: Analytical improvements and representative results
Sturm P. (2013), Tracking isotopic signatures of CO2 at the high altitude site Jungfraujoch with laser spectroscopy: Analytical improvements and representative results, in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 1659-1671.
Continuous isotopic composition measurements of tropospheric CO2 at Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.), Switzerland: real-time observation of regional pollution events
Tuzson B. (2011), Continuous isotopic composition measurements of tropospheric CO2 at Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.), Switzerland: real-time observation of regional pollution events, in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 24563-2459.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Dr. Pirmin Kaufmann and Dr. Philippe Steiner, Meteoschweiz, Zürich. Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
M. Zahniser PhD / Center for Atmospheric and Environmental Chemistry / Aerodyne Research United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Alpes Lasers Switzerland (Europe)
- Industry/business/other use-inspired collaboration
Univ. Berne Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
ETHZ Institute of Agricultural Sciences Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
ETHZ Quantum Optoelectronics Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO/GAW) Fall Meeting Talk given at a conference Frontier of QCLAS for stable CO2 isotopes 09.11.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Emmenegger Lukas;
Swiss Chemical Society Fall Meeting 2012 Talk given at a conference Stable Isotopes at Jungfraujoch 13.09.2012 Zürich, Switzerland Emmenegger Lukas;
JESIUM2012 Talk given at a conference Continuous isotopic composition measurements of tropospheric CO2 at Jungfraujoch 03.09.2012 Leipzig, Germany Emmenegger Lukas; Sturm Patrick;
Laser Optics Conference Talk given at a conference QCLAS for stable isotopes of CO2 25.06.2012 St. Petersburg, Russia Emmenegger Lukas; Sturm Patrick;
GEO-Carbon Talk given at a conference Continuous isotopic composition measurements of tropospheric CO2 at Jungfraujoch 24.10.2011 Rome, Italy Emmenegger Lukas; Sturm Patrick;


Knowledge transfer events



Self-organised

Title Date Place
Fachtagung Feinstaub: Inhaltsstoffe und Quellenzuordnung 19.01.2012 Dübendorf, Switzerland

Awards

Title Year
Best Poster Award 2012

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
136273 CarboCount CH: Quantifying greenhouse gas fluxes and their sensitivity to climate variations: A case study in Central Europe and Switzerland 01.01.2012 Sinergia
125336 Kontinuierliche Bestimmung von N2O Isotopomeren in Umgebungsluft mittels Quantenkaskadenlaser-Absorptionspektrometrie 01.11.2009 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

The increase of carbon dioxide concentration in the earth's atmosphere is the dominating driver for global warming and climate change. Its ecological and economical impacts are widely recognized, and the quantification of the sources and sinks of CO2 is thus of great scientific, political and economical interest. CO2 concentration measurements alone are not sufficient to gain information about the gross exchange fluxes between the different carbon pools (ocean, biosphere and atmosphere) because they resemble net exchanges. However, individual fluxes are marked with specific isotopic CO2 signatures, which make the study of the stable CO2 isotope ratios (d13C-CO2 and d18O-CO2) highly attractive.Isotope discrimination in d13C-CO2 is mainly driven by photosynthesis, and only to a minor extend by senescence, bacterial decomposition and respiration. Additional fractionation occurs through the transformation of organic material to fossil fuels. In contrast, d18O-CO2 in natural processes is largely governed by the isotope exchange between CO2 and water. Exchange fluxes of atmospheric CO2 with ocean water are high and drive d18O-CO2 towards zero on the VPDB-CO2 scale. However, oxygen exchange with leaf water (enriched in 18O) during photosynthesis and with ground water (depleted in 18O) during respiration modify the d18O-CO2 signature of the related CO2 sources.To date, isotopic characterization of CO2 sources has mainly been performed on solid or liquid substrates, or in the gas phase close to the source. With respect to the global CO2 cycle and the corresponding models it would, however, be highly valuable to complement this information with seasonal and regional signatures of CO2 sources. Such large-scale, integrated information can be obtained from continuous, high-precision measurements performed at the high Altitude Research station Jungfraujoch (46.548°N, 7.987°E, 3580 m a.s.l.) combined with state of the art Lagrangian transport simulations. One key element of this project is the long-term monitoring of d13C-CO2 and d18O-CO2 at a time scale of minutes, using a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer. This instrument has successfully been employed in several field campaigns, reaching a precision better than 0.05 ‰ in nearly unattended operation, without the need for liquid nitrogen.Competence in three strongly linked fields is combined within this project to reach its ambitious goals: isotope related climate research (Univ. Bern / M. Leuenberger), laser spectroscopy for isotope specific gas analysis (Empa / L. Emmenegger), and trajectory statistics and Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models for source characterization (Empa / D. Brunner).
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