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Traffic Adaptivity in Wireless Sensor Networks

English title Traffic Adaptivity in Wireless Sensor Networks
Applicant Braun Torsten
Number 126718
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Informatik Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Information Technology
Start/End 01.11.2009 - 31.10.2012
Approved amount 158'082.00
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Keywords (7)

medium access control; traffic adaptivity; wireless sensor networks; medium access control; energy efficiency; congestion control; Quality of Service

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary

Energy efficiency is a major concern in the design of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and their communication protocols. As the radio transceiver typically accounts for a major portion of a WSN node's energy consumption, researchers have proposed Energy-Efficient Medium Access (E2-MAC) protocols that switch the radio transceiver off for a major part of the time. Today's E2-MAC protocols are able to deliver little amounts of data with a low energy cost, but fail to adapt to changing traffic loads and changing requirements (e.g. throughput and delay constraints) of the imposed traffic. They are generally not sufficiently adaptive with respect to traffic. This project will investigate, develop, and evaluate mechanisms targeting at adaptive and flexible behaviour of E2-MAC protocols that are able to perceive variations in the traffic and its requirements and react to these variations in a timely manner. Similarly as in dynamic voltage scaling an adaptive E2-MAC protocol to be developed should react to changing traffic requirements by (de)allocation of battery resources by correspondingly tuning the radio transceiver, and should further be able to prioritize high priority frames versus frames of lower priority. We will evaluate metrics to assess and quantify the effects of our developed protocol mechanisms and compare them with existing approaches. Our goal is to design an adaptive E2-MAC protocol that in case of low traffic rates of low importance offers data delivery at a low energy cost, which however can adaptively change its behaviour in order to fully exploit the channel capacity whenever the traffic intensity and/or the traffic requirements require it. Applications of priority schemes are manifold: in sensor network applications, messages may have different levels of importance, e.g., alarm messages vs. periodic reporting messages, or signalling messages vs. data messages of higher layer protocols. Application scenarios of flexible, adaptive and mature E2-MAC protocols are manifold - we particularly envisage monitoring systems for the health-care system, but also the broad area of environmental monitoring sensor networks, e.g. networks deployed to alert in case of environmental dangers, such as fire, flood, rock fall or avalanches. More information about the project can be found at http://www.iam.unibe.ch/~hurni/TRAWSN. 

Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Green Wireless-Energy Efficiency in Wireless Networks
Vitro Bernardo, Torsten Braun, Marilia Curado, Markus Fiedler, David Hock, Theus Hossmann, Karin Anna Hummel, Philipp Hurni, Selim Ickin, Almerima Jamakovic, Simin Nadjim, Tuan Anh Trinh, Ekhiotz Jon Vergara, Florian Wamser, Thomas Zinner (2015), Green Wireless-Energy Efficiency in Wireless Networks, in J. M. Pierson (ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 81-130.
Traffic-Adaptive and Link-Quality-Aware Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks
Philipp Hurni (2013), Traffic-Adaptive and Link-Quality-Aware Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks, in PIK - Praxis der Informationsverarbeitung und Kommunikation, 36(1), 3-8.
User and Machine Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure for Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Testbeds
Markus Anwander, Torsten Braun, Philipp Hurni, Thomas Staub, Gerald Wagenknecht (2013), User and Machine Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure for Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Testbeds, in Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, 2(1), 109-121.
Flexible Experimentation in Wireless Sensor Networks
Coulson Geoff, Porter Barry, Chatzigiannakis Ioannis, Koninis Christos, Fischer Stefan, Pfisterer Dennis, Braun Torsten, Hurni Philipp, Anwander Markus, Wagenknecht Gerald, Fekete Sandor, Kröller Alexander, Baumgartner Tobias, Bimschas Daniel (2012), Flexible Experimentation in Wireless Sensor Networks, in Communications of the ACM, 55(1), 82-90.
TARWIS — A testbed management architecture for wireless sensor network testbeds
Hurni Philipp, Anwander Markus, Wagenknecht Gerald, Staub Thomas, Braun Torsten (2012), TARWIS — A testbed management architecture for wireless sensor network testbeds, in IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS), MauiIEEE; IFIP; IEEE Commun Soc, Maui, HI.
TCP Performance Optimizations for Wireless Sensor Networks
Philipp Hurni, Ulrich Bürgi, Markus Anwander, Torsten Braun (2012), TCP Performance Optimizations for Wireless Sensor Networks, in EWSN 2012, TrentoSpringer , Germany.
On The Accuracy of Software-based Energy Estimation Techniques
Philipp Hurni, Benjamin Nyffenegger, Torsten Braun, Anton Hergenröder (2011), On The Accuracy of Software-based Energy Estimation Techniques, in EWSN 2011, BonnSpringer, Germany.
TARWIS - A Testbed Management Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network Testbeds
Philipp Hurni, Markus Anwander, Gerald Wagenknecht, Thomas Staub, Torsten Braun (2011), TARWIS - A Testbed Management Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network Testbeds, in Network and Service Management (CNSM), 2011 7th International Conference on, ParisIEEE Xplore, USA.
An Energy-Efficient Broadcasting Scheme for Unsynchronized Wireless Sensor MAC Protocols
Philipp Hurni, Torsten Braun (2010), An Energy-Efficient Broadcasting Scheme for Unsynchronized Wireless Sensor MAC Protocols, in The Seventh International Conference on Wireless On-demand Network Systems and Services, Kranjska GoraIEEE Xplore, USA.
Evaluation of WiseMAC and extensions on wireless sensor nodes
Hurni P, Braun T, Anwander M (2010), Evaluation of WiseMAC and extensions on wireless sensor nodes, in TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, 43(1-2), 49-58.
MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
Braun Torsten, Anwander Markus, Hurni Philipp (2010), MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks, in Samuel Pierre (ed.), IGI Global, Hershey, 165-174.
MaxMAC: a Maximally Traffic-Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Philipp Hurni, Torsten Braun (2010), MaxMAC: a Maximally Traffic-Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, in EWSN 2010, CoimbraSpringer, Germany.
A Secure Remote Authentication, Operation and Management Infrastructure for Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Testbeds
Hurni Philipp, Staub Thomas, Wagenknecht Gerald, Anwander Markus, Braun Torsten (2009), A Secure Remote Authentication, Operation and Management Infrastructure for Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Testbeds, in Kommunikation in Verteilten Systemen, KasselElectronic Communications of the EASST, Berlin.
Calibrating Wireless Sensor Network Simulation Models with Real-World Experiments
Hurni Philipp, Braun Torsten (2009), Calibrating Wireless Sensor Network Simulation Models with Real-World Experiments, in International Conference on Research in Networking, AachenSpringer, Heidelberg.
On the adaptivity of today's Energy-Efficient MAC protocols under varying traffic conditions
Hurni Philipp, Braun Torsten (2009), On the adaptivity of today's Energy-Efficient MAC protocols under varying traffic conditions, in 2009 International Conference on Ultra Modern Telecommunications & Workshops, St PetersburgIEEE, USA.

Awards

Title Year
Fakultätspreis Faculty of Science Uni Bern 2012
GI KuVS Award 2012
IAM Alumni Award 2011

Abstract

Energy efficiency is a major concern in the design of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and their communication protocols. As the radio transceiver typically accounts for a major portion of a WSN node's energy consumption, researchers have proposed Energy-Efficient Medium Access (E2-MAC) protocols that switch the radio transceiver off for a major part of the time. These protocol typically trade off energy-consumption versus quality of service parameters (e.g. throughput, latency, reliability). Today’s E2-MAC protocols are able to deliver little amounts of data with a low energy cost, but fail to adapt to changing traffic loads and changing requirements (e.g. throughput and delay constraints) of the imposed traffic. They are generally not sufficiently adaptive with respect to traffic. Traffic adaptivity in the context of E2-MAC protocols can be defined as the ability of the protocol to dynamically react to changing traffic requirements with (de)allocation of the respective resources needed to handle the imposed traffic, as well as the ability to distinguish different levels of message importance.This project will investigate, develop, and evaluate mechanisms targeting at adaptive and flexible behavior of E2-MAC protocols that are able to perceive variations in the traffic and its requirements and react to these variations in a timely manner. Similarly as in dynamic frequency/voltage scaling, where the CPU reacts to higher computation load with an increase of the frequency/voltage, an adaptive E2-MAC protocol to be developed should react to changing traffic requirements by (de)allocation of battery resources by correspondingly tuning the radio transceiver, and should further be able to prioritize high priority frames versus frames of lower priority. Such protocol mechanisms however should remain transparent to the network user, be self-triggering, self-configuring and self-balancing but not rely on manual tuning of protocol parameters. We will study different concepts to achieve a maximally traffic-adaptive behavior on the E2-MAC layer that really manages to allocate its energy resources in an on-demand manner. We will design, develop and implement sophisticated signaling approaches and intelligent traffic-prediction schemes to reach the targeted behavior. We will evaluate metrics to assess and quantify the effects of our developed protocol mechanisms and compare them with existing approaches. Our goal is to design an adaptive E2-MAC protocol that in case of low traffic rates of low importance offers data delivery at a low energy cost, which however can adaptively change its behavior in order to fully exploit the channel capacity whenever the traffic intensity and/or the traffic requirements require it. Such a behavior would be very advantageous in many event-based WSN application scenarios, and would constitute a real novelty in the design space of E2-MAC protocols.As today’s sensor networks operating simple E2-MAC and ad hoc routing protocols may easily become congested in case of load peaks, we will study the integration of the of message priorities and congestion control. To the best of our knowledge, existing E2-MAC protocols do not offer integrated prioritization schemes to distinguish different levels of data importance on the MAC layer - a gap we intend to bridge with this project. Applications of priority schemes are manifold: in sensor network applications, messages may have different levels of importance, e.g., alarm messages vs. periodic reporting messages, or signaling messages vs. data messages of higher layer protocols. To support higher throughput and quality of service, we will integrate effective congestion- and flow-control mechanisms through feedback and rate-adaptation, taking into account signals received from the E2-MAC layer and intelligently manipulating parameters in a cross-layer manner. Application scenarios of flexible, adaptive and mature E2-MAC protocols are manifold - we particularly envisage monitoring systems for the healthcare system, but also the broad area of environmental monitoring sensor networks, e.g. networks deployed to alert in case of environmental dangers, such as fire, flood, rock fall or avalanches.
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