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Reduction of CO2 via two-step solar thermochemical cycles using redox pairs - thermodynamics, kinetics, and reactor technolog

English title REDUCTION OF CO2 VIA TWO-STEP SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL CYCLES USING REDOX PAIRS - THERMODYNAMICS, KINETICS, AND REACTOR TECHNOLOG
Applicant Steinfeld Aldo
Number 126512
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Energietechnik ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Chemical Engineering
Start/End 01.01.2010 - 31.12.2012
Approved amount 159'414.00
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All Disciplines (5)

Discipline
Chemical Engineering
Physical Chemistry
Material Sciences
Fluid Dynamics
Mechanical Engineering

Keywords (7)

chemical kinetics; heat transfer; thermodynamics; energy conversion; fluid dynamics; CO2; solar fuels

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
The scope of this project is to split CO2 using concentrated solar energy in a two-step cycle with metal oxide redox reactions. The first step is a high temperature process driven by concentrated solar energy where a metal oxide is converted to a lower-valence metal oxide or metal and O2. The lower-valence metal oxide or metal is then reacted with CO2 in the second, non-solar, step to produce CO and the initial metal oxide. The CO can be further processed to produce liquid fuels and the initial metal oxide is recycled back to the first step. The net reaction of the cycle is CO2=CO+0.5O2 with the CO and O2 produced in different steps, bypassing problematic gas separation. This project focuses on quantifying the maximum efficiencies of such cycles using thermodynamics, determining the rate at which reactions in the second step proceed with chemical kinetics, and designing a chemical reactor for the second cycle step. Further work will focus on modifying the second step to chemically reduce both CO2 and H2O in competitive reactions with the lower-valence metal oxide or metal to produce synthesis gas (mixtures of CO and H2).
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
On the effect of the presence of solid diluents during Zn oxidation by CO2
Stamatiou Anastasia, Steinfeld Aldo, Jovanovic Zoran (2013), On the effect of the presence of solid diluents during Zn oxidation by CO2, in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 52(5), 1859-1869.
Review: Photochemical and Thermochemical Production of Solar Fuels from H2O and CO2 Using Metal Oxide Catalysts
Smestad GP, Steinfeld A (2012), Review: Photochemical and Thermochemical Production of Solar Fuels from H2O and CO2 Using Metal Oxide Catalysts, in INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 51(37), 11828-11840.
Syngas Production from H2O and CO2 over Zn Particles in a Packed-bed Reactor
Stamatiou A, Loutzenhiser PG, Steinfeld A (2012), Syngas Production from H2O and CO2 over Zn Particles in a Packed-bed Reactor, in AICHE JOURNAL, 58(2), 625-631.
CO2 Reduction with Zn Particles in a Packed-Bed Reactor
Loutzenhiser PG, Barthel F, Stamatiou A, Steinfeld A (2011), CO2 Reduction with Zn Particles in a Packed-Bed Reactor, in AICHE JOURNAL, 57(9), 2529-2534.
Concentrated Solar Energy for Thermochemically Producing Liquid Fuels from CO2 and H2O
Loutzenhiser PG, Stamatiou A, Villasmil W, Meier A, Steinfeld A (2011), Concentrated Solar Energy for Thermochemically Producing Liquid Fuels from CO2 and H2O, in JOM, 63(1), 32-34.
Solar syngas production from CO2 and H2O in a two-step thermochemical cycle via Zn/ZnO redox reactions: Thermodynamic cycle analysis
Loutzenhiser PG, Steinfeld A (2011), Solar syngas production from CO2 and H2O in a two-step thermochemical cycle via Zn/ZnO redox reactions: Thermodynamic cycle analysis, in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, 36(19), 12141-12147.
CO2 splitting via the solar thermochemical cycle based on Zn/ZnO redox reactions
Loutzenhiser P., Meier A., Steinfeld A. (2010), CO2 splitting via the solar thermochemical cycle based on Zn/ZnO redox reactions, in Hu (ed.), ACS Symposium Series, Washington, DC , 25-30.
Review of the two-step H2O/CO2 splitting solar thermochemical cycle based on Zn/ZnO redox reactions
Loutzenhiser P., Meier A., Steinfeld A. (2010), Review of the two-step H2O/CO2 splitting solar thermochemical cycle based on Zn/ZnO redox reactions, in Materials, 3(11), 4922-4938.
SOLAR SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM H2O AND CO2 VIA TWO STEP THERMOCHEMICAL CYCLES BASED ON FeO/Fe3O4 REDOX REACTIONS: KINETIC ANALYSIS
Stamatiou A, Loutzenhiser PA, Steinfeld A (2010), SOLAR SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM H2O AND CO2 VIA TWO STEP THERMOCHEMICAL CYCLES BASED ON FeO/Fe3O4 REDOX REACTIONS: KINETIC ANALYSIS, in ASME 4th Int. Conf. on Energy Sustainability, ASME, NY, USA.
Solar Syngas Production from H2O and CO2 via Two-Step Thermochemical Cycles Based on Zn/ZnO and FeO/Fe3O4 Redox Reactions: Kinetic Analysis
Stamatiou A, Loutzenhiser PG, Steinfeld A (2010), Solar Syngas Production from H2O and CO2 via Two-Step Thermochemical Cycles Based on Zn/ZnO and FeO/Fe3O4 Redox Reactions: Kinetic Analysis, in ENERGY & FUELS, 24, 2716-2722.
Solar Syngas Production via H2O/CO2-Splitting Thermochemical Cycles with Zn/ZnO and FeO/Fe3O4 Redox Reactions
Stamatiou A, Loutzenhiser PG, Steinfeld A (2010), Solar Syngas Production via H2O/CO2-Splitting Thermochemical Cycles with Zn/ZnO and FeO/Fe3O4 Redox Reactions, in CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, 22(3), 851-859.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Paul Scherrer Institute, Solar Technology Laboratory Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
University of Minnesota, Prof. Wojciech Lipinski United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
CNRS-PROMES, Dr. Gilles Flamant France (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
University of Colorado, Prof. Al Weimer United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Gordon Research Conference Talk given at a conference Production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from water, CO2, and concentrated solar energy 17.05.2012 Barga, Italy, Italy Steinfeld Aldo;
TMS Annual Meeting Talk given at a conference Liquid fuels from water, CO2, and solar energy 14.03.2012 Orlando, USA, United States of America Steinfeld Aldo;
ARPA-E US Department of Energy Individual talk Liquid hydrocarbon fuels from water, CO2, and concentrated solar energy 12.12.2011 Washington DC, USA, United States of America Steinfeld Aldo;
6th SOLLAB Doctoral Colloquium Talk given at a conference Modeling and experimental validation of a packed-bed reactor for reducing CO2 with Zn particles 21.03.2011 Gindelwald, Switzerland, Switzerland Stamatiou Anastasia; Steinfeld Aldo; Loutzenhiser Peter;
5th SOLLAB Doctoral Colloquium Talk given at a conference Solar syngas production via H2O/CO2-splitting thermochemical cycles with Zn/ZnO and FeO/Fe3O4 redox reactions 22.06.2010 DLR-Cologne, Germany, Germany Loutzenhiser Peter; Stamatiou Anastasia; Steinfeld Aldo;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Talks/events/exhibitions Flüssige Treibstoffe aus Wasser, CO2, und Sonnenlicht German-speaking Switzerland 2011
Talks/events/exhibitions Solar Power & Fuels: Novel applications Italian-speaking Switzerland 2011

Awards

Title Year
TMS Energy Best Paper Award: Loutzenhiser P., Stamatiou A., Villasmil W., Steinfeld A., “Concentrated solar energy for thermochemically producing liquid fuels from CO2 and H2O”, TMS Symposium Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gas Reduction Metallurgy, Feb. 27-March 3, San Diego, 2011. 2011

Patents

Title Date Number Inventor Owner
Apparatus for producing hydrogen and/or carbon-monoxide 01.11.2010 T-10-094

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
133800 Solar-driven thermogravimeter for high-temperature thermochemical processes using concentrated solar radiation 01.12.2010 R'EQUIP

Abstract

Objectives - The thrust of this project is to examine the fundamental phenomena of chemical thermodynamics, kinetics, and combined heat and mass transfer in gas-solid thermochemical reactions for chemically reducing CO¬2 to CO with metal oxide redox pairs in a two-step solar thermochemical cycle. The first high-temperature endothermic step is the thermal reduction of a metal oxide to a lower valence metal oxide or metal and O2 using concentrated solar radiation; and the second low-temperature exothermic step is the chemical reduction of CO2 to CO by oxidizing the lower valence metal oxide or metal; the cycle is completed by recycling the metal oxide back to the first step. The CO produced from the reaction can be burned or further processed via water-gas shift (producing syngas) and Fischer-Tropsch reactions to produce carbon neutral solar fuels. The chemical thermodynamics will be used to assess the entire CO2 splitting cycle, and effective kinetics and combined heat and mass transfer will be used to design, construct and run a chemical reactor for effecting the chemical reduction of CO2 ? the second step in the two-step thermochemical cycle. Competitive reactions with mixtures of CO2 and H2O reacted with the lower-valence metal oxide or metal will also be quantified for the production of high-quality syngas. Significance - This research facilitates the advancement of fundamental thermosciences directed at furthering solar-chemical technologies. The results garnered from this research provide the underlying building blocks for other research aimed at reducing CO2 to CO in lower temperature redox reactions with metals or low-valence metal oxides. This research has the potential to provide sustainable, clean, and efficient energy paths and offers a promising alternative to the direct sequestration of captured CO2.
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