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High energy particle irradiation in the early solar system and stellar nucleosynthesis studied with noble gases in primitive meteorites

English title High energy particle irradiation in the early solar system and stellar nucleosynthesis studied with noble gases in primitive meteorites
Applicant Wieler Rainer
Number 126460
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Geochemie und Petrologie ETH Zürich
Institution of higher education ETH Zurich - ETHZ
Main discipline Geochemistry
Start/End 01.10.2009 - 30.09.2012
Approved amount 434'181.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Geochemistry
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences

Keywords (9)

early solar system; meteorites; early sun; asteroids; stellar nucleosynthesis; presolar grains; energetic particles; young stars; extraterrestrial material influx

Lay Summary (German)

Lead
Lay summary
Junge Sterne emittieren häufig grosse Mengen hochenergetischer Elementarteilchen. Dies manifestiert sich unter anderem in sehr intensiver Emission von kurzwelligem Röntgenlicht. Es wäre sehr wichtig, direkte Evidenz zu finden, dass auch die junge Sonne vor etwa 4600 Millionen Jahren derart aktiv war. Unter anderem könnte dies zu einem besseren Verständnis von sogenannten Isotopenanomalien in Meteoriten führen, also zum Beispiel den Überschüssen der Tochterprodukte von kurzlebigen radioaktiven Isotopen wie Beryllium-10 und Aluminium-26. Sind diese Nuklide durch Kernreaktionen mit energetischen solaren Teilchen produziert worden? Mehrere frühere Suchen nach anderen möglichen Produkten einer solchen potentiellen frühen starken Bestrahlung von meteoritischer Materie waren entweder negativ oder haben zu ambivalenten Resultaten geführt. Wir planen nun eine systematische Suche nach Edelgasen in Chondren und anderen Hochtemperatureinschlüssen, welche vor der Kompaktion ihrer Muttermeteorite durch Bestrahlung mit intensiven Flüssen energetischer solarer Teilchen produziert worden wären. Chondren sind wohl als Schmelztröpfchen im frühen solaren Nebel gebildet worden und somit gute Kandidaten für eine solche frühe Bestrahlung. Mit einer sorgfältigen Probenwahl und Charakterisierung hoffen wir, auch relativ kleine mögliche Effekte von einer späteren Bestrahlung im Meteoriten unterscheiden zu können.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Noble gases in 18 Martian meteorites and angrite Northwest Africa 7812Exposure ages, trapped gases, and a re-evaluation of the evidence for solar cosmic ray-produced neon in shergottites and other ach
Wieler Rainer, et al. (2016), Noble gases in 18 Martian meteorites and angrite Northwest Africa 7812Exposure ages, trapped gases, and a re-evaluation of the evidence for solar cosmic ray-produced neon in shergottites and other ach, in Meteoritics and Plan etary Science, 51, 407-428.
Calibration of cosmogenic noble gas production based on Cl-36-Ar-36 ages. Part 2. The Kr-81-Kr dating technique
Leya Ingo, Wieler Rainer, Vogel Nadia, et al. (2015), Calibration of cosmogenic noble gas production based on Cl-36-Ar-36 ages. Part 2. The Kr-81-Kr dating technique, in Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 50, 1863-1879.
Similarities and differences between the solar wind light noble gas compositions determined on Apollo 15 SWC foils and on NASA Genesis targets
Vogel N., Wieler R., et al. (2015), Similarities and differences between the solar wind light noble gas compositions determined on Apollo 15 SWC foils and on NASA Genesis targets, in Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 50, 1663-1683.
The Vicencia meteorite fall: A new unshocked (S1) weakly metamorphosed (3.2) LL chondrite
Keil Klaus, Riebe My, Wieler Rainer (2015), The Vicencia meteorite fall: A new unshocked (S1) weakly metamorphosed (3.2) LL chondrite, in Meteoritics and Planetary Science, 50, 1089-1111.
A global rain of micrometeorites following breakup of the L-chondrite parent body-Evidence from solar wind-implanted Ne in fossil extraterrestrial chromite grains from China
Alwmark C, Schmitz B, Meier MMM, Baur H, Wieler R (2012), A global rain of micrometeorites following breakup of the L-chondrite parent body-Evidence from solar wind-implanted Ne in fossil extraterrestrial chromite grains from China, in METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 47(8), 1297-1304.
A hit-and-run giant impact scenario
Reufer A., Meier M. M. M., Benz W., Wieler R. (2012), A hit-and-run giant impact scenario, in Icarus, 221, 296-299.
A noble gas and cosmogenic radionuclide analysis of two ordinary chondrites from Almahata Sitta
Meier MMM, Welten KC, Caffee MW, Friedrich JM, Jenniskens P, Nishiizumi K, Shaddad MH, Wieler R (2012), A noble gas and cosmogenic radionuclide analysis of two ordinary chondrites from Almahata Sitta, in METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 47(6), 1075-1086.
Graphite grains in supernova ejecta - Insights from a noble gas study of 91 individual KFC1 presolar graphite grains from the Murchison meteorite
Meier MMM, Heck PR, Amari S, Baur H, Wieler R (2012), Graphite grains in supernova ejecta - Insights from a noble gas study of 91 individual KFC1 presolar graphite grains from the Murchison meteorite, in GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA, 76, 147-160.
Isotopic mass fractionation of solar wind: evidence from fast and slow solar wind collected by the genesis mission
Heber V. S., Wieler R., et. al. (2012), Isotopic mass fractionation of solar wind: evidence from fast and slow solar wind collected by the genesis mission, in Astrophys. J., 759, 121-121.
The evolution of Venus: Present state of knowledge and future exploration
Chassefiere E, Wieler R, Marty B, Leblanc F (2012), The evolution of Venus: Present state of knowledge and future exploration, in PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE, 63-64, 15-23.
A composite clast in the LAR 04316 aubrite
Keil K., Meier M. M. M., Wieler R., et al. (2011), A composite clast in the LAR 04316 aubrite, in Meteoritics Planet. Sci., 46, 1719-1741.
A composite Fe, Ni-FeS and enstatite-forsterite-diopside-glass vitrophyre clast in the Larkman Nunatak 04316 aubrite: Origin by pyroclastic volcanism
Keil K, Mccoy TJ, Wilson L, Barrat JA, Rumble D, Meier MMM, Wieler R, Huss GR (2011), A composite Fe, Ni-FeS and enstatite-forsterite-diopside-glass vitrophyre clast in the Larkman Nunatak 04316 aubrite: Origin by pyroclastic volcanism, in METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 46(11), 1719-1741.
Accretion and Early History of Planetesimals and Planets: The Noble Gas Record
Wieler R (2011), Accretion and Early History of Planetesimals and Planets: The Noble Gas Record, in EARTH MOON AND PLANETS, 108(1), 1-8.
Argon, krypton, and xenon in the bulk solar wind as collected by the Genesis mission
Vogel N, Heber VS, Baur H, Burnett DS, Wieler R (2011), Argon, krypton, and xenon in the bulk solar wind as collected by the Genesis mission, in GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA, 75(11), 3057-3071.
Cosmic ray exposure age of the Bunburra Rockhole achondrite
Welten K. C., Meier M. M. M., Wieler R., et al. (2011), Cosmic ray exposure age of the Bunburra Rockhole achondrite, in Meteoritics planet. Sci., 1-12.
Cosmic ray exposure ages of Rumuruti chondrites from North Africa
Vogel N, Baur H, Bischoff A, Wieler R (2011), Cosmic ray exposure ages of Rumuruti chondrites from North Africa, in CHEMIE DER ERDE-GEOCHEMISTRY, 71(2), 135-142.
Cosmogenic helium and neon in individual chondrules from Allende and Murchison: Implications for the precompaction exposure history of chondrules
Roth ASG, Baur H, Heber VS, Reusser E, Wieler R (2011), Cosmogenic helium and neon in individual chondrules from Allende and Murchison: Implications for the precompaction exposure history of chondrules, in METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 46(7), 989-1006.
Determining the impactor of the Ordovician Lockne crater: Oxygen and neon isotopes in chromite versus sedimentary PGE signatures
Schmitz B, Heck PR, Alwmark C, Kita NT, Meier MMM, Peucker-Ehrenbrink B, Ushikubo T, Valley JW (2011), Determining the impactor of the Ordovician Lockne crater: Oxygen and neon isotopes in chromite versus sedimentary PGE signatures, in EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS, 306(3-4), 149-155.
Isotopic and elemental fractionation of solar wind implanted in the Genesis concentrator target characterized and quantified by noble gases
Heber VS, Wiens RC, Jurewicz AJG, Vogel N, Reisenfeld DB, Baur H, McKeegan KD, Wieler R, Burnett DS (2011), Isotopic and elemental fractionation of solar wind implanted in the Genesis concentrator target characterized and quantified by noble gases, in METEORITICS & PLANETARY SCIENCE, 46(4), 493-512.
The Rumuruti chondrite group
Bischoff A, Vogel N, Roszjar J (2011), The Rumuruti chondrite group, in CHEMIE DER ERDE-GEOCHEMISTRY, 71(2), 101-133.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Univ. Chicago United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Lund University Sweden (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel
Universität Münster Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: radio, television Diverse Interviews div. Zeitungen u. Radiostationen International German-speaking Switzerland 2012

Awards

Title Year
Wiley award 2015, For an outstanding presentation by a student at the 78th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, Berkeley, CA 2015

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
113288 Solar wind noble gases in GENESIS targets and nucleosynthetic noble gases in single presolar grains from primitive meteorites 01.10.2006 Project funding (Div. I-III)
143950 Early solar system history and delivery of matter to Earth studied with noble gases in extraterrestrial material 01.10.2012 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

1. SummaryWe propose a research program along three lines: i) Energetic particles in the early solar system - the record in meteoritesYoung stars often emit large fluxes of energetic particles. It would be very important to find direct evidence that this also happened in the early solar system, e. g. as this might allow a better understanding of the causes of isotopic anomalies in meteorites. Several previous searches for a record of an early solar energetic particle irradiation in meteorites have remained inconclusive. We plan to look for such evidence by a more sophisticated approach, partly based on the encouraging results of a pilot study. We will measure noble gases produced by energetic particles in high-temperature objects in meteorites (chondrules and refractory inclusions). A careful sample selection and an accurate determination of the major element composition combined with noble gas analysis by an ultrasensitive mass spectrometer should allow to distinguish noble gases acquired during an early exposure to energetic particles prior to meteorite compaction - if present - from the products of a later irradiation of the meteorite. Careful sample charactisation should then allow to decide whether potential pre-compaction effects are indeed the result of an early active sun. ii) Presolar grains in meteorites - astrophysics in the laboratoryMeteorites contain tiny "presolar" grains which condensed in the cooling envelopes of stars in their late stages. These grains revolutionized the way we can study nucleosynthesis in stars, the chemical evolution of the galaxy and the history of the early solar system. In collaboration with colleagues at other institutions, we propose to further constrain stellar sources of various types of presolar grains in primitive meteorites by noble gas analyses on single grains, com-bined with isotopic analyses of other diagnostic elements. Noble gas data on single presolar grains are very scarce so far. Most importantly, we plan an automated search for rare types of presolar silicon carbide grains followed by noble gas mass-spectrometry, in order to obtain a statistically meaningful noble gas data base for such exotic grains originating in novae, super-novae etc. We will search for grains using the NanoSims ionprobe at the Max-Planck-Institute in Mainz, followed by noble gas analysis in Zürich. In addition, we also plan to considerably enlarge the noble gas database for presolar graphite grains and the relatively common "main-stream" SiC grains. iii) Chromite grains in sediments as tracers of the past influx of extraterrestrial materialMid-Ordovician sediments in Sweden harbor a unique collection of fossilized meteorites and dispersed extraterrestrial chromite grains, testifying of the largest known collision in the asteroid belt. Noble gas data on individual chromites obtained with our ultrasensitive mass spectrometer yielded important insights into the delivery mechanisms of meteorites and micrometeorites. In collaboration with Prof. Birger Schmitz (Lund Univ.), we propose to continue such investigations on chromites extracted from sediments in Sweden and other locations. We plan to extend the time sequence that can be covered in the Mid-Ordovicium and we also intend to extend this work to other time intervals, e. g. around the K-T boundary. A potentially exciting additional outcome of this work could be the identification of material from the Moon brought to the Earth by large impacts onto our companion.
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