Project

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A new comprehensive analysis of nucleosynthesis in stars: a bridge between nuclear astrophysics, stellar models and observations

Applicant Pignatari Marco
Number 126428
Funding scheme Ambizione
Research institution Departement Physik Universität Basel
Institution of higher education University of Basel - BS
Main discipline Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences
Start/End 01.09.2010 - 31.08.2013
Approved amount 362'183.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences
Nuclear Physics

Keywords (8)

Stars:abundances; Nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis and abundances; Atomic data; Hydrodynamics; Stars: AGB and post-AGB; Stars: chemically peculiar; Stars: supernovae; Galaxy: abundances

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
With the exception of hydrogen and helium, all the other elements in nature that are fundamental for life, like carbon and oxygen, or that we see every day, like iron or silver, are produced in stars. One of the greatest tasks for human knowledge today is to understand how such elements form in stars. A lot of information required to address this question is obtained from stellar spectroscopic observations, where element abundances can be measured in different type of stars in our Galaxy or much further away, at distances billions of kilometers further away from the Earth. Another crucial source of information on how the elements form in stars is hidden in primitive meteorites. Few parts per million of the meteorite material is made of small particles of dust of presolar origin, that were produced in ancient stars that finished their life before the formation of our solar system.

In order to correctly understand all these observations, we need to create computational models of stars to reproduce their evolution, and to correctly simulate all the nuclear processes responsible for the element production. The fundamental goal of this project is to create a comprehensive set of abundances for light and heavy elements produced in stars, enabling us to test stellar model predictions with stellar observations and presolar grains measurements. In particular, we will focus our study in the analysis of the nucleosynthesis signature in presolar carbide grains condensed in different type of stars, and in the origin of anomalous old carbon-rich stars, called CEMP stars.

In this cross disciplinary context, involving different disciplines from astrophysics to astronomy, nuclear physics and chemistry, we adopt the post-processing method to calculate the stellar yields. Therefore, the stellar structure is calculated previously with a reduced number of isotopes crucial for the energy generation inside the star, and the detailed full nucleosynthesis is calculated separately by a post-processing code (the code is called PPN), guided by the stellar evolution data. New numerical techniques for massively parallel post-processing are included (e.g., MPI libraries), to enable large-scale high-resolution simulations of nucleosynthesis on full stellar structure and explosion data sets, taking advantage of multi-core computing high performance clusters available today.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Abundances of neutron-capture elements in stars of the Galactic disk substructures
Mishenina Tamara V., Pignatari Marco, Korotin Sergey A., Soubiran Caroline, Charbonnel Corinne, Thielemann Friedrich Karl, Gorbaneva T. I., Basak N. Yu (2013), Abundances of neutron-capture elements in stars of the Galactic disk substructures, in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 552, A128.
Measurement of the MACS of Ta 181 (n, γ) at kT=30 keV as a test of a method for Maxwellian neutron spectra generation
Praena Juan M., Mastinu Pierfrancesco F., Pignatari Marco, Quesada José Manuel, García-López Javier Hugo, Lozano Manuel, Dzysiuk Nataliya R., Capote Roberto, Martín-Hernández G. (2013), Measurement of the MACS of Ta 181 (n, γ) at kT=30 keV as a test of a method for Maxwellian neutron spectra generation, in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detecto, 727, 1-6.
Measurement of the reaction 17O(α,n )20Ne and its impact on the s process in massive stars
Best Andreas, Beard M., Görres Joachim, Couder Manoel, Deboer R. J., Falahat Sascha, Güray R. T., Kontos Antonios, Kratz Karl Ludwig, Leblanc P. J., Li Q., O'Brien Sheila, Özkan N., Pignatari Marco, Sonnabend Kerstin, Talwar Rashi, Tan Wanpeng, Uberseder Ethan, Wiescher Michael C. (2013), Measurement of the reaction 17O(α,n )20Ne and its impact on the s process in massive stars, in Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics, 87(4), 045805.
Neutron Capture Cross Section of Unstable Ni-63: Implications for Stellar Nucleosynthesis
Lederer C., Massimi C., Altstadt S., Andrzejewski J., Audouin L., Barbagallo M., Becares V., Becvar F., Belloni F., Berthoumieux E., Billowes J., Boccone V., Bosnar D., Brugger M., Calviani M., Calvino F., Cano-Ott D., Carrapico C., Cerutti F., Chiaveri E., Chin M., Colonna N., Cortes G., Cortes-Giraldo M. A., Diakaki M. (2013), Neutron Capture Cross Section of Unstable Ni-63: Implications for Stellar Nucleosynthesis, in PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 110(2), 022501.
On the internal pollution mechanisms in the globular cluster NGC 6121(M4): Heavy-element abundances and AGB models
D'Orazi Valentina D Orazi, Campbell Simon W., Lugaro Maria A., Lattanzio John C., Pignatari Marco, Carretta Eugenio (2013), On the internal pollution mechanisms in the globular cluster NGC 6121(M4): Heavy-element abundances and AGB models, in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 433(1), 366-381.
PRODUCTION OF CARBON-RICH PRESOLAR GRAINS FROM MASSIVE STARS
Pignatari M., Wiescher M., Timmes F. X., de Boer R. J., Thielemann F. -K., Fryer C., Heger A., Herwig F., Hirschi R. (2013), PRODUCTION OF CARBON-RICH PRESOLAR GRAINS FROM MASSIVE STARS, in ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS, 767(2), L22.
REPRODUCING THE OBSERVED ABUNDANCES IN RCB AND HdC STARS WITH POST-DOUBLE-DEGENERATE MERGER MODELS-CONSTRAINTS ON MERGER AND POST-MERGER SIMULATIONS AND PHYSICS PROCESSES
Menon Athira, Herwig Falk, Denissenkov Pavel A., Clayton Geoffrey C., Staff Jan, Pignatari Marco, Paxton Bill (2013), REPRODUCING THE OBSERVED ABUNDANCES IN RCB AND HdC STARS WITH POST-DOUBLE-DEGENERATE MERGER MODELS-CONSTRAINTS ON MERGER AND POST-MERGER SIMULATIONS AND PHYSICS PROCESSES, in ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 772(1), 59.
SILICON CARBIDE GRAINS OF TYPE C PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF THE UNSTABLE ISOTOPE Si-32 IN SUPERNOVAE
Pignatari M., Zinner E., Bertolli M. G., Trappitsch R., Hoppe P., Rauscher T., Fryer C., Herwig F., Hirschi R., Timmes F. X., Thielemann F. -K. (2013), SILICON CARBIDE GRAINS OF TYPE C PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF THE UNSTABLE ISOTOPE Si-32 IN SUPERNOVAE, in ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS, 771(1), L7.
The NuGrid research platform: a comprehensive simulation approach for nuclear astrophysics
Pignatari Marco, Herwig Falk (2013), The NuGrid research platform: a comprehensive simulation approach for nuclear astrophysics, in Nuclear Physics News, 22(4), 18.
44Ti, 26Al and 53Mn samples for nuclear astrophysics: the needs, the possibilities and the sources
Dressler Rugard, Thielemann Friederich, Pignatari Marco et al. (2012), 44Ti, 26Al and 53Mn samples for nuclear astrophysics: the needs, the possibilities and the sources, in Journal of Physics G, 105201.
Do R Coronae Borealis Stars Form from Double White Dwarf Mergers?
Staff Jan, Menon Athira, Herwig Falk, Pignatari Marco et al. (2012), Do R Coronae Borealis Stars Form from Double White Dwarf Mergers?, in The Astrophysical Journal, 76.
Resonance neutron-capture cross sections of stable magnesium isotopes and their astrophysical implications
Massimi Cristian, Gallino Roberto, Pignatari Marco et al. (2012), Resonance neutron-capture cross sections of stable magnesium isotopes and their astrophysical implications, in Phys. Rev. C, 044615.
THE C-12+C-12 REACTION AND THE IMPACT ON NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN MASSIVE STARS
Pignatari M., Hirschi R., Wiescher M., Gallino R., Bennett M., Beard M., Fryer C., Herwig F., Rockefeller G., Timmes F. X. (2012), THE C-12+C-12 REACTION AND THE IMPACT ON NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN MASSIVE STARS, in ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 762(1), 31.
The effect of 12C +12C rate uncertainties on the evolution and nucleosynthesis of massive stars
Bennett Michael, Hirschi Raphael, Pignatari Marco, Diehl S., Fryer C., Herwig F., Hungerford A., Nomoto K., Rockefeller G., Timmes F., Wiescher (2012), The effect of 12C +12C rate uncertainties on the evolution and nucleosynthesis of massive stars, in MNRAS, 420(4), 3047-3070.
Imprints of fast-rotating massive stars in the Galactic Bulge
Chiappini C, Frischknecht U, Meynet G, Hirschi R, Barbuy B, Pignatari M, Decressin T, Maeder A (2011), Imprints of fast-rotating massive stars in the Galactic Bulge, in Nature, 472(7344), 454-457.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Inuversity of Notre Dame, IN - prof. M. Wiescher, Dr. M. Beard United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Universtaet Frankfurt/GSI, prof. Rene Reifarth, PhD Alexander Koloczek Germany (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
University of Victoria, prof. F. Herwig, Dr. Pavel Denisenkov Canada (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM - C. Fryer,G. Rockefeller,A. Hungerford, A. Couture, M. Bertolli United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Arizona State University: prof. F. X. Timmes United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
ANU - Dr. A. Dotter Australia (Oceania)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Louisiana State Universtiy- G. Clayton, K. Kadam, I. Martin United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
University of Monash, prof. A. Heger Australia (Oceania)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
TRIUMF, BC, Dr. C. Ruiz, Dr. L. Buchmann Canada (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Keele University, Dr. R. Hirschi, PhD M. Bennett, PhD S. Jones Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
University of York - Alison Laird Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
Observatory of Torino, INAF: Dr. Claudia Travaglio Italy (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Michigan State Universtiy- Richard Cyburt United States of America (North America)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
NAM2013 Talk given at a conference 01.07.2013 St Andrews, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Pignatari Marco;
Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics - VI Talk given at a conference 19.05.2013 Lisbon, Portugal Pignatari Marco;
Open problems and future directions in heavy element nucleosynthesis Talk given at a conference 10.04.2013 Debrecen, Hungary Pignatari Marco;
IoP workshop Radioactivity in astrophysics Talk given at a conference 05.04.2013 York, Great Britain and Northern Ireland Pignatari Marco;
"Presolar Grain Workshop Talk given at a conference 25.01.2013 Chicago, United States of America Pignatari Marco;
Astrophysics with ion storage rings Talk given at a conference 14.01.2013 Bad Honnef, Germany Pignatari Marco;
Dust in Core-Collapse Supernovae near & far: undestanding its formation and evolution Talk given at a conference 05.11.2012 Ascona, Switzerland Pignatari Marco;
Nuclear Astrophysics Town Meeting Talk given at a conference 08.10.2012 Detroit, USA, United States of America Pignatari Marco;
JINA Frontiers meeting Talk given at a conference 07.10.2012 East Lansing, USA, United States of America Pignatari Marco;
Nuclei in the Cosmos XII Talk given at a conference 05.08.2012 Cairns, Australia, Australia Pignatari Marco;
Satellite workshop NIC XII - r-process nucleosynthesis Talk given at a conference 04.08.2012 Cairns, Australia, Australia Pignatari Marco;
Workshop on "Nuclear Astrophysics" Talk given at a conference 26.05.2012 Ringberg Castle at Lake Tegernsee, Germany, Germany Pignatari Marco;
Helmholtz PhD School - Power Week on Nuclear Astrophysics Individual talk 02.04.2012 Kloster Höchst, Germany, Germany Pignatari Marco;
9th Russbach Workshop on Nuclear Astrophysics Talk given at a conference 11.03.2012 Russbach, Austria, Austria Pignatari Marco;
SCOPES workshop: Heavy elements in galactic chemical evolution and NLTE eects Talk given at a conference 30.08.2011 ITEP, Odessa, Ukraine, Ukraine Pignatari Marco;
Annual meeting of SPS and PG, SSAA and GAA Talk given at a conference 15.06.2011 EPF, Lausanne, Switzerland, Switzerland Pignatari Marco;
The Origin of the Elements: A Modern Perspective Talk given at a conference 16.05.2011 ECT, Trento, Italy, Italy Pignatari Marco;
8th Russ- bach Workshop on Nuclear Astrophysics Talk given at a conference 13.03.2011 Russbach, Austria, Austria Pignatari Marco;
Frontiers 2010, Work- shop on Nuclear Astrophysics Talk given at a conference 21.10.2010 Lake Geneva WI, USA, United States of America Pignatari Marco;


Self-organised

Title Date Place
LEPP2011 10.10.2011 EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, Germany

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Print (books, brochures, leaflets) Seeing stars International 2012

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
148807 A new comprehensive analysis of nucleosynthesis in stars: a bridge between nuclear astrophysics, stellar models and observations. 01.09.2013 Ambizione

Abstract

With the exception of hydrogen and helium, all the other elements in nature that are fundamental for life, like carbon and oxygen, or that we see every day, like iron or silver, are produced in stars.One of the greatest tasks for human knowledge today is to understand how such elements form in stars.A lot of information required to address this question is obtained from stellar spectroscopic observations, where element abundances can be measured in different type of stars in our Galaxy or much further away, at distances billions of kilometers further away from the Earth.Another crucial source of information on how the elements form in stars is hidden in primitive meteorites.Few parts per million of the meteorite material is made of small particles ofdust of presolar origin, that were produced in ancient stars that finished their life before the formation of our solar system.In order to correctly understand all these observations, we need to create computational models of stars to reproduce their evolution, and to correctly simulate all the nuclear processes responsible for the element production.A good knowledge of the nuclear reaction rates is a fundamental requirement to obtain reliable stellar model predictions to compare with observations, since reaction rates control the formation of the elements in the stellar interior. In this cross disciplinary context, involving different disciplines from astrophysics to astronomy, nuclear physics and chemistry, my project for AMBIZIONE is a bridge between all these different fields, addressing in the first instance the fundamental question of how elements form in our galaxy and in the universe. The fundamental goal of my research is to create a comprehensive set of abundances for light and heavy elements produced in stars, enabling me to test stellar model predictions with stellar observations and presolar grains measurements. The central tool to achieve this goal is a new post-processing code called "PPN", able to accurately follow all relevant nuclear processes responsible for element production in stellar conditions.
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